10. Specific Datatype Modules

Module String


Constant __HAVE_SPRINTF_NEGATIVE_F__

constant int String.__HAVE_SPRINTF_NEGATIVE_F__

Description

Presence of this symbol indicates that sprintf() supports little endian output for the 'F'-format specifier.

See also

sprintf(), lfun::_sprintf()


Constant __HAVE_SPRINTF_STAR_MAPPING__

constant int String.__HAVE_SPRINTF_STAR_MAPPING__

Description

Presence of this symbol indicates that sprintf() supports mappings for the '*'-modifier syntax.

See also

sprintf(), lfun::_sprintf()


Method capitalize

string capitalize(string str)

Description

Convert the first character in str to upper case, and return the new string.

See also

lower_case(), upper_case()


Method common_prefix

string common_prefix(array(string) strs)

Description

Find the longest common prefix from an array of strings.


Method count

int count(string haystack, string needle)

Description

Count the number of non-overlapping times the string needle occurs in the string haystack. The special cases for the needle "" is that it occurs one time in the empty string, zero times in a one character string and between every character (length-1) in any other string.

See also

search(), `/()


Method expand_tabs

string expand_tabs(string s, int|void tab_width, string|void substitute_tab, string|void substitute_space, string|void substitute_newline)

Description

Expands tabs in a string to ordinary spaces, according to common tabulation rules.


Method fuzzymatch

int(0..100) fuzzymatch(string a, string b)

Description

This function compares two strings using a fuzzy matching routine. The higher the resulting value, the better the strings match.

See also

Array.diff(), Array.diff_compare_table() Array.diff_longest_sequence()


Method hex2string

string hex2string(string hex)

Description

Convert a string of hexadecimal digits to binary data.

See also

string2hex()


Method implode_nicely

string implode_nicely(array(string|int|float) foo, string|void separator)

Description

This function implodes a list of words to a readable string, e.g. ({"straw","berry","pie"}) becomes "straw, berry and pie". If the separator is omitted, the default is "and". If the words are numbers they are converted to strings first.

See also

`*()


Method int2char

string int2char(int x)

Description

Same as sprintf("%c",x);

See also

sprintf()


Method int2hex

string int2hex(int x)

Description

Same as sprintf("%x",x);, i.e. returns the integer x in hexadecimal base using lower cased symbols.

See also

sprintf()


Method int2roman

string int2roman(int m)

Description

Converts the provided integer to a roman integer (i.e. a string).

Throws

Throws an error if m is outside the range 0 to 10000.


Method int2size

string int2size(int size)

Description

Returns the size as a memory size string with suffix, e.g. 43210 is converted into "42.2 kB". To be correct to the latest standards it should really read "42.2 KiB", but we have chosen to keep the old notation for a while. The function knows about the quantifiers kilo, mega, giga, tera, peta, exa, zetta and yotta.


Method levenshtein_distance

int levenshtein_distance(string a, string b)

Description

This function calculates the Levenshtein distance between two strings a and b. The Levenshtein distance describes the minimal number of character additions, removals or substitutions to apply to convert a to b.

Mathematically, the Levenshtein distance between two strings a, b is given by lev_a,b(|a|,|b|) where

lev_a,b(i, j) == max(i, j), if min(i, j) == 0 lev_a,b(i, j) == min( lev_a,b(i, j-1)+1, lev_a,b(i-1, j)+1, lev_a,b(i-1, j-1) + a_i!=b_j ), else

Note that the first element in the minimum corresponds to inserting a character to a (or deleting a character from b), the second to deleting a character from a and the third to match or mismatch, depending on whether the respective characters are equal.

Example: For example, the Levenshtein distance between "pike" and "bikes" is 2, since the following two edits change one into the other, and there is no way to do it with fewer than two edits: - "pike" -> "bike" (substitute "p" with "b") - "bike" -> "bikes" (add "s" at the end)

Note that the cost to compute the Levenshtein distance is roughly proportional to the product of the two string lengths. So this function is usually used to aid in fuzzy string matching, when at least one of the strings is short.


Method normalize_space

string normalize_space(string s, string|void whitespace)

Parameter s

Is returned after white space in it has been normalised. White space is normalised by stripping leading and trailing white space and replacing sequences of white space characters with a single space.

Parameter whitespace

Defines what is considered to be white space eligible for normalisation. It has a default value that starts with " \t\r\n\v\f" and in addition to that contains all whitespace characters part of Unicode. The first character denotes the character for replacing whitespace sequences.

Note

Trailing and leading whitespace around \r and \n characters is stripped as well (only useful if they're not in the whitespace set).

Note

This function is a lot faster with just one argument (i.e. the builtin whitespace set has an optimised code path).


Method range

array(int) range(string s)

Description

Returns the character range of a string in an array of two elements. The first element contains the lower bound and the second the upper. The precision is only 8 bits, so for wide strings only character blocks are known.


Method secure

string secure(string str)

Description

Marks the string as secure, which will clear the memory area before freeing the string.

See also

Object.secure()


Method sillycaps

string sillycaps(string str)

Description

Convert the first character in each word (separated by spaces) in str to upper case, and return the new string.


Method soundex

string soundex(string word)

Description

Returns the soundex value of word according to the original Soundex algorithm, patented by Margaret O´Dell and Robert C. Russel in 1918. The method is based on the phonetic classification of sounds by how they are made. It was only intended for hashing of english surnames, and even at that it isn't that much of a help.


Method status

string status(int verbose)

Description

Get string table statistics.

Returns

Returns a string with an ASCII table containing the current string table statistics.

Note

Currently returns the empty string ("") if verbose is zero.

Note

The formatting and contents of the result may vary between different versions of Pike.


Method string2hex

string string2hex(string data)

Description

Convert a string of binary data to a hexadecimal string.

See also

hex2string()


Method trim_all_whites

string trim_all_whites(string s)

Description

Trim leading and trailing white spaces characters (space, tab, newline, carriage return, form feed, vertical tab and all the white spaces defined in Unicode) from the string s.


Method trim_whites

string trim_whites(string s)

Description

Trim leading and trailing spaces and tabs from the string s.


Method width

int(8..8)|int(16..16)|int(32..32) width(string s)

Description

Returns the width of a string.

Returns

Three return values are currently possible:

8

The string s only contains characters <= 255.

16

The string s only contains characters <= 65535.

32

The string s contains characters >= 65536.

Note

It is possible that a future version of Pike may return further values. In particular the width 7 seems like it could be useful.

Class String.Bootstring

Description

This class implements the "Bootstring" string transcoder described in ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfc3492.txt.


Method create

String.Bootstring String.Bootstring(int base, int tmin, int tmax, int skew, int damp, int initial_bias, int initial_n, int delim, string digits)

Description

Creates a Bootstring transcoder instance using the specified parameters.

Parameter base

The base used by the variable-length integers.

Parameter tmin

The minimum threshold digit value for the variable-length integers. Must be >=0 and <= tmax.

Parameter tmax

The maximum threshold digit value for the variable-length integers. Must be <= base-1.

Parameter skew

The skew term for the bias adapation. Must be >= 1.

Parameter damp

The damping factor for the bias adaption. Must be >= 2.

Parameter initial_bias

The initial bias for the variable-length integer thresholding. initial_bias % base must be <= base - tmin.

Parameter initial_n

The first code point outside the "basic" set of code points.

Parameter delim

The "basic" code point used as the delimiter.

Parameter digits

The "basic" code points used as digits. The length of the string should be the same as the base parameter.


Method decode

string decode(string s)

Description

Decodes a Bootstring encoded string of "basic" code points back to the original string space.


Method encode

string encode(string s)

Description

Encodes a string using Bootstring encoding into a string constisting only of "basic" code points (< initial_n).

Class String.Buffer

Description

A buffer, used for building strings. It's conceptually similar to a string, but you can only add strings to it, and you can only get the value from it once.

There is a reason for those seemingly rather odd limitations, it makes it possible to do some optimizations that really speed things up.

You do not need to use this class unless you add very many strings together, or very large strings.

Example

For the fastest possible operation, write your code like this:

String.Buffer b = String.Buffer( );

function add = b->add;

.. call add several times in code ...

string result = b->get(); // also clears the buffer

Method _sizeof

int sizeof( String.Buffer arg )

Description

Returns the size of the buffer.


Method _sprintf

string sprintf(string format, ... String.Buffer arg ... )

Description

It is possible to sprintf a String.Buffer object as %s just as if it was a string.


Method `+

String.Buffer res = String.Buffer() + what


Method `+=

String.Buffer() += what


Method add

int add(string|String.Buffer ... data)

Description

Adds data to the buffer.

Returns

Returns the size of the buffer.

Note

Pike 7.8 and earlier did not support adding String.Buffers directly.


Method cast

(int)String.Buffer()
(float)String.Buffer()
(string)String.Buffer()
(array)String.Buffer()
(mapping)String.Buffer()
(multiset)String.Buffer()

Description

It is possible to cast a String.Buffer object to a string and an int.


Method clear

void clear()

Description

Empty the buffer, and don't care about the old content.

Note

This function was not available in Pike 7.8 and earlier.

See also

get()


Method create

String.Buffer String.Buffer(int initial_size)

Description

Initializes a new buffer.

If no initial_size is specified, 256 is used. If you know approximately how big the buffer will be, you can optimize the operation of add() (slightly) by passing the size to this function.


Method get

string get()

Description

Get the data from the buffer.

Note

This will clear the data in the buffer

See also

get_copy(), clear()


Method get_copy

string get_copy()

Description

Get the data from the buffer. Significantly slower than get, but does not clear the buffer.

See also

get()


Method putchar

void putchar(int c)

Description

Appends the character c at the end of the string.


Method sprintf

int sprintf(strict_sprintf_format format, sprintf_args ... args)

Description

Appends the output from sprintf at the end of the string. Returns the resulting size of the String.Buffer.

Class String.Iterator

Description

An object of this class is returned by get_iterator() when called with a string.

See also

get_iterator


Inherit predef::Iterator

inherit predef::Iterator : predef::Iterator

Class String.Replace

Description

This is a "compiled" version of the replace function applied on a string, with more than one replace string. The replace strings are given to the create method as a from and to array and are then analyzed. The `() is then called with a string and the replace rules in the Replace object will be applied. The Replace object is used internally by the Pike optimizer and need not be used manually.


Method _decode

String.Replace decode_value(string(8bit) data)


Method _encode

string(8bit) encode_value(String.Replace data)


Method `()

string res = String.Replace()()


Method create

String.Replace String.Replace(array(string)|mapping(string:string)|void from, array(string)|string|void to)

Class String.SingleReplace

Description

This is a "compiled" version of the replace function applied on a string, with just one replace string. The replace strings are given to the create method as a from and tom string and are then analyzed. The `() is then called with a string and the replace rule in the Replace object will be applied. The Replace object is used internally by the Pike optimizer and need not be used manually.


Method _decode

String.SingleReplace decode_value(string(8bit) data)


Method _encode

string(8bit) encode_value(String.SingleReplace data)


Method `()

string res = String.SingleReplace()()


Method create

String.SingleReplace String.SingleReplace(string|void from, string|void to)

Note

May be called with either zero or two arguments.

Class String.SplitIterator

Description

An iterator that iterates over substrings of a string, separated by a character or several different characters.

Note

Typically you don't need to explicitly use the SplitIterator. Expressions like the following are automatically optimized into using a SplitIterator.

foreach(str/"\n", string line)
      write("%s\n", line);

Method create

String.SplitIterator String.SplitIterator(string buffer, int|array(int)|multiset(int) split_set, int|void flags, function(:string)|void feed)

Parameter buffer

The string to split.

Parameter split_set

The character or characters to split on.

Parameter flags

Skip empty elements if set.

Parameter feed

Callback function that is called once the buffer is used up and the SplitIterator wants more data.


Inherit predef::Iterator

inherit predef::Iterator : predef::Iterator

Module String.Elite


Method elite_string

string elite_string(string in, void|int(0..100) leetp, void|bool eightbit)

Description

Translates a string to 1337. The optional argument leetp is the maximum percentage of leetness (100=max leet, 0=no leet).

The translation is performed in three steps, first the neccesary elite translations (picture -> pic, cool->kewl etc), then optional translations (ok->k, dude->dood, -ers -> -orz), then calls elite_word on the resulting words.


Method elite_word

string elite_word(string in, void|int(0..100) leetp, void|int(0..2) eightbit)

Description

Translates one word to 1337. The optional argument leetp is the maximum percentage of leetness (100=max leet, 0=no leet). elite_word only do character-based translation, for instance from "k" to "|<", but no language translation (no "cool" to "kewl").

Module String.HTML

Description

Functions that helps generating HTML. All functions generates HTML that is XHTML compliant as well as backwards compatible with old HTML standards in what extent is possible.


Method pad_rows

array(array(string)) pad_rows(array(array(string)) rows, void|string padding)

Description

Pads out the rows in a array of rows to equal length. The new elements in the rows will have the value provided in padding, or "&nbsp;".


Method select

string select(string name, array(string)|array(array(string)) choices, void|string selected)

Description

Creates an HTML select list.

Parameter name

The name of the select list. Will be used in the name attribute of the select element.

Parameter choices

May either be an array of strings, where each string is a choice, or an array of pairs. A pair is an array with two strings. The first string is the value of the choice while the second string is the presentation text associated with the value.

Parameter selected

The value that should be selected by default, if any.

Example

select("language", ({ ({ "eng", "English" }), ({ "swe", "Swedish" }), ({ "nor", "Norwegian" }) }), "swe");


Method simple_obox

string simple_obox(array(array(string)) rows, void|string frame_color, void|string cell_color, void|string width, void|string padding, void|function(int, int, string, string:string) cell_callback)

Description

This function should solve most of the obox needs that arises. It creates a table out of the array of arrays of strings fed into it. The tables will (with default settings) have a thin black outline around the table and between its cells. Much effort has gone into finding a simple HTML reresentation of such obox that is rendered in a similar way in all popular browsers. The current implementation has been tested against IE, Netscape, Mozilla, Opera and Konquest.

Parameter rows

Simply an array of arrays with strings. The strings are the values that should appear in the table cells. All rows should have equal number of cells, otherwise the result will not be very eye pleasing.

Parameter frame_color

The color of the surrounding frame. Defaults to "#000000".

Parameter cell_color

The background color of the cells. Defaults to "#ffffff".

Parameter width

The border width. Defaults to "1".

Parameter padding

The amount of padding in each cell. Defaults to "3".

Parameter cell_callback

If provided, the cell callback will be called for each cell. As in parameters it will get the current x and y coordinates in the table. The upper left cell is 0,0. In addition to the coordinates it will also receive the background color and the contents of the current cell. It is expected to return a td-element.

Example

function cb = lambda(int x, int y, string bgcolor, string contents) { if(y%2) return "<td bgcolor='#aaaaff'>"+contents+"</td>"; return "<td bgcolor='"+bgcolor+"'>"+contents+"</td>"; } simple_obox(my_rows, "#0000a0", 0, "1", "3", cb);

See also

pad_rows

Class String.HTML.OBox

Description

Provides the same functionality as the simple_obox function, in a "streaming" way. The real gain is different addtition methods as well as the possibility to change the cell callback at any time.

See also

simple_obox


Method add_cell

void add_cell(string contents)

Description

Adds a cell with the provided content.


Method add_raw_cell

void add_raw_cell(string cell)

Description

Adds this cell to the table unmodified, e.g. it should have an enclosing td or th element.


Method add_row

void add_row(array(string) cells)

Description

Adds a complete row. If the current row is nonempty a new row will be started.


Method add_tagdata_cell

void add_tagdata_cell(string tag, mapping(string:string) args, string contents)

Description

Creates a cell from the provided arguments and adds it to the table.

Parameter tag

The name of the element that should be produces. Typically "td" or "th".

Parameter args

A mapping with the elements attributes.

Parameter contents

The element contents.


Method cast

(int)String.HTML.OBox()
(float)String.HTML.OBox()
(string)String.HTML.OBox()
(array)String.HTML.OBox()
(mapping)String.HTML.OBox()
(multiset)String.HTML.OBox()

Description

It is possible to case this object to a string, which does the same as calling render, and to an array, which returns the cells in an array of rows.


Method create

String.HTML.OBox String.HTML.OBox(void|string frame_color, void|string cell_color, void|string width, void|string padding, void|function(int, int, string, string:string) cell_callback)


Method new_row

void new_row()

Description

Begin a new row. Succeeding cells will be added to this row instead of the current.


Method pad_rows

void pad_rows()

Description

Ensures that all rows have the same number of cells.


Method render

string render()

Description

Returns the result.


Method set_cell_callback

void set_cell_callback(function(int, int, string, string:string) cell_callback)


Method set_extra_args

void set_extra_args(array(mapping(string:string)) extra_args)

Description

The argument in the mappings will be added to the cell in the cooresponding column of the table.


Method set_extra_args

void set_extra_args(mapping(string:string) extra_args)

Description

The argument in the mapping will be added to all created table cells.

Module Array

Description

General functions to operate on arrays.


Method all

bool all(array a, function(int(0..0), mixed ... :mixed) predicate, mixed ... extra_args)

Description

Returns 1 if all of the elements in a fulfills the requirement predicate( a[i], @extra_args ), otherwise 0. The predicate should return non-zero for an element that meets the requirements and zero for those that do not.

Example

Array.all( ({ 2, 4, 6, 8 }), `<, 17 )

See also

any, has_value


Method any

bool any(array a, function(int(0..0), mixed ... :mixed) predicate, mixed ... extra_args)

Description

Returns 1 if any of the elements in a fulfills the requirement predicate( a[i], @extra_args ), otherwise 0. The predicate should return non-zero for an element that meets the requirements and zero for those that do not.

Example

Array.any( ({ 2, 4, 6, 8 }), `>, 5 )

See also

all, has_value


Method arrayify

array arrayify(void|array|mixed x)

Description

Make an array of the argument, if it isn't already. An undefined argument gives the empty array. This is useful when something is either an array or a basic datatype, for instance in headers from the MIME module or Protocols.HTTP.Server.

Parameter x

Result depends of the argument type:

arrayp(x)

arrayify(x) => x

undefinedp(x)

arrayify(x) => ({})

otherwise

arrayify(x) => ({ x })


Method columns

array(array) columns(array x, array ind)

Description

Get multiple columns from an array.

This function is equvivalent to

   map(ind, lambda(mixed i) { return column(x, i); })
 

See also

column()


Method combinations

array(array) combinations(array arr, int len)

Description

Returns an array of all combinations of length len of elements from arr.

See also

permute()


Method common_prefix

array common_prefix(array(array) arrs)

Description

Find the longest common prefix from an array of arrays.

See also

String.common_prefix


Method compact_diff3

array(array(array)) compact_diff3(array a, array b, array old)

Description

Given three arrays like those returned from diff3, this function "compacts" the diff3 result by removing all differences where a and b agrees against old. The result is on the same form as the result from diff, and doesn't include the sequence from old.


Method count

int count(array|mapping|multiset haystack, mixed needle)
mapping(mixed:int) count(array|mapping|multiset haystack)

Description

Returns the number of occurrences of needle in haystack. If the optional needle argument is omitted, count instead works similar to the unix command sort|uniq -c, returning a mapping with the number of occurrences of each element in haystack. For array or mapping haystacks, it's the values that are counted, for multisets the indices, as you'd expect.

See also

String.count, search, has_value


Method diff

array(array(array)) diff(array a, array b)

Description

Calculates which parts of the arrays that are common to both, and which parts that are not.

Returns

Returns an array with two elements, the first is an array of parts in array a, and the second is an array of parts in array b.

See also

diff_compare_table(), diff_longest_sequence(), String.fuzzymatch()


Method diff3

array(array(array)) diff3(array a, array b, array c)

Description

Return the three-way difference between the arrays.

See also

Array.diff(), Array.diff_longest_sequence()


Method diff_compare_table

array(array(int)) diff_compare_table(array a, array b)

Description

Returns an array which maps from index in a to corresponding indices in b.

 > Array.diff_compare_table( ({ "a","b","c" }), ({ "b", "b", "c", "d", "b" }));
 Result: ({
             ({ }),
             ({
                 0,
                 1,
                 4
             }),
             ({
                 2
 	        })
         })
 

See also

diff(), diff_longest_sequence(), String.fuzzymatch()


Method diff_dyn_longest_sequence

array(int) diff_dyn_longest_sequence(array a, array b)

Description

Gives the longest sequence of indices in b that have corresponding values in the same order in a.

This function performs the same operation as diff_longest_sequence(), but uses a different algorithm, which in some rare cases might be faster (usually it's slower though).

See also

diff_longest_sequence(), diff(), diff_compare_table(), String.fuzzymatch()


Method diff_longest_sequence

array(int) diff_longest_sequence(array a, array b)

Description

Gives the longest sequence of indices in b that have corresponding values in the same order in a.

See also

diff(), diff_compare_table(), String.fuzzymatch()


Method dwim_sort_func

int(-1..1) dwim_sort_func(string a, string b)

Description

Sort without respect to number formatting (most notably leading zeroes).


Method everynth

array(mixed) everynth(array(mixed) a, void|int n, void|int start)

Description

Return an array with every n:th element of the array a.

If n is zero every other element will be returned.

See also

splice(), `/()


Method flatten

array flatten(array a, mapping(array:array)|void state)

Description

Flatten a multi-dimensional array to a one-dimensional array.

Note

Prior to Pike 7.5.7 it was not safe to call this function with cyclic data-structures.


Method greedy_diff

array(array(array)) greedy_diff(array from, array to)

Description

Like Array.diff, but tries to generate bigger continuous chunks of the differences, instead of maximizing the number of difference chunks. More specifically, greedy_diff optimizes the cases where Array.diff returns ({ ..., A, Z, B, ({}), C, ... }) ({ ..., A, X, B,  Y+B, C, ... }) into the somewhat shorter diff arrays ({ ..., A, Z,     B+C, ... }) ({ ..., A, X+B+Y, B+C, ... })


Method interleave_array

array(int) interleave_array(array(mapping(int:mixed)) tab)

Description

Interleave a sparse matrix.

Returns an array with offsets that describe how to shift the rows of tab so that only at most one non-zero value exists in every column.


Method longest_ordered_sequence

array(int) longest_ordered_sequence(array a)

Description

Find the longest ordered sequence of elements.

This function returns an array of the indices in the longest ordered sequence of elements in the array.

See also

diff()


Method lyskom_sort_func

int(-1..1) lyskom_sort_func(string a, string b)

Description

Sort comparison function that does not care about case, nor about the contents of any parts of the string enclosed with '()'

Example: "Foo (bar)" is given the same weight as "foo (really!)"


Method oid_sort_func

int(-1..1) oid_sort_func(string a, string b)

Description

Sort with care of numerical sort for OID values, e.g. "1.2.1" before "1.11.1".

Returns
-1

a<b

0

a==b

1

a>b

Note

In Pike 7.6 and older this function returned 0 both when a<b and a==b.

See also

sort_array


Method partition

array(array) partition(array a, function(int(0..0), mixed ... :mixed) arbiter, mixed ... extra_args)

Description

Splits an array in two, according to an arbitration function arbiter. The elements in a who return non-zero for the expression arbiter( a[i], @extra_args ) end up in the first sub-array, the others in the second. The order is preserved from the original array.

Example

Array.partition( enumerate( 9 ), lambda(int n) { return n>3 && n<7; } ); > ({ ({ 4, 5, 6 }), ({ 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 8 }) })

See also

filter, `/, `%


Method permute

array permute(array in, int(0..) number)

Description

Give a specified permutation of an array.

The number of permutations is equal to sizeof(in)! (the factorial of the size of the given array).

See also

shuffle()


Method pop

array pop(array list)

Description

Pops and returns the last value of the array, shortening the array by one element. If there are no elements in the array then 0 is returned otherwise an array is returned where the first returned element is the popped value, and the second element is the modified array.

Example

Array.pop(({ "a", "b", "c", "d" })); > ({ "d", ({ "a", "b", "c" }) })

See also

ADT.Stack, ADT.Stack.pop, ADT.Stack.quick_pop


Method push

array push(array list, mixed element)

Description

Threats an Array as a stack and pushes the element onto the end.

Example

Array.push(({ "a", "b", "c", "d" }), "e"); > ({ "a", "b", "c", "d", "e" })

See also

ADT.Stack, ADT.Stack.push


Method reduce

mixed reduce(function(:void) fun, array arr, mixed|void zero)

Description

reduce() sends the first two elements in arr to fun, then the result and the next element in arr to fun and so on. Then it returns the result. The function will return zero if arr is the empty array. If arr has only one element, that element will be returned.

See also

rreduce()


Method rreduce

mixed rreduce(function(:void) fun, array arr, mixed|void zero)

Description

rreduce() sends the last two elements in arr to fun, then the third last element in arr and the result to fun and so on. Then it returns the result. The function will return zero if arr is the empty array. If arr has only one element, that element will be returned.

See also

reduce()


Method search_array

int search_array(array arr, string|function(:void)|int fun, mixed ... args)

Description

search_array() works like map(), only it returns the index of the first call that returnes true instead.

If no call returns true, -1 is returned.

See also

sum(), map()


Method shift

array shift(array list)

Description

Shifts the first value of the array off and returns it, shortening the array by 1 and moving everything down. If there are no elements in the array it returns 0. Returns an array where the first element is the shifted value and the second element is the modified array.

Example

Array.shift(({ "a", "b", "c", "d"})); > ({ "a", ({ "b", "c", "d" }) })

See also

ADT.Stack


Method shuffle

array shuffle(array arr)

Description

shuffle() gives back the same elements, but in random order. The array is modified destructively.

See also

permute()


Method sort_array

array sort_array(array arr, function(:void)|void cmp, mixed ... args)

Description

This function sorts the array arr after a compare-function cmp which takes two arguments and should return 1 if the first argument is larger then the second. Returns the sorted array - arr is not sorted destructively.

The remaining arguments args will be sent as 3rd, 4th etc. argument to cmp.

If cmp is omitted, `>() is used instead.

See also

map(), sort(), `>(), dwim_sort_func, lyskom_sort_func, oid_sort_func


Method splice

array(mixed) splice(array(mixed) arr1, array(mixed) arr2, array(mixed) ... more_arrays)

Description

Splice two or more arrays.

This means that the returned array has the first element in the first given array, then the first argument in next array and so on for all arrays. Then the second elements are added, etc.

See also

`/(), `*(), `+(), `-(), everynth()


Method sum

mixed sum(array a)

Description

Sum the elements of an array using `+. The empty array results in 0.


Method sum_arrays

array sum_arrays(function(int(0..0) ... :mixed) sum, array ... args)

Description

Applies the function sum columnwise on the elements in the provided arrays. E.g. sum_array(`+,a,b,c) does the same as `+(a[*],b[*],c[*]).


Method transpose

array(array) transpose(array(array) matrix)

Description

Takes an array of equally sized arrays (essentially a matrix of size M*N) and returns the transposed (N*M) version of it, where rows and columns are exchanged for one another.


Method uniq

array uniq(array a)

Description

Remove elements that are duplicates.

Returns

This function returns an copy of the array a with all duplicate values removed. The order of the values is kept in the result; it's always the first of several equal elements that is kept.

Note

Elements are compared with `==. They are also hashed (see lfun::__hash for further details if the array contains objects).


Method uniq2

array uniq2(array a)

Description

Perform the same action as the Unix uniq command on an array, that is, fold consecutive occurrences of the same element into a single element of the result array:

aabbbcaababb -> abcabab.

See also the uniq function.


Method unshift

array unshift(array list, mixed element)

Description

Does the opposite of "shift". Or the opposite of a "push", depending on how you look at it. Prepends the element to the front of the array and returns the new array.

Example

Array.unshift(({ "b", "c", "d" }), "a"); > ({ "a", "b", "c", "d" })

See also

ADT.Stack

Class Array.Iterator

Description

An object of this class is returned by get_iterator() when called with an array.

See also

get_iterator


Inherit predef::Iterator

inherit predef::Iterator : predef::Iterator

Module Mapping


Constant delete

constant Mapping.delete

Description

Alias for m_delete()

Class Mapping.Iterator

Description

An object of this class is returned by get_iterator() when called with a mapping.

See also

get_iterator


Inherit predef::Iterator

inherit predef::Iterator : predef::Iterator

Class Mapping.ShadowedMapping

Description

A mapping look-alike that overrides (ie shadows) another parent mapping.

The class implements most of the usual mapping operations.


Method create

Mapping.ShadowedMapping Mapping.ShadowedMapping(mapping|ShadowedMapping parent, mapping|void shadow, bool|void modify_parent)

Parameter parent

Mapping to be shadowed.

Parameter shadow

Initial shadow of parent.

Parameter modify_parent

Modifications should be done to parent rather than to shadow. If this is set, only entries that are already present in shadow can be modified by later operations.


Method create

Mapping.ShadowedMapping Mapping.ShadowedMapping(mapping|ShadowedMapping parent)


Variable parent

protected mapping|ShadowedMapping Mapping.ShadowedMapping.parent

Module Multiset

Class Multiset.Iterator

Description

An object of this class is returned by get_iterator() when called with a multiset.

See also

get_iterator


Inherit predef::Iterator

inherit predef::Iterator : predef::Iterator

Module Int


Constant NATIVE_MIN
Constant NATIVE_MAX

constant Int.NATIVE_MIN
constant Int.NATIVE_MAX

Description

The limits for using the native representation of integers on the current architecture. Any integer that is outside this range uses a more complex and slower representation. Also, some builtin functions that don't expect very large integers might start to complain about invalid argument type when given values outside this range (they typically say something like "Expected integer, got object").

NATIVE_MIN is not greater than -2147483648 (-0x80000000).

NATIVE_MAX is not less than 2147483647 (0x7fffffff).

Note

The size of the native integers can be controlled when Pike is compiled with the configure flags --with-int-int, --with-long-int, and --with-long-long-int. The default is to use the longest available integer type that fits inside a pointer, which typically means that it's 64 bit on "true" 64 bit architectures.


Variable inf

Inf Int.inf

Description

An object that behaves like positive infinity.


Method parity

bool parity(int(0..) value)

Description

Returns the parity of the integer value. If the parity is odd 1 is returned. If it is even 0 is returned.


Method reflect

int(0..) reflect(int value, int(0..) bits)

Description

Reverses the order of the low order bits number of bits of the value value.

Note

Any higher order bits of the value will be cleared. The returned value will thus be unsigned.

See also

reverse(), swap_word(), swap_long()


Method swap_long

int(32bit) swap_long(int(32bit) i)

Description

Swaps the upper and lower word in a longword, and the upper and lower bytes in the words. Simply put, the bytes are reversed.

See also

swap_word()


Method swap_word

int(16bit) swap_word(int(16bit) i)

Description

Swaps the upper and lower byte in a word.

See also

swap_long()

Class Int.Inf

Description

The type of Int.inf. Do not create more instances of this.

Module Float


Constant DIGITS_10
Constant MIN_10_EXP
Constant MAX_10_EXP
Constant MIN
Constant MAX
Constant EPSILON

constant Float.DIGITS_10
constant Float.MIN_10_EXP
constant Float.MAX_10_EXP
constant Float.MIN
constant Float.MAX
constant Float.EPSILON

Description

These constants define the limits for floats on the current architecture:

DIGITS_10

The number of decimal digits that can be represented. Any number with this many decimal digits can be stored in a float and converted back to decimal form without change. DIGITS_10 is not less than 6.

MIN_10_EXP
MAX_10_EXP

Limits of the exponent in decimal base. 10 raised to any number within this range can be represented in normalized form. MIN_10_EXP is not greater than -37. MAX_10_EXP is not less than 37.

MIN

The smallest normalized float greater than zero. It's not greater than 1e-37.

MAX

The largest finite float. It's not less than 1e37.

EPSILON

The difference between 1 and the smallest value greater than 1 that can be represented. It's not greater than 1e-5.

Note

The size of the float type can be controlled when Pike is compiled with the configure flags --with-double-precision and --with-long-double-precision. The default is to use the longest available float type that fits inside a pointer.


Constant FLOAT_PRECISION
Constant DOUBLE_PRECISION
Constant LONG_DOUBLE_PRECISION

constant Float.FLOAT_PRECISION
constant Float.DOUBLE_PRECISION
constant Float.LONG_DOUBLE_PRECISION

Description

Tells which C compiler float type that is used for Pike floats. Only one of these constants will exist (with the value 1) at runtime.

FLOAT_PRECISION

The float type of the C compiler is used.

DOUBLE_PRECISION

The double type of the C compiler is used.

LONG_DOUBLE_PRECISION

The long double type of the C compiler is used.

Note

The float type can be controlled when Pike is compiled with the configure flags --with-double-precision and --with-long-double-precision. The default is to use the longest available float type that fits inside a pointer.


Method isnan

bool isnan(float x)

Description

Returns true if x is nan.

Module Function


Method Y

function(:void) Y(function(:void) f)

Description

The dreaded fixpoint combinator "Y".

The Y combinator is useful when writing recursive lambdas. It converts a lambda that expects a self-reference as its first argument into one which can be called without this argument.

Example

This example creates a lambda that computes the faculty function.

Function.Y(lambda(function f, int n) { return n>1? n*f(n-1) : 1; })

Method call_callback

void call_callback(function(:void) f, mixed ... args)

Description

Call a callback function, but send throws from the callback function (ie, errors) to master()->handle_error. Also accepts if f is zero (0) without error.

Example
Functions.call_callback(the_callback,some,arguments);

equals

{
     mixed err=catch { if (the_callback) the_callback(some,arguments); };
     if (err) master()->handle_error(err);
  }

(Approximately, since call_callback also calls handle_error if 0 were thrown.)


Method curry

function(mixed ... :function(mixed ... :mixed|void)) curry(function(:void) f)

Description

Partially evaluate a function call.

This function allows N parameters to be given to a function taking M parameters (N<=M), yielding a new function taking M-N parameters.

What is actually returned from this function is a function taking N parameters, and returning a function taking M-N parameters.

Example

This example creates a function adding 7 to its argument.

Function.curry(`+)(7)

Method defined

string defined(function(:void) fun)

Description

Returns a string with filename and linenumber where fun was defined.

Returns 0 (zero) when no line can be found, e.g. for builtin functions and functions in destructed objects.


Method splice_call

mixed splice_call(array args, function(:void) f, mixed|void ... extra)

Description

Calls the given function with the args array plus the optional extra arguments as its arguments and returns the result.

Most useful in conjunction with map, and particularly in combination with sscanf with "...%{...%}..." scan strings (which indeed was what it was invented for in the first place).

Parameter args

The first arguments the function f expects.

Parameter f

The function to apply the arguments on.

Parameter extra

Optional extra arguments to send to f.

Returns

Whatever the supplied function f returns.

Example
class Product(string name, string version)
  {
    string _sprintf()
    {
      return sprintf("Product(%s/%s)", name, version);
    }
  }
  map(({ ({ "pike",   "7.1.11" }),
         ({ "whitefish", "0.1" }) }),
      Function.splice_call, Product);
  ({ /* 2 elements */
	 Product(pike/7.1.11),
	 Product(whitefish/0.1)
  })

Method uncurry

function(mixed ... :mixed) uncurry(function(:void) f)

Description

This function, given a function taking N parameters, returns a new function taking N+1 parameters. The first argument will be ignored.

Example
>  Function.uncurry(`+)(7,2,3)
 Result: 5

Module Program


Method all_inherits

array(program) all_inherits(program p)

Description

Enumerate all programs this program inherits, directly or indirectly. Similar to inherit_tree() but returns a flat array.

Example

> class a{} > class b{} > class c{ inherit a; } > class d{ inherit b; inherit c; } > Program.inherit_tree(d); Result: ({ /* 3 elements */ b, c, a })


Method defined

string defined(program p)

Description

Returns a string with filename and linenumber describing where the program p was defined.

The returned string is of the format "filename:linenumber".

If it cannot be determined where the program was defined, 0 (zero) will be returned.


Method defined

string defined(program x, string identifier)

Description

Returns a string with filename and linenumber where idenfifier in x was defined.

Returns 0 (zero) when no line can be found, e.g. for builtin functions.

If idenfier can not be found in x this function returns where the program is defined.


Method implements

int implements(program prog, program api)

Description

Returns 1 if prog implements api.


Method inherit_list

array(program) inherit_list(program p)

Description

Returns an array with the programs that p has inherited.


Method inherit_tree

array inherit_tree(program p)

Description

Recursively builds a inheritance tree by fetching programs inheritance lists.

Returns

Returns an array with programs or arrays as elements.

Example

> class a{} > class b{} > class c{ inherit a; } > class d{ inherit b; inherit c; } > Program.inherit_tree(d); Result: ({ /* 3 elements */ d, ({ /* 1 element */ program }), ({ /* 2 elements */ c, ({ /* 1 element */ program }) }) })


Method inherits

int inherits(program|object child, program parent)

Description

Returns 1 if child has inherited parent.

Module ADT

Description

Various Abstract Data Types.


Inherit _ADT

inherit _ADT : _ADT

Class ADT.BitBuffer

Description

Implements a FIFO bit buffer, i.e. a buffer that operates on bits instead of bytes. It is not designed for performance, but as a way to handle complicated file formats and other standards where you may need to work on unaligned data units of sub byte size, without having to fry your brain while keeping track of all the bits yourself.

Example

> ADT.BitBuffer b=ADT.BitBuffer(); > b->put1(2); (1) Result: ADT.BitBuffer(11) > b->put0(15); (2) Result: ADT.BitBuffer("\300\0"0) > b->drain(); (3) Result: "\300\0" > sizeof(b); (4) Result: 1


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( ADT.BitBuffer arg )

Description

sizeof() will return the number of bits in the buffer.


Method create

ADT.BitBuffer ADT.BitBuffer(void|string data)

Description

The buffer can be initialized with initial data during creation.


Method drain

string drain()

Description

Drains the buffer of all full (8-bits wide) bytes.


Method feed

this_program feed(string x)

Description

Adds full bytes to the buffer.


Method get

int get(int bits)

Description

Get bits from the buffer.

Throws

Throws an error in case of data underflow.

Note

The bits are extracted with the most significant bit first.


Method put

this_program put(int value, int bits)

Description

Put bits number of bits with the value value into the buffer.

Note

value must not be larger than what can be stored with the number of bits given in bits.

Note

The bits are added to the buffer with the most significant bit first.


Method put0

this_program put0(int bits)

Description

Put bits number of 0 bits into the buffer.


Method put1

this_program put1(int bits)

Description

Put bits number of 1 bits into the buffer.


Method read

string read(void|int bytes)

Description

Reads bytes (or less) bytes from the buffer and returns as string.

Class ADT.CircularList

Description

This is an circular list implemented by an array. It has a constant time complexity for pop and push. It has a limited max size but it can be increased with the method allocate.


Method _equal

bool equal(ADT.CircularList from, mixed coll)

Returns

Returns true if the object coll is a CircularList and contains the same values in the same order.


Method _get_iterator

ADT.CircularList a;
foreach( a; index; value ) or
CircularListIterator _get_iterator(void|int ind)

Description

Create and initiate a new CircularListIterator that could be used to iterate over this list.

Parameter ind

If an ind value is supplied the iterator will be positioned at that index.

Returns

An iterator.


Method _indices

array indices( ADT.CircularList arg )

Returns

The indices in this list as an array.


Method _insert_element

void _insert_element(int index, mixed value)

Description

Insert an element in the list at the position index, the value at the position index and all above will have their index increased by one.

Parameter index

The index to insert the value at.

Parameter value

The new value.

Throws

An error if the index is out of range.


Method _remove_element

mixed _remove_element(int index)

Description

Remove the values at index index from the list.

Parameter index

The index to remove.

Returns

The removed value.

Throws

An error if the index is out of range.


Method _search

int search(ADT.CircularList from, mixed value, void|int start)

Description

Search the list for a specific value. Return the index of the first value that is equal to value. If no value was found UNDEFINED is returned instead

Parameter value

The value to find

Parameter start

If a start value is supplied it will start searching at the index start.

Returns

Returns the index of the found value or UNDEFINED.

Throws

An error if the start is out of range.


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( ADT.CircularList arg )

Returns

The number of elements in this list.


Method _values

array values( ADT.CircularList arg )

Returns

The values in this list as an array.


Method `+

CircularList res = ADT.CircularList() + coll

Description

Addition operator

Append the content of this CircularList and @coll and return the results as a new CircularList.

Parameter coll

The lists to append to this list

Returns

The result of the append as a new CircularList.


Method `[]

mixed res = ADT.CircularList()[ index ]

Description

Index operator

Parameter index

The index to get the value for, could be negative to index from the end.

Returns

The value at the index index

Throws

An error if the index is out of range.


Method `[]=

ADT.CircularList()[ index ] = value

Description

Index assign operator. Set the value at the index index to be value

Parameter index

The index to set

Parameter value

The new value

Returns

The new value at the index index

Throws

An error if the index is out of range.


Method add

void add(mixed value)

Description

Add a value at the front of the list

Parameter value

The value to add.

Throws

An error if the list is full.


Method allocate

void allocate(int elements)

Description

Increase the maxsize of the CircularlList.

Parameter elements

Add this number of new elements to the list.


Method cast

(array)ADT.CircularList()

Description

Cast operator.

Parameter type

Casts to this type.

Casts to the following types are supported:

"array"

Cast the content of this list to an array.

Returns

An array with the contents of this list.


Method clear

void clear()

Description

Clear the contents of the list.


Method create

ADT.CircularList ADT.CircularList(array|int arg)

Description

Creates a new CircularList around the array arg or a new CircularList with the maximum size of arg.


Method delete_value

int delete_value(mixed value)

Description

Remove the first occurrence of the value value from the list.

Parameter value

The value to remove from the list.

Returns

The index of the removed element or -1 if there was no value to remove.


Method first

CircularListIterator first()

Description

Create and initiate a new CircularListIterator that could be used to iterate over this list.

Returns

An iterator positioned at the first element in the list.


Method is_empty

bool is_empty()

Returns

Returns 1 if the list is empty otherwise 0.


Method last

CircularListIterator last()

Description

Create and initiate a new CircularListIterator that could be used to iterate over this list.

Returns

An iterator positioned after the last element in the list.


Method max_size

int max_size()

Returns

Returns the maximal size of this list.


Method peek_back

mixed peek_back()

Returns

The value at the back of the list but do not remove it from the list.


Method peek_front

mixed peek_front()

Returns

The value at the front of the list but do not remove it from the list.


Method pop_back

mixed pop_back()

Description

Remove the value at the back of the list and return it.

Returns

The value at the back of the list.


Method pop_front

mixed pop_front()

Description

Remove the value at the front of the list and return it.

Returns

The value at the front of the list.


Method push_back

void push_back(mixed value)

Description

Add a new value at the end of the list.

Parameter value

The value to add.


Method push_front

void push_front(mixed value)

Description

Add a new value at the end of the list.

Parameter value

The value to add.

Class ADT.CircularList.CircularListIterator

Description

This is the iterator for the CircularList. It implements the IndexIterator and the OutputIterator.


Method _equal

bool equal(ADT.CircularList.CircularListIterator from, mixed iter)

Description

Compare this iterator with another iterator.

Parameter iter

The iterator to compare with

Returns

Returns true if both iterators iterates over the same objects and are positioned at the same spot.


Method `!

bool res = !ADT.CircularList.CircularListIterator()

Returns

Returns false if the iterator has reached the end.


Method `+

CircularListIterator res = ADT.CircularList.CircularListIterator() + steps

Description

Move the iterator steps steps forward (negative value on steps will cause the iterator to move backwards) and return the result as a new iterator.

Returns

A new iterator positioned steps steps forward.


Method `+=

ADT.CircularList.CircularListIterator() += steps

Description

Move this iterator steps steps forward (negative value on steps will cause the iterator to move backwards) and return the result.

Returns

This iterator positioned steps steps forward.


Method `-

CircularListIterator res = ADT.CircularList.CircularListIterator() - steps

Description

Move the iterator steps steps backwards (negative value on steps will cause the iterator to move forwards) and return the result as a new iterator.

Returns

A new iterator positioned steps steps backwards.


Method `<

bool res = ADT.CircularList.CircularListIterator() < iter

Description

Less then operator

Returns

Returns true if this iterator has a lower index then iter.


Method `>

bool res = ADT.CircularList.CircularListIterator() > iter

Description

Greater then operator

Returns

Returns true if this iterator has a higher index then iter.


Method create

ADT.CircularList.CircularListIterator ADT.CircularList.CircularListIterator(object list, void|int start)

Description

Creates a new iterator for the CircularList list. If start is supplied it will try to position the iterator at start.


Method distance

int distance(object iter)

Parameter iter

The iterator to measure the distance to.

Returns

Returns distance between this iterator and iter.

Throws

An error if the two iterator could not be compared.


Method get_collection

CircularList get_collection()

Returns

Returns the CircularList this iterator currently iterates over.


Method has_next

bool has_next(void|int steps)

Returns

Returns true if it is possible to move steps steps forwards, if steps weren't supplied it check if it is possible to move one step forward.


Method has_previous

bool has_previous(void|int steps)

Returns

Returns true if it is possible to move steps steps backwards, if steps weren't supplied it check if it is possible to move one step backward.


Method index

int index()

Returns

The index at the current position.


Method set_value

mixed set_value(mixed val)

Description

Set the value at the current position.

Parameter val

The new value

Returns

Returns the old value


Method value

mixed value()

Returns

The value at the current position.

Class ADT.Heap

Description

This class implements a (min-)heap. The value of a child node will always be greater than or equal to the value of its parent node. Thus, the top node of the heap will always hold the smallest value.


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( ADT.Heap arg )

Description

Returns the number of elements in the heap.


Method adjust

Element adjust(mixed value)

Description

Takes a value in the heap and sorts it through the heap to maintain its sort criteria (increasing order).

Parameter value

Either the element handle returned by push(), or the pushed value itself.

Returns

Returns the element handle for the value (if present in the heap), and 0 (zero) otherwise.


Method low_peek

Element low_peek()

Description

Returns the Element on top of the heap (which is also the one with the smallest value in the heap) without removing it.

Returns

Returns the smallest Element on the heap if any, and UNDEFINED otherwise.

See also

peek(), low_pop(), pop()


Method low_pop

Element low_pop()

Description

Removes and returns the Element on top of the heap, which also is the smallest value in the heap.

Returns

Returns UNDEFINED if the heap is empty.

See also

pop(), peek(), push(), remove()


Method peek

mixed peek()

Description

Returns the item on top of the heap (which is also the smallest value in the heap) without removing it.

Returns

Returns the smallest value on the heap if any, and UNDEFINED otherwise.

See also

low_peek(), pop()


Method pop

mixed pop()

Description

Removes and returns the item on top of the heap, which also is the smallest value in the heap.

Throws

Throws an error if the heap is empty.

See also

low_pop(), peek(), push(), remove()


Method push

Element push(mixed value)

Description

Push an element onto the heap. The heap will automatically sort itself so that the smallest value will be at the top.

Returns

Returns an element handle, which can be used with adjust() and remove().

See also

pop(), remove()


Method remove

void remove(mixed value)

Description

Remove a value from the heap.

Parameter value

Value to remove.

See also

push(), pop()


Method size

__deprecated__ int size()

Description

Returns the number of elements in the heap.

Deprecated

Replaced by lfun::_sizeof.


Method top

__deprecated__ mixed top()

Description

Removes and returns the item on top of the heap, which also is the smallest value in the heap.

Deprecated

Replaced by pop.

Class ADT.Heap.Element

Description

Heap element.


Method create

ADT.Heap.Element ADT.Heap.Element(mixed value)


Variable value

mixed ADT.Heap.Element.value

Class ADT.History

Description

A history is a stack where you can only push entries. When the stack has reached a certain size the oldest entries are removed on every push. Other proposed names for this data type is leaking stack and table (where you push objects onto the table in one end and objects are falling off the table in the other.


Method _indices

array(int) indices( ADT.History arg )

Description

Returns the index numbers of the history entries available.


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( ADT.History arg )

Description

A sizeof operation on this object returns the number of elements currently in the history, e.g. <= the current max size.


Method _values

array values( ADT.History arg )

Description

Returns the values of the available history entries.


Method `[]

mixed res = ADT.History()[ i ]

Description

Get a value from the history as if it was an array, e.g. both positive and negative numbers may be used. The positive numbers are however offset with 1, so [1] is the first entry in the history and [-1] is the last.


Method `[]=

ADT.History()[ i ] = value

Description

Overwrite one value in the history. The history position may be identified either by positive or negative offset, like `[].


Method create

ADT.History ADT.History(int max_size)

Description

max_size is the maximum number of entries that can reside in the history at the same time.


Method flush

void flush()

Description

Empties the history. All entries in the history are removed, to allow garbage collect to remove them. The entry sequence counter is not reset.


Method get_first_entry_num

int get_first_entry_num()

Description

Returns the absolute sequence number of the oldest result still in the history. Returns 0 if there are no results in the history.


Method get_latest_entry_num

int get_latest_entry_num()

Description

Returns the absolute sequence number of the latest result inserted into the history.


Method get_maxsize

int get_maxsize()

Description

Returns the maximum number of values in the history

See also

set_maxsize


Method push

void push(mixed value)

Description

Push a new value into the history.


Method query_no_adjacent_duplicates

bool query_no_adjacent_duplicates()

Description

Tells if the History object allows adjacent equal values. 1 means that only uniqe values are allowed adter each other.

See also

set_no_adjacent_duplicates


Method set_maxsize

void set_maxsize(int _maxsize)

Description

Set the maximume number of entries that can be stored in the history simultaneous.

See also

get_maxsize


Method set_no_adjacent_duplicates

void set_no_adjacent_duplicates(bool i)

Description

Change how the History object should treat two identical values in a row. If 1 than only unique values are allowed after each other.

See also

query_no_adjacent_duplicates

Class ADT.List

Description

Linked list of values.


Method _sizeof

int(0..) sizeof( ADT.List arg )

Description

Returns the number of elements in the list.


Method _sprintf

string sprintf(string format, ... ADT.List arg ... )

Description

Describe the list.

See also

sprintf(), lfun::_sprintf()


Method _values

array values( ADT.List arg )

Description

Returns an array of elements in the list.


Method `[]

mixed res = ADT.List()[ key ]


Method append

void append(mixed ... values)

Description

Append values to the end of the list.

See also

insert()


Method cast

(array)ADT.List()

Description

Cast the lists. array is the only supported type.


Method create

ADT.List ADT.List(mixed ... values)

Description

Create a new List, and initialize it with values.


Method flush

void flush()

Description

Empties the List.


Method head

mixed head()

Description

Get the element at the head of the list.

Throws

Throws an error if the list is empty.

See also

is_empty(), tail(), pop()


Method insert

void insert(mixed ... values)

Description

Insert values at the front of the list.

See also

append()


Method is_empty

bool is_empty()

Description

Check if the list is empty.

Returns

Returns 1 if the list is empty, and 0 (zero) if there are elements in the list.


Method pop

mixed pop()

Description

Pop the element at the head of the list from the list.

Throws

Throws an error if the list is empty.

See also

is_empty(), head(), tail(), pop_back()


Method pop_back

mixed pop_back()

Description

Pop the element at the tail of the list from the list.

Throws

Throws an error if the list is empty.

See also

is_empty(), head(), tail(), pop()


Method tail

mixed tail()

Description

Get the element at the tail of the list.

Throws

Throws an error if the list is empty.

See also

is_empty(), head(), pop_back()

Class ADT.List._get_iterator

Description

Iterator that loops over the List.


Method `+=

ADT.List._get_iterator() += steps

Description

Advance or retrace the specified number of steps.

See also

next(), prev


Method append

void append(mixed val)

Description

Append val after the current position.

See also

insert(), delete(), set()


Method delete

void delete()

Description

Delete the current node.

The current position will advance to the next node. This function thus performes the reverse operation of insert().

See also

insert(), append(), set()


Method first

bool first()

Description

Reset the iterator to point to the first element in the list.

Returns

Returns 1 if there are elements in the list, and 0 (zero) if the list is empty.


Method insert

void insert(mixed val)

Description

Insert val at the current position.

See also

append(), delete(), set()


Method next

bool next()

Description

Advance to the next element in the list.

Returns

Returns 1 on success, and 0 (zero) at the end of the list.

See also

prev()


Method prev

bool prev()

Description

Retrace to the previous element in the list.

Returns

Returns 1 on success, and 0 (zero) at the beginning of the list.

See also

next()


Method set

void set(mixed val)

Description

Set the value of the current position to val.

See also

insert(), append(), delete()


Method value

mixed value()

Returns

Returns the value at the current position.

Class ADT.Priority_queue

Description

This class implements a priority queue. Each element in the priority queue is assigned a priority value, and the priority queue always remains sorted in increasing order of the priority values. The top of the priority queue always holds the element with the smallest priority. The priority queue is realized as a (min-)heap.


Method adjust_pri

void adjust_pri(mixed handle, int new_pri)

Description

Adjust the priority value new_pri of an element handle in the priority queue. The priority queue will automatically sort itself so that the element with the smallest priority value will be at the top.


Inherit Heap

inherit .Heap : Heap


Method peek

mixed peek()

Description

Returns the item on top of the priority queue (which is also the element with the smallest priority value) without removing it.


Method pop

mixed pop()

Description

Removes and returns the item on top of the heap, which also is the smallest value in the heap.


Method push

elem push(int pri, mixed val)

Description

Push an element val into the priority queue and assign a priority value pri to it. The priority queue will automatically sort itself so that the element with the smallest priority will be at the top.

Class ADT.Queue

Description

A simple FIFO queue.


Method cast

(int)ADT.Queue()
(float)ADT.Queue()
(string)ADT.Queue()
(array)ADT.Queue()
(mapping)ADT.Queue()
(multiset)ADT.Queue()

Description

It is possible to cast ADT.Queue to an array.


Method create

ADT.Queue ADT.Queue(mixed ... args)

Description

Creates a queue with the initial items args in it.


Method flush

void flush()

Description

Empties the queue.


Method read
Method get

mixed read()
mixed get()

Description

Returns the next element from the queue.


Method is_empty

bool is_empty()

Description

Returns true if the queue is empty, otherwise zero.


Method peek

mixed peek()

Description

Returns the next element from the queue without removing it from the queue.


Method write
Method put

void write(mixed ... items)
void put(mixed ... items)

Description

Adds items to the queue.

Class ADT.Sequence

Description

The sequence work similar to an array but has the possibilities to insert and remove elements. It also has a more powerful iterator.


Method _equal

bool equal(ADT.Sequence from, mixed coll)

Returns

Returns true if the object coll is a Sequence and contains the same values in the same order.


Method _get_iterator

ADT.Sequence a;
foreach( a; index; value ) or
SequenceIterator _get_iterator(void|int ind)

Description

Create and initiate a new SequenceIterator that could be used to iterate over this sequence.

Parameter ind

If an ind value is supplied the iterator will be positioned at that index.

Returns

An iterator.


Method _indices

array indices( ADT.Sequence arg )

Returns

The indices in this adapter as an array.


Method _insert_element

void _insert_element(int index, mixed value)

Description

Insert an element in the sequence at the position index, the value at the position index and all above will have their index increased by one.

Parameter index

The index to insert the value at.

Parameter value

The new value.


Method _remove_element

mixed _remove_element(int index)

Description

Remove the values at index index from the sequence.

Parameter index

The index to remove.

Returns

The removed value.


Method _search

int search(ADT.Sequence from, mixed value, void|int start)

Description

Search the sequence for a specific value. Return the index of the first value that is equal to value. If no value was found UNDEFINED is returned instead.

Parameter value

The value to find.

Parameter start

If a start value is supplied it will start searching at the index start.

Returns

Returns the index of the found value or UNDEFINED.


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( ADT.Sequence arg )

Returns

The number of elements in this adapter.


Method _values

array values( ADT.Sequence arg )

Returns

The values in this adapter as an array.


Method `&

Sequence res = ADT.Sequence() & coll

Description

And operator Perform an and on this sequence and the coll sequence by only returning those values that is present in both sequences as a new Sequence. The remaining values is in the same order as they are in this sequence and the values are compared using `==.

Parameter coll

The sequence to and to this sequence.

Returns

The result of the and as a new Sequence.


Method `+

Sequence res = ADT.Sequence() + coll

Description

Addition operator

Append the content of @coll to this sequence and return the results as a new Sequence.

Parameter coll

The sequences to append to this sequence.

Returns

The result of the append as a new Sequence.


Method `-

Sequence res = ADT.Sequence() - coll

Description

Subtraction operator

Removes those values in this sequence that also are present in @coll and return the results as a new Sequence.

Parameter coll

The sequence to subtract from this sequence.

Returns

The result of the subtraction as a new Sequence.


Method `[]

mixed res = ADT.Sequence()[ index ]

Description

Index operator.

Parameter index

The index to get the value for, could be negative to index from the end.

Returns

The value at the index index.

Throws

An error if the index is out of range.


Method `[]=

ADT.Sequence()[ index ] = value

Description

Index assign operator. Set the value at the index index to be value.

Parameter index

The index to set.

Parameter value

The new value.

Returns

The new value at the index index.


Method `^

Sequence res = ADT.Sequence() ^ coll

Description

Xor operator Perform a xor on this sequence and the coll sequence by returning those values that is present in one of the sequences but not in both adapters as a new Sequence. The values are compared using `==.

Parameter coll

The sequence to xor with this sequence.

Returns

The result of the xor as a new Sequence.


Method `|

Sequence res = ADT.Sequence() | coll

Description

Or operator Perform an or on this sequence and the coll sequence by returning those values that is present in both sequences as a new Sequence. The values are compared using `==.

Parameter coll

The sequence to or with this sequence.

Returns

The result of the or as a new Sequence.


Method add

void add(mixed value)

Description

Add a value at the end of the sequence.

Parameter value

The value to add.


Method cast

(array)ADT.Sequence()

Description

Cast operator.

Parameter type

Casts to this type.

Casts to the following types are supported:

"array"

Cast the content of this sequence to an array.

Returns

An array with the contents of this sequence.


Method clear

void clear()

Description

Clear the contents of the sequence.


Method create

ADT.Sequence ADT.Sequence(array|int arg)

Description

Creates a new Sequence around the array arg or a new Sequence with the size of arg.


Method delete_value

int delete_value(mixed value)

Description

Remove the first occurrence of the value value from the sequence.

Parameter value

The value to remove from the sequence.

Returns

The index of the removed element or -1 if there was no value to remove.


Method first

SequenceIterator first()

Description

Create and initiate a new SequenceIterator that could be used to iterate over this sequence.

Returns

An iterator positioned at the first element in the sequence.


Method is_empty

bool is_empty()

Returns

Returns 1 if the sequence is empty otherwise 0.


Method last

SequenceIterator last()

Description

Create and initiate a new SequenceIterator that could be used to iterate over this sequence.

Returns

An iterator positioned after the last element in the sequence.


Method max_size

int max_size()

Returns

Returns -1.

Class ADT.Sequence.SequenceIterator

Description

This is the iterator for the Sequence. It implements the IndexIterator and the OutputIterator


Method _equal

bool equal(ADT.Sequence.SequenceIterator from, mixed iter)

Description

Compare this iterator with another iterator.

Parameter iter

The iterator to compare with.

Returns

Returns true if both iterators iterates over the same objects and are positioned at the same spot.


Method `!

bool res = !ADT.Sequence.SequenceIterator()

Returns

Returns false if the iterator has reached the end.


Method `+

SequenceIterator res = ADT.Sequence.SequenceIterator() + steps

Description

Move the iterator steps steps forward (negative value on steps will cause the iterator to move backwards) and return the result as a new iterator.

Returns

A new iterator positioned steps steps forward.


Method `+=

ADT.Sequence.SequenceIterator() += steps

Description

Move this iterator steps steps forward (negative value on steps will cause the iterator to move backwards) and return the result.

Returns

This iterator positioned steps steps forward.


Method `-

SequenceIterator res = ADT.Sequence.SequenceIterator() - steps

Description

Move the iterator steps steps backwards (negative value on steps will cause the iterator to move forwards) and return the result as a new iterator.

Returns

A new iterator positioned steps steps backwards.


Method `<

bool res = ADT.Sequence.SequenceIterator() < iter

Description

Less then operator.

Returns

Returns true if this iterator has a lower index then iter.


Method `>

bool res = ADT.Sequence.SequenceIterator() > iter

Description

Greater then operator.

Returns

Returns true if this iterator has a higher index then iter.


Method create

ADT.Sequence.SequenceIterator ADT.Sequence.SequenceIterator(object sequence, void|int start)

Description

Creates a new iterator for the sequence sequence. If start is supplied it will try to position the iterator at start.


Method distance

int distance(object iter)

Parameter iter

The iterator to measure the distance to.

Returns

Returns distance between this iterator and iter.

Throws

An error if the two iterator could not be compared.


Method get_collection

Sequence get_collection()

Returns

Returns the Sequence this iterator currently iterates over.


Method has_next

bool has_next(void|int steps)

Returns

Returns true if it is possible to move steps steps forwards, if steps weren't supplied it check if it is possible to move one step forward.


Method has_previous

bool has_previous(void|int steps)

Returns

Returns true if it is possible to move steps steps backwards, if steps weren't supplied it check if it is possible to move one step backward.


Method index

int index()

Returns

The index at the current position.


Method set_value

mixed set_value(mixed val)

Description

Set the value at the current position.

Parameter val

The new value.

Returns

Returns the old value.


Method value

mixed value()

Returns

The value at the current position.

Class ADT.Set

Description

ADT.Set implements a datatype for sets. These sets behave much like multisets, except that they are restricted to containing only one instance of each member value.

From a performance viewpoint, it is probably more efficient for a Pike program to use mappings to serve as sets, rather than using an ADT.Set,so ADT.Set is mainly provided for the sake of completeness and code readability.


Method _indices

array(mixed) indices( ADT.Set arg )

Description

In analogy with multisets, indices() of an ADT.Set givess an array containing all members of the set.


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( ADT.Set arg )

Description

Number of items in the set.


Method _sprintf

string sprintf(string format, ... ADT.Set arg ... )

Description

Printable representation of the set.


Method _values

array(mixed) values( ADT.Set arg )

Description

In analogy with multisets, values() of an ADT.Set givess an array indicating the number of occurrences in the set for each position in the member array returned by indices(). (Most of the time, this is probably rather useless for sets, since the result is an array which just contain 1's, one for each member of the set. Still, this function is provided for consistency.


Method `&

this_program res = ADT.Set() & other

Description

Intersection. Returns a set containing those values that were present in both the operand sets.


Method `-

this_program res = ADT.Set() - other

Description

Difference. The expression 'A - B', where A and B are sets, returns all elements in A that are not also present in B.


Method `<

bool res = ADT.Set() < other

Description

True subset. A < B returns true if each item in A is also present in B, and B contains at least one item not present in A.


Method `==

bool res = ADT.Set() == other

Description

Equality. A == B returns true if all items in A are present in B, and all items in B are present in A. Otherwise, it returns false.


Method `>

bool res = ADT.Set() > other

Description

True superset. A > B returns true if each item in B is also present in A, and A contains at least one item not present in B.


Method `[]

bool res = ADT.Set()[ item ]

Description

Indexing a set with a value V gives 1 if V is a member of the set, otherwise 0.


Method `[]=

ADT.Set()[ item ] = value

Description

Setting an index V to 0 removes V from the set. Setting it to a non-0 value adds V as a member of the set.


Method `|

this_program res = ADT.Set() | other

Description

Union. Returns a set containing all elements present in either or both of the operand sets.


Method add

void add(mixed ... items)

Description

Add items to the set.


Method cast

(int)ADT.Set()
(float)ADT.Set()
(string)ADT.Set()
(array)ADT.Set()
(mapping)ADT.Set()
(multiset)ADT.Set()

Description

An ADT.Set can be cast to an array or a multiset.


Method contains

bool contains(mixed item)

Description

Check whether a value is a member of the set.


Method create

ADT.Set ADT.Set(void|ADT.Set|array|multiset|mapping initial_data)

Description

Create an ADT.Set, optionally initialized from another ADT.Set or a compatible type. If no initial data is given, the set will start out empty.


Method filter

this_program filter(function(:void) f)

Description

Return a filtered version of the set, containing only those members for which the filtering function f returned true.

The filtering function is called with a single mixed-type argument which is the member value to be checked.


Method filter_destructively

this_program filter_destructively(function(:void) f)

Description

Destructively filter the set, i.e. remove every element for which the filtering function f returns 0, and then return the set.

The filtering function is called with a single mixed-type argument which is the member value to be checked.


Method is_empty

bool is_empty()

Description

Returns 1 if the set is empty, otherwise 0.


Method map

array(mixed) map(function(:void) f)

Description

Map the values of a set: calls the map function f once for each member of the set, returning an array which contains the result of each one of those function calls. Note that since a set isn't ordered, the values in the returned array will be in more or less random order. If you need to know which member value produced which result, you have to make that a part of what the filtering function returns.

The filtering function f is called with a single, mixed-type argument which is the member value to be mapped.


Method remove

void remove(mixed ... items)

Description

Remove items from the set.


Method reset

void reset()

Description

Remove all items from the set.


Method subset

bool subset(ADT.Set other)

Description

Subset. A <= B returns true if all items in A are also present in B.


Method superset

bool superset(ADT.Set other)

Description

Superset. A >= B returns true if all items in B are also present in A.

Class ADT.Stack

Description

This class implements a simple stack. Instead of adding and removing elements to an array, and thus making it vary in size for every push and pop operation, this stack tries to keep the stack size constant. If however the stack risks to overflow, it will allocate double its current size, i.e. pushing an element on an full 32 slot stack will result in a 64 slot stack with 33 elements.


Method _search

int search(ADT.Stack from, mixed item)

Description

Return the stack-depth to item.

This function makes it possible to use eg search() and has_value() on the stack.


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( ADT.Stack arg )

Description

sizeof on a stack returns the number of entries in the stack.


Method _values

array values( ADT.Stack arg )

Description

values on a stack returns all the entries in the stack, in order.


Method `+

this_program res = ADT.Stack() + s

Description

A stack added with another stack yields a third a third stack will all the stack elements from the two first stacks.


Method create

ADT.Stack ADT.Stack(int|void initial_size)

Description

An initial stack size can be given when a stack is cloned. The default value is 32.


Method pop

mixed pop(void|int val)

Description

Pops and returns entry val from the stack, counting from the top. If no value is given the top element is popped and returned. All popped entries are freed from the stack.


Method push

void push(mixed val)

Description

Push an element on the top of the stack.


Method quick_pop

void quick_pop(void|int val)

Description

Pops val entries from the stack, or one entry if no value is given. The popped entries are not actually freed, only the stack pointer is moved.


Method reset

void reset(int|void initial_size)

Description

Empties the stack, resets the stack pointer and shrinks the stack size to the given value or 32 if none is given.

See also

create


Method set_stack

void set_stack(array stack)

Description

Sets the stacks content to the provided array.


Method top

mixed top()

Description

Returns the top element from the stack, without popping it.

Throws

Throws an error if called on an empty stack.

Class ADT.Struct

Description

Implements a struct which can be used for serialization and deserialization of data.

Example

class ID3 { inherit ADT.Struct; Item head = Chars(3); Item title = Chars(30); Item artist = Chars(30); Item album = Chars(30); Item year = Chars(4); Item comment = Chars(30); Item genre = Byte(); }

Stdio.File f = Stdio.File("foo.mp3"); f->seek(-128); ADT.Struct tag = ID3(f); if(tag->head=="TAG") { write("Title: %s\n", tag->title); tag->title = "A new title" + "\0"*19; f->seek(-128); f->write( (string)tag ); }

Example

class HollerithString { inherit ADT.Struct; Item strlen = Word(); Item str = Chars(strlen); }


Method _indices

array(string) indices( ADT.Struct arg )

Description

The indices of a struct is the name of the struct items.


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( ADT.Struct arg )

Description

The size of the struct object is the number of bytes allocated for the struct.


Method _values

array values( ADT.Struct arg )

Description

The values of a struct is the values of the struct items.


Method `[]
Method `->

mixed res = ADT.Struct()[ item ]
mixed res = ADT.Struct()->X

Description

The struct can be indexed by item name to get the associated value.


Method `[]=
Method `->=

ADT.Struct()[ item ] = y
ADT.Struct()->X = y

Description

It is possible to assign a new value to a struct item by indexing it by name and assign a value.


Method cast

(int)ADT.Struct()
(float)ADT.Struct()
(string)ADT.Struct()
(array)ADT.Struct()
(mapping)ADT.Struct()
(multiset)ADT.Struct()

Description

The struct can be casted into a string, which is eqivivalent to running encode, or into an array. When casted into an array each array element is the encoded value of that struct item.


Method create

ADT.Struct ADT.Struct(void|string|Stdio.File data)

Parameter data

Data to be decoded and populate the struct. Can either be a file object or a string.


Method decode

void decode(string|Stdio.File data)

Description

Decodes data according to the struct and populates the struct variables. The data can either be a file object or a string.


Method encode

string encode()

Description

Serializes the struct into a string. This string is equal to the string fed to decode if nothing in the struct has been altered.

Class ADT.Struct.Byte

Description

One byte, integer value between 0 and 255.


Method create

ADT.Struct.Byte ADT.Struct.Byte(void|int(8bit) initial_value)

Description

The byte can be initialized with an optional value.


Inherit Item

inherit Item : Item

Class ADT.Struct.Chars

Description

A string of bytes.


Method create

ADT.Struct.Chars ADT.Struct.Chars(int|Item size, void|string value)

Description

size is the number of bytes that are part of this struct item, or optionally an earlier Item that will be looked up in runtime. The initial value of the char string is value or, if not provided, a string of zero bytes.


Inherit Item

inherit Item : Item

Class ADT.Struct.Drow

Description

One word (2 bytes) in intel order, integer value between 0 and 65535.

See also

Word


Inherit Word

inherit Word : Word

Class ADT.Struct.Gnol

Description

One longword (4 bytes) in intel order, integer value between 0 and 2^32.

See also

Long


Method create

ADT.Struct.Gnol ADT.Struct.Gnol(void|int(0..) initial_value)

Description

The longword can be initialized with an optional value.


Inherit Drow

inherit Drow : Drow

Class ADT.Struct.Item

Description

Interface class for struct items.

Class ADT.Struct.Long

Description

One longword (4 bytes) in network order, integer value between 0 and 2^32.

See also

Gnol


Method create

ADT.Struct.Long ADT.Struct.Long(void|int(0..) initial_value)

Description

The longword can be initialized with an optional value.


Inherit Word

inherit Word : Word

Class ADT.Struct.SByte

Description

One byte, signed integer value between -128 and 127.


Method create

ADT.Struct.SByte ADT.Struct.SByte(void|int(-128..127) initial_value)

Description

The byte can be initialized with an optional value.


Inherit Item

inherit Item : Item

Class ADT.Struct.SLong

Description

One longword (4 bytes) in network order, signed integer value -(2^31) <= x < 2^31-1.


Method create

ADT.Struct.SLong ADT.Struct.SLong(void|int initial_value)

Description

The longword can be initialized with an optional value.


Inherit SWord

inherit SWord : SWord

Class ADT.Struct.SWord

Description

One word (2 bytes) in network order, signed integer value between 0 and 65535.


Method create

ADT.Struct.SWord ADT.Struct.SWord(void|int(-32768..32767) initial_value)

Description

The word can be initialized with an optional value.


Inherit Item

inherit Item : Item

Class ADT.Struct.Word

Description

One word (2 bytes) in network order, integer value between 0 and 65535.

See also

Drow


Method create

ADT.Struct.Word ADT.Struct.Word(void|int(16bit) initial_value)

Description

The word can be initialized with an optional value.


Inherit Item

inherit Item : Item

Class ADT.Struct.int16

Description

Alias for SWord


Inherit SWord

inherit SWord : SWord

Class ADT.Struct.int32

Description

Alias for SLong


Inherit SLong

inherit SLong : SLong

Class ADT.Struct.int64

Description

64 bit signed integer.


Inherit SLong

inherit SLong : SLong

Class ADT.Struct.int8

Description

Alias for SByte


Inherit SByte

inherit SByte : SByte

Class ADT.Struct.uint16

Description

Alias for Word


Inherit Word

inherit Word : Word

Class ADT.Struct.uint32

Description

Alias for Long


Inherit Long

inherit Long : Long

Class ADT.Struct.uint64

Description

64 bit unsigned integer.


Inherit Long

inherit Long : Long

Class ADT.Struct.uint8

Description

Alias for Byte


Inherit Byte

inherit Byte : Byte

Class ADT.struct

Description

String buffer with the possibility to read and write data as they would be formatted in structs.


Method add_data

this_program add_data(string(8bit) s)

Description

Adds the data s verbatim to the end of the buffer.


Method contents

string(8bit) contents()

Description

Trims the buffer to only contain the data after the read pointer and returns the contents of the buffer.


Method create

ADT.struct ADT.struct(void|string(8bit) s)

Description

Create a new buffer, optionally initialized with the value s.


Method get_bignum

Gmp.mpz get_bignum(int|void len)

Description

Reads a bignum written by put_bignum from the buffer.


Method get_fix_string

string(8bit) get_fix_string(int len)

Description

Reads a fixed sized string of length len from the buffer.


Method get_fix_uint_array

array(int) get_fix_uint_array(int item_size, int size)

Description

Reads an array of integers as written by put_fix_uint_array from the buffer.


Method get_rest

string(8bit) get_rest()

Description

Get the remaining data from the buffer and clears the buffer.


Method get_uint

int(0..) get_uint(int len)

Description

Reads an unsigned integer from the buffer.


Method get_var_string

string(8bit) get_var_string(int len)

Description

Reads a string written by put_var_string from the buffer.


Method get_var_uint_array

array(int) get_var_uint_array(int item_size, int len)

Description

Reads an array of integers as written by put_var_uint_array from the buffer.


Inherit Buffer

inherit Stdio.Buffer : Buffer


Method is_empty

bool is_empty()

Description

Returns one if there is any more data to read.


Method pop_data

string(8bit) pop_data()

Description

Return all the data in the buffer and empties it.


Method put_bignum

this_program put_bignum(Gmp.mpz i, int(0..)|void len_width)

Description

Appends a bignum i as a variable string preceded with an unsigned integer of the size len_width declaring the length of the string. len_width defaults to 2.


Method put_fix_string

this_program put_fix_string(string(8bit) s)

Description

Appends the fix sized string s to the buffer.


Method put_fix_uint_array

this_program put_fix_uint_array(array(int) data, int(0..) item_size)

Description

Appends an array of unsigned integers of width item_size to the buffer.


Method put_uint

this_program put_uint(int i, int(0..) len)

Description

Appends an unsigned integer in network order to the buffer.

Parameter i

Unsigned integer to append.

Parameter len

Length of integer in bytes.


Method put_var_string

this_program put_var_string(string(8bit) s, int(0..) len_width)

Description

Appends a variable string s preceded with an unsigned integer of the size len_width declaring the length of the string. The string s should be 8 bits wide.


Method put_var_string_array

this_program put_var_string_array(array(string(8bit)) data, int(0..) item_size, int(0..) len)

Description

Appends an array of variable length strings with item_size bytes hollerith coding, prefixed by a len bytes large integer declaring the total size of the array in bytes.


Method put_var_uint_array

this_program put_var_uint_array(array(int) data, int(0..) item_size, int(0..) len)

Description

Appends an array of unsigned integers of width item_size to the buffer, preceded with an unsigned integer len declaring the size of the array in bytes.

Module ADT.CritBit

Description

This module offers CritBit tree implementations for different key types.

Note

These CritBit trees support prefixes as proper keys. Hence they should really be called Tries.


Method Tree

object Tree(void|string|program|mapping type)

Description

Creates a CritBit tree for keys of type type. If no argument is given, an instance of ADT.CritBit.StringTree is returned. Supported types are "string", "int", "float", "ipv4" and Calendar.TimeRange.


Method sort_ipv4

array(string) sort_ipv4(array(string) a, array ... data)

Description

Sorts an ARRAY OF IPv4-Adresses (and optional netmasks) given in dotted decimal representation with the /23 netmask notation.

Example
> array(string) a = ({ "127.0.0.121",
>	 "127.0.0.0/16",
>	 "127.0.0.1/8",
>	 "127.0.0.0/8",
>	 "128.0.0.0/1",
>	 "192.168.21.3",
>	 "8.8.8.8" });
> write("%O\n", CritBit.sort_ipv4(a));
({ /* 7 elements */
	"8.8.8.8",
	"127.0.0.0/8",
	"127.0.0.0/16",
	"127.0.0.1/8",
	"127.0.0.121",
	"128.0.0.0/1",
	"192.168.21.3"
})

Class ADT.CritBit.DateTree


Method copy

this_program copy()

Description

Copy callback to also clone backwards


Method decode_key

int|object decode_key(int i)

Description

Decodes an integer back to a Calendar.TimeRange object. Keeps a mapping of all keys stored in the tree to transform back.


Method encode_key

int encode_key(object|int o)

Description

Encodes a Calendar.TimeRange object into unix timestanp.


Inherit IntTree

inherit C::IntTree : IntTree

Class ADT.CritBit.FloatTree

Description

This class implements a CritBit-tree/trie that can be used as a mapping-like data structure. Values of float|int can be used as indices, while any possible type (also mixed) can be stored.

CritBit trees are prefixed based search trees that allow for fast random access as well as prefix and range based lookups. Keys are stored in alphabetical order and can be iterated over using foreach. Other than that, it can be used like mapping(float|int:mixed).

Example
ADT.CritBit.FloatTree tree = ADT.CritBit.FloatTree();
float|int key1 = 12.0;
tree[key1] = ({ 4, 5, 6 });
tree[key1]; // now is ({ 4, 5, 6 })
m_delete(tree, key1); // tree is empty again
Example
ADT.CritBit.FloatTree tree = ADT.CritBit.FloatTree();
array(float|int) a = ({ 80.4, 99.9, 14.2 });
foreach(a; int idx; float|int val) {
tree[val] = idx;
}
foreach(tree; float|int key; mixed val) {
// in here the keys will be reached in order 14.2, 80.4 and 99.9.
}
Example
ADT.CritBit.FloatTree tree = ADT.CritBit.FloatTree();
array(float|int) a = ({ 80.4, 99.9, 14.2 });
foreach (a; int idx; float|int val) {
tree[val] = idx;
}
foreach(ADT.CritBit.FloatTree.Iterator(tree, -1); float|int key; mixed val) {
// in here the keys will be reached in order 99.9, 80.4 and 14.2.
}
See also

ADT.CritBit.FloatTree.Iterator


Method _equal

bool equal(ADT.CritBit.FloatTree from, mixed o)


Method _indices

array indices( ADT.CritBit.FloatTree arg )

Description

Returns a sorted array of indices of the FloatTree.


Method _m_delete

mixed m_delete(ADT.CritBit.FloatTree from, mixed key)

Description

m_delete callback.


Method _random

array random( ADT.CritBit.FloatTree arg )

Description

Get a random entry.

Returns

An array ({ key, value }).


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( ADT.CritBit.FloatTree arg )

Description

Gives the number of entries in the FloatTree.


Method _values

array values( ADT.CritBit.FloatTree arg )

Description

Returns an array of values of the FloatTree object. The returned array matches _indices so that mkmapping(indices(tree), values(tree)) would create a mapping with the same contents as this FloatTree.


Method `+

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.FloatTree() + o

Description

Add callback. Returns the union of two trees.


Method `-

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.FloatTree() - o

Description

Sub[s]tract two trees from each other (key-wise).


Method `[..]

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.FloatTree()[start..end]

See also

predef::`[..]


Method `[]

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.FloatTree()[ key ]


Method `[]=

ADT.CritBit.FloatTree()[ key ] = val


Method bkey

string bkey(mixed key)

Description

Render the internally used binary representation of the key into a string as a strings of '0's and '1's.


Method cast

(mapping)ADT.CritBit.FloatTree()

Description

Cast callback. Supports only cast to mapping and behaves as the inverse of create().


Method copy

FloatTree copy()

Description

Create a copy of the tree.


Method create

ADT.CritBit.FloatTree ADT.CritBit.FloatTree(array|mapping|void o)

Description

Create a FloatTree from o.


Method encode_key
Method decode_key

float|int encode_key(mixed o)
mixed decode_key(float|int o)

Description

These callbacks can be implemented when inheriting FloatTree in order to allow for arbitrary key types. encode_key is similar to the lfun::_hash() callback. This only works as expected when it is possible to implement a unique representation for keys. These callbacks are called everytime a key is stored or indexed in the tree.


Method depth

int(0..) depth()

Description

Calculate the depth of the tree.


Method first

float|int first()

Description

Get the lexicographically first index in the tree.


Method get_subtree

FloatTree get_subtree(void|mixed key)

Description

Get a copy of the subtree starting at prefix key.


Method last

float|int last()

Description

Get the lexicographically last index in the tree.


Method next

float|int next(mixed current)

Description

Get the key after current in lexicographical order.


Method nth

mixed nth(int(0..) n)

Description

Get the nth entry in order.

Returns

An array ({ key, value }).


Method previous

float|int previous(mixed current)

Description

Get the key before current in lexicographical order.

Class ADT.CritBit.FloatTree._get_iterator

Description

Iterator class for FloatTree trees. Supports iterating over ranges with arbitrary stepping and direction.

This is used by default when calling foreach on an object of FloatTree. In foreach the iterator runs over all elements from the first to the last.

See also

predef::Iterator for a description of the interface.


Method create

ADT.CritBit.FloatTree._get_iterator ADT.CritBit.FloatTree._get_iterator(void|int step, void|mixed start, void|mixed stop)

Description

Returns an iterator object that runs from start to stop using a stepsize of step. The arguments default to 1, tree->first() and tree->last(), respectively.

Class ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree

Description

This class implements a CritBit-tree/trie that can be used as a mapping-like data structure. Values of string can be used as indices, while any possible type (also mixed) can be stored.

CritBit trees are prefixed based search trees that allow for fast random access as well as prefix and range based lookups. Keys are stored in alphabetical order and can be iterated over using foreach. Other than that, it can be used like mapping(string:mixed).

Example
ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree tree = ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree();
string key1 = "127.0.0.0/8";
tree[key1] = "reject";
tree[key1]; // now is "reject"
m_delete(tree, key1); // tree is empty again
Example
ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree tree = ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree();
array(string) a = ({ "10.243.7.1", "127.0.0.1/8", "172.16.5.2" });
foreach(a; int idx; string val) {
tree[val] = idx;
}
foreach(tree; string key; mixed val) {
// in here the keys will be reached in order "10.243.7.1", "127.0.0.1/8" and "172.16.5.2".
}
Example
ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree tree = ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree();
array(string) a = ({ "10.243.7.1", "127.0.0.1/8", "172.16.5.2" });
foreach (a; int idx; string val) {
tree[val] = idx;
}
foreach(ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree.Iterator(tree, -1); string key; mixed val) {
// in here the keys will be reached in order "172.16.5.2", "127.0.0.1/8" and "10.243.7.1".
}
See also

ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree.Iterator


Method _equal

bool equal(ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree from, mixed o)


Method _indices

array indices( ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree arg )

Description

Returns a sorted array of indices of the IPv4Tree.


Method _m_delete

mixed m_delete(ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree from, mixed key)

Description

m_delete callback.


Method _random

array random( ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree arg )

Description

Get a random entry.

Returns

An array ({ key, value }).


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree arg )

Description

Gives the number of entries in the IPv4Tree.


Method _values

array values( ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree arg )

Description

Returns an array of values of the IPv4Tree object. The returned array matches _indices so that mkmapping(indices(tree), values(tree)) would create a mapping with the same contents as this IPv4Tree.


Method `+

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree() + o

Description

Add callback. Returns the union of two trees.


Method `-

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree() - o

Description

Sub[s]tract two trees from each other (key-wise).


Method `[..]

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree()[start..end]

See also

predef::`[..]


Method `[]

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree()[ key ]


Method `[]=

ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree()[ key ] = val


Method bkey

string bkey(mixed key)

Description

Render the internally used binary representation of the key into a string as a strings of '0's and '1's.


Method cast

(mapping)ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree()

Description

Cast callback. Supports only cast to mapping and behaves as the inverse of create().


Method common_prefix

string|int common_prefix()

Description

Returns the common prefix of all keys. If the tree has no elements, UNDEFINED is returned.


Method copy

IPv4Tree copy()

Description

Create a copy of the tree.


Method create

ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree(array|mapping|void o)

Description

Create a IPv4Tree from o.


Method encode_key
Method decode_key

string encode_key(mixed o)
mixed decode_key(string o)

Description

These callbacks can be implemented when inheriting IPv4Tree in order to allow for arbitrary key types. encode_key is similar to the lfun::_hash() callback. This only works as expected when it is possible to implement a unique representation for keys. These callbacks are called everytime a key is stored or indexed in the tree.


Method depth

int(0..) depth()

Description

Calculate the depth of the tree.


Method first

string first()

Description

Get the lexicographically first index in the tree.


Method get_subtree

IPv4Tree get_subtree(void|mixed key)

Description

Get a copy of the subtree starting at prefix key.


Method last

string last()

Description

Get the lexicographically last index in the tree.


Method next

string next(mixed current)

Description

Get the key after current in lexicographical order.


Method nth

mixed nth(int(0..) n)

Description

Get the nth entry in order.

Returns

An array ({ key, value }).


Method previous

string previous(mixed current)

Description

Get the key before current in lexicographical order.

Class ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree._get_iterator

Description

Iterator class for IPv4Tree trees. Supports iterating over ranges with arbitrary stepping and direction.

This is used by default when calling foreach on an object of IPv4Tree. In foreach the iterator runs over all elements from the first to the last.

See also

predef::Iterator for a description of the interface.


Method create

ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree._get_iterator ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree._get_iterator(void|int step, void|mixed start, void|mixed stop)

Description

Returns an iterator object that runs from start to stop using a stepsize of step. The arguments default to 1, tree->first() and tree->last(), respectively.

Class ADT.CritBit.IntTree

Description

This class implements a CritBit-tree/trie that can be used as a mapping-like data structure. Values of int can be used as indices, while any possible type (also mixed) can be stored.

CritBit trees are prefixed based search trees that allow for fast random access as well as prefix and range based lookups. Keys are stored in alphabetical order and can be iterated over using foreach. Other than that, it can be used like mapping(int:mixed).

Example
ADT.CritBit.IntTree tree = ADT.CritBit.IntTree();
int key1 = 12;
tree[key1] = ({ 1, 2 ,3 });
tree[key1]; // now is ({ 1, 2 ,3 })
m_delete(tree, key1); // tree is empty again
Example
ADT.CritBit.IntTree tree = ADT.CritBit.IntTree();
array(int) a = ({ 1025, 15000, 3 });
foreach(a; int idx; int val) {
tree[val] = idx;
}
foreach(tree; int key; mixed val) {
// in here the keys will be reached in order 3, 1025 and 15000.
}
Example
ADT.CritBit.IntTree tree = ADT.CritBit.IntTree();
array(int) a = ({ 1025, 15000, 3 });
foreach (a; int idx; int val) {
tree[val] = idx;
}
foreach(ADT.CritBit.IntTree.Iterator(tree, -1); int key; mixed val) {
// in here the keys will be reached in order 15000, 1025 and 3.
}
See also

ADT.CritBit.IntTree.Iterator


Method _equal

bool equal(ADT.CritBit.IntTree from, mixed o)


Method _indices

array indices( ADT.CritBit.IntTree arg )

Description

Returns a sorted array of indices of the IntTree.


Method _m_delete

mixed m_delete(ADT.CritBit.IntTree from, mixed key)

Description

m_delete callback.


Method _random

array random( ADT.CritBit.IntTree arg )

Description

Get a random entry.

Returns

An array ({ key, value }).


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( ADT.CritBit.IntTree arg )

Description

Gives the number of entries in the IntTree.


Method _values

array values( ADT.CritBit.IntTree arg )

Description

Returns an array of values of the IntTree object. The returned array matches _indices so that mkmapping(indices(tree), values(tree)) would create a mapping with the same contents as this IntTree.


Method `+

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.IntTree() + o

Description

Add callback. Returns the union of two trees.


Method `-

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.IntTree() - o

Description

Sub[s]tract two trees from each other (key-wise).


Method `[..]

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.IntTree()[start..end]

See also

predef::`[..]


Method `[]

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.IntTree()[ key ]


Method `[]=

ADT.CritBit.IntTree()[ key ] = val


Method bkey

string bkey(mixed key)

Description

Render the internally used binary representation of the key into a string as a strings of '0's and '1's.


Method cast

(mapping)ADT.CritBit.IntTree()

Description

Cast callback. Supports only cast to mapping and behaves as the inverse of create().


Method copy

IntTree copy()

Description

Create a copy of the tree.


Method create

ADT.CritBit.IntTree ADT.CritBit.IntTree(array|mapping|void o)

Description

Create a IntTree from o.


Method encode_key
Method decode_key

int encode_key(mixed o)
mixed decode_key(int o)

Description

These callbacks can be implemented when inheriting IntTree in order to allow for arbitrary key types. encode_key is similar to the lfun::_hash() callback. This only works as expected when it is possible to implement a unique representation for keys. These callbacks are called everytime a key is stored or indexed in the tree.


Method depth

int(0..) depth()

Description

Calculate the depth of the tree.


Method first

int first()

Description

Get the lexicographically first index in the tree.


Method get_subtree

IntTree get_subtree(void|mixed key)

Description

Get a copy of the subtree starting at prefix key.


Method last

int last()

Description

Get the lexicographically last index in the tree.


Method next

int next(mixed current)

Description

Get the key after current in lexicographical order.


Method nth

mixed nth(int(0..) n)

Description

Get the nth entry in order.

Returns

An array ({ key, value }).


Method previous

int previous(mixed current)

Description

Get the key before current in lexicographical order.

Class ADT.CritBit.IntTree._get_iterator

Description

Iterator class for IntTree trees. Supports iterating over ranges with arbitrary stepping and direction.

This is used by default when calling foreach on an object of IntTree. In foreach the iterator runs over all elements from the first to the last.

See also

predef::Iterator for a description of the interface.


Method create

ADT.CritBit.IntTree._get_iterator ADT.CritBit.IntTree._get_iterator(void|int step, void|mixed start, void|mixed stop)

Description

Returns an iterator object that runs from start to stop using a stepsize of step. The arguments default to 1, tree->first() and tree->last(), respectively.

Class ADT.CritBit.RangeSet

Description

Data structure representing a set of disjunct ADT.Interval objects. Can be thought of as an interval with gaps.


Method create

ADT.CritBit.RangeSet ADT.CritBit.RangeSet(function(:void)|object|program tree)

Description

Create a RangeSet from a given tree program.

Class ADT.CritBit.Reverse


Method create

ADT.CritBit.Reverse ADT.CritBit.Reverse(object tree)


Variable tree

object ADT.CritBit.Reverse.tree

Class ADT.CritBit.StringTree

Description

This class implements a CritBit-tree/trie that can be used as a mapping-like data structure. Values of string can be used as indices, while any possible type (also mixed) can be stored.

CritBit trees are prefixed based search trees that allow for fast random access as well as prefix and range based lookups. Keys are stored in alphabetical order and can be iterated over using foreach. Other than that, it can be used like mapping(string:mixed).

Example
ADT.CritBit.StringTree tree = ADT.CritBit.StringTree();
string key1 = "foo";
tree[key1] = ({ 7, 8, 9 });
tree[key1]; // now is ({ 7, 8, 9 })
m_delete(tree, key1); // tree is empty again
Example
ADT.CritBit.StringTree tree = ADT.CritBit.StringTree();
array(string) a = ({ "fooo", "bar", "ahead" });
foreach(a; int idx; string val) {
tree[val] = idx;
}
foreach(tree; string key; mixed val) {
// in here the keys will be reached in order "ahead", "bar" and "foo".
}
Example
ADT.CritBit.StringTree tree = ADT.CritBit.StringTree();
array(string) a = ({ "fooo", "bar", "ahead" });
foreach (a; int idx; string val) {
tree[val] = idx;
}
foreach(ADT.CritBit.StringTree.Iterator(tree, -1); string key; mixed val) {
// in here the keys will be reached in order "foo", "bar" and "ahead".
}
See also

ADT.CritBit.StringTree.Iterator


Method _equal

bool equal(ADT.CritBit.StringTree from, mixed o)


Method _indices

array indices( ADT.CritBit.StringTree arg )

Description

Returns a sorted array of indices of the StringTree.


Method _m_delete

mixed m_delete(ADT.CritBit.StringTree from, mixed key)

Description

m_delete callback.


Method _random

array random( ADT.CritBit.StringTree arg )

Description

Get a random entry.

Returns

An array ({ key, value }).


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( ADT.CritBit.StringTree arg )

Description

Gives the number of entries in the StringTree.


Method _values

array values( ADT.CritBit.StringTree arg )

Description

Returns an array of values of the StringTree object. The returned array matches _indices so that mkmapping(indices(tree), values(tree)) would create a mapping with the same contents as this StringTree.


Method `+

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.StringTree() + o

Description

Add callback. Returns the union of two trees.


Method `-

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.StringTree() - o

Description

Sub[s]tract two trees from each other (key-wise).


Method `[..]

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.StringTree()[start..end]

See also

predef::`[..]


Method `[]

mixed res = ADT.CritBit.StringTree()[ key ]


Method `[]=

ADT.CritBit.StringTree()[ key ] = val


Method bkey

string bkey(mixed key)

Description

Render the internally used binary representation of the key into a string as a strings of '0's and '1's.


Method cast

(mapping)ADT.CritBit.StringTree()

Description

Cast callback. Supports only cast to mapping and behaves as the inverse of create().


Method common_prefix

string|int common_prefix()

Description

Returns the common prefix of all keys. If the tree has no elements, UNDEFINED is returned.


Method copy

StringTree copy()

Description

Create a copy of the tree.


Method create

ADT.CritBit.StringTree ADT.CritBit.StringTree(array|mapping|void o)

Description

Create a StringTree from o.


Method encode_key
Method decode_key

string encode_key(mixed o)
mixed decode_key(string o)

Description

These callbacks can be implemented when inheriting StringTree in order to allow for arbitrary key types. encode_key is similar to the lfun::_hash() callback. This only works as expected when it is possible to implement a unique representation for keys. These callbacks are called everytime a key is stored or indexed in the tree.


Method depth

int(0..) depth()

Description

Calculate the depth of the tree.


Method first

string first()

Description

Get the lexicographically first index in the tree.


Method get_subtree

StringTree get_subtree(void|mixed key)

Description

Get a copy of the subtree starting at prefix key.


Method last

string last()

Description

Get the lexicographically last index in the tree.


Method next

string next(mixed current)

Description

Get the key after current in lexicographical order.


Method nth

mixed nth(int(0..) n)

Description

Get the nth entry in order.

Returns

An array ({ key, value }).


Method previous

string previous(mixed current)

Description

Get the key before current in lexicographical order.

Class ADT.CritBit.StringTree._get_iterator

Description

Iterator class for StringTree trees. Supports iterating over ranges with arbitrary stepping and direction.

This is used by default when calling foreach on an object of StringTree. In foreach the iterator runs over all elements from the first to the last.

See also

predef::Iterator for a description of the interface.


Method create

ADT.CritBit.StringTree._get_iterator ADT.CritBit.StringTree._get_iterator(void|int step, void|mixed start, void|mixed stop)

Description

Returns an iterator object that runs from start to stop using a stepsize of step. The arguments default to 1, tree->first() and tree->last(), respectively.

Module ADT.Relation

Class ADT.Relation.Binary


Method _sizeof

mixed sizeof( ADT.Relation.Binary arg )

Description

Returns the number of relation entries in the relation. (Or with other words: the number of relations in the relation set.)


Method `&

mixed res = ADT.Relation.Binary() & rel

Description

The expression `rel1 & rel2' returns a new relation which has those and only those relation entries that are present in both rel1 and rel2.


Method `()

mixed res = ADT.Relation.Binary()()

Description

Does the same as the contains function: returns true if the relation "left R right" exists, and otherwise false.


Method `+
Method `|

mixed res = ADT.Relation.Binary() + rel
mixed res = ADT.Relation.Binary() | rel

Description

The expression `rel1 | rel2' and `rel1 + rel2' returns a new relation which has all the relation entries present in rel1, or rel2, or both.


Method `-

mixed res = ADT.Relation.Binary() - rel

Description

The expression `rel1 - rel2' returns a new relation which has those and only those relation entries that are present in rel1 and not present in rel2.


Method add

this_program add(mixed left, mixed right)

Description

Adds "left R right" as a member of the relation. Returns the same relation.


Method contains

mixed contains(mixed left, mixed right)

Description

Return true/false: does the relation "left R right" exist?


Method filter

object filter(function(:void) f)

Description

Filters the entries in the relation, and returns a relation with all those entries for which the filtering function f returned true. The function f gets two arguments: the left and the right value for every entry in the relation.


Method filter_destructively

this_program filter_destructively(function(:void) f)

Description

Filters the entries in the relation destructively, removing all entries for which the filtering function f returns false. The function f gets two arguments: the left and the right value for each entry in the relation.


Method find_shortest_path

array find_shortest_path(mixed from, mixed to, void|multiset avoiding)

Description

Assuming the relation's domain and range sets are equal, and that the relation xRy means "there is a path from node x to node y", find_shortest_path attempts to find a path with a minimum number of steps from one given node to another. The path is returned as an array of nodes (including the starting and ending node), or 0 if no path was found. If several equally short paths exist, one of them will be chosen pseudorandomly.

Trying to find a path from a node to itself will always succeed, returning an array of one element: the node itself. (Or in other words, a path with no steps, only a starting/ending point).

The argument avoiding is either 0 (or omitted), or a multiset of nodes that must not be part of the path.


Method get_id

mixed get_id()

Description

Return the ID value which was given as first argument to create().


Method make_symmetric

this_program make_symmetric()

Description

Makes the relation symmetric, i.e. makes sure that if xRy is part of the relation set, then yRx should also be a part of the relation set.


Method map

array map(function(:void) f)

Description

Maps every entry in the relation. The function f gets two arguments: the left and the right relation value. Returns an array with the return values of f for each and every mapped entry.

Note: since the entries in the relation are not ordered, the returned array will have its elements in no particular order. If you need to know which relation entry produced which result in the array, you have to make that information part of the value that f returns.


Method remove

this_program remove(mixed left, mixed right)

Description

Removes "left R right" as a member of the relation. Returns the same relation.

Class ADT.Relation.Binary._get_iterator

Description

An iterator which makes all the left/right entities in the relation available as index/value pairs.

Module ADT.Table

Description

ADT.Table is a generic module for manipulating tables.

Each table contains one or several columns. Each column is associated with a name, the column name. Optionally, one can provide a column type. The Table module can do a number of operations on a given table, like computing the sum of a column, grouping, sorting etc.

All column references are case insensitive. A column can be referred to by its position (starting from zero). All operations are non-destructive. That means that a new table object will be returned after, for example, a sort.

Class ADT.Table.table

Description

The table base-class.


Method _indices

array(string) indices( ADT.Table.table arg )

Description

This method returns the column names for the table. The case used when the table was created will be returned.


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( ADT.Table.table arg )

Description

This method returns the number of rows in the table.


Method _values

array(array) values( ADT.Table.table arg )

Description

This method returns the contents of a table as a two dimensional array. The format is an array of rows. Each row is an array of columns.


Method `==

int res = ADT.Table.table() == table

Description

This method compares two tables. They are equal if the contents of the tables and the column names are equal. The column name comparison is case insensitive.


Method `[]

array res = ADT.Table.table()[ column ]

Description

Same as col().


Method append_bottom

object append_bottom(object table)

Description

This method appends two tables. The table given as an argument will be added at the bottom of the current table. Note, the column names must be equal. The column name comparison is case insensitive.


Method append_right

object append_right(object table)

Description

This method appends two tables. The table given as an argument will be added on the right side of the current table. Note that the number of rows in both tables must be equal.


Method col

array col(int|string column)

Description

This method returns the contents of a given column as an array.


Method create

ADT.Table.table ADT.Table.table(array(array) table, array(string) column_names, array(mapping(string:string))|void column_types)

Description

The ADT.Table.table class takes two or three arguments:

Parameter table

The first argument is a two-dimensional array consisting of one array of columns per row. All rows must have the same number of columns as specified in column_names.

Parameter column_names

This argument is an array of column names associated with each column in the table. References by column name are case insensitive. The case used in column_names will be used when the table is displayed. A column can also be referred to by its position, starting from zero.

Parameter column_types

This is an optional array of mappings. The column type information is only used when displaying the table. Currently, only the keyword "type" is recognized. The type can be specified as "text" or "num" (numerical). Text columns are left adjusted, whereas numerical columns are right adjusted. If a mapping in the array is 0 (zero), it will be assumed to be a text column. If column_types is omitted, all columns will displayed as text.

See ADT.Table.ASCII.encode() on how to display a table.

See also

ADT.Table.ASCII.encode()


Method decode

object decode(string s)

Description

This method returns a table object from a binary string representation of a table, as returned by encode().


Method distinct

this_program distinct(int|string ... columns)

Description

This method groups by the given columns and returns a table with only unique rows. When no columns are given, all rows will be unique. A new table object will be returned.


Method encode

string encode()

Description

This method returns a binary string representation of the table. It is useful when one wants to store a the table, for example in a file.


Method group

this_program group(mapping(int|string:function(:void))|function(:void) f, mixed ... args)

Description

This method calls the function f for each column each time a non uniqe row will be joined. The table will be grouped by the columns not listed. The result will be returned as a new table object.


Method limit

object limit(int n)

Description

This method truncates the table to the first n rows and returns a new object.


Method map

object map(function(:void) f, array(int|string)|int|string columns, mixed ... args)

Description

This method calls the function f for all rows in the table. The value returned will replace the values in the columns given as argument to map. If the function returns an array, several columns will be replaced. Otherwise the first column will be replaced. The result will be returned as a new table object.


Method remove

object remove(int|string ... columns)

Description

Like select(), but the given columns will not be in the resulting table.


Method rename

object rename(string|int from, string to)

Description

This method renames the column named from to to and returns a new table object. Note that from can be the column position.


Method reverse

object reverse()

Description

This method reverses the rows of the table and returns a new table object.


Method row

array row(int row_number)

Description

This method returns the contents of a given row as an array.


Method rsort

object rsort(int|string ... columns)

Description

Like sort(), but in descending order.


Method select

object select(int|string ... columns)

Description

This method returns a new table object with the selected columns only.


Method sort

object sort(int|string ... columns)

Description

This method sorts the table in ascendent order on one or several columns and returns a new table object. The left most column is sorted last. Note that the sort is stable.

See also

rsort()


Method sum

this_program sum(int|string ... columns)

Description

This method sums all equal rows. The table will be grouped by the columns not listed. The result will be returned as a new table object.


Method type

mapping type(int|string column, void|mapping type)

Description

This method gives the type for the given column.

If a second argument is given, the old type will be replaced with type. The column type is only used when the table is displayed. The format is as specified in create().


Method where

object where(array(int|string)|int|string columns, function(:void) f, mixed ... args)

Description

This method calls the function for each row. If the function returns zero, the row will be thrown away. If the function returns something non-zero, the row will be kept. The result will be returned as a new table object.

Module ADT.Table.ASCII


Method encode

string encode(object table, void|mapping options)

Description

This method returns a table represented in ASCII suitable for human eyes. options is an optional mapping. If the keyword "indent" is used with a number, the table will be indented with that number of space characters.