27. The rest

Namespace cpp::

Description

Pike has a builtin C-style preprocessor. It works similar to the ANSI-C preprocessor but has a few extra features. These and the default set of preprocessor macros are described here.

The preprocessor is usually accessed via MasterObject->compile_file() or MasterObject->compile_string(), but may be accessed directly by calling cpp().

See also

compile(), cpp(), CompilerEnvironment.CPP


Directive #elifdef
Directive #elseifdef

#elifdef
#elseifdef

Description

These work as a combined #else and #ifdef without adding an extra level of nesting.

Example

The following two are equivalent:

#ifdef A
    // Code for A.
  #else
  #ifdef B
    // Code for B.
  #else
  #ifdef C
    // Code for C.
  #else
    // Code for D.
  #endif
  #endif
  #endif

And

#ifdef A
    // Code for A.
  #elifdef B
    // Code for B.
  #elseifdef C
    // Code for C.
  #else
    // Code for D.
  #endif
See also

#if, #ifdef, #else, defined(), constant()


Directive #elifndef
Directive #elseifndef

#elifndef
#elseifndef

Description

These work as a combined #else and #ifndef without adding an extra level of nesting.

Example

The following two are equivalent:

#ifndef A
    // Code for not A.
  #else
  #ifndef B
    // Code for not B.
  #else
  #ifdef C
    // Code for not C.
  #else
    // Code for ABC.
  #endif
  #endif
  #endif

And

#ifndef A
    // Code for not A.
  #elifndef B
    // Code for not B.
  #elseifndef C
    // Code for not C.
  #else
    // Code for ABC.
  #endif
See also

#if, #ifdef, #else, defined(), constant()

Namespace predef::

Description

This is the default namespace and contains lots of global symbols.


Constant FUSE_MAJOR_VERSION
Constant FUSE_MINOR_VERSION

constant FUSE_MAJOR_VERSION
constant FUSE_MINOR_VERSION

Description

The version of FUSE


Constant HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
Constant HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
Constant HKEY_CURRENT_USER
Constant HKEY_USERS

constant int HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
constant int HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
constant int HKEY_CURRENT_USER
constant int HKEY_USERS

Description

Root handles in the Windows registry.

Note

These constants are only available on Win32 systems.

See also

RegGetValue(), RegGetValues(), RegGetKeyNames()


Method ProxyFactory

program ProxyFactory(program p)

Description

Create a class that acts as a proxy for the specified program.

Parameter p

Program to generate a proxy for.

The generated class will have the same symbols (public and private) with the same types as in p, where accesses to these will proxy the access to the same symbol in the proxied (aka wrapped) object. With the following exceptions:

protected void create(object(p) obj)

Initialize the object to act as a proxy for obj.

_sprintf(int c, mapping|void params)

Special case for c == 'O', where it will return sprintf("%O(%O)", this_program, obj), and otherwise proxy the call.

void _destruct()/void destroy()

These lfuns will not be present as the act of them being proxied would likely confuse the proxied object.

Note

The same proxy class will be returned if this function is called with the same program multiple times.


Constant TOKENIZE_KEEP_ESCAPES

constant TOKENIZE_KEEP_ESCAPES

Description

Don't unquote backslash-sequences in quoted strings during tokenizing. This is used for bug-compatibility with Microsoft...

See also

tokenize(), tokenize_labled()


Constant UNDEFINED

constant UNDEFINED

Description

The undefined value; ie a zero for which zero_type() returns 1.


Method _Static_assert

void _Static_assert(int constant_expression, string constant_message)

Description

Perform a compile-time assertion check.

If constant_expression is false, a compiler error message containing constant_message will be generated.

Note

Note that the function call compiles to the null statement, and thus does not affect the run-time.

See also

cpp::static_assert


Method __automap__

array __automap__(function(:void) fun, mixed ... args)

Description

Automap execution function.

Parameter fun

Function to call for each of the mapped arguments.

Parameter args

Arguments for fun. Either

Builtin.automap_marker

Wrapper for an array to loop over. All of the arrays will be looped over in parallel.

mixed

All other arguments will be held constant during the automap, and sent as is to fun.

Note

This function is used by the compiler to implement the automap syntax, and should in normal circumstances never be used directly.

It may however show up during module dumping and in backtraces.

Note

It is an error not to have any Builtin.automap_markers in args.

See also

Builtin.automap_marker, map()


Method __cast

mixed __cast(mixed val, string|type type_name)

Description

Cast val to the type indicated by type_name.

See also

lfun::cast()


Method __empty_program

program __empty_program(int|void line, string|void file)


Method __handle_sprintf_format

type __handle_sprintf_format(string attr, string|zero fmt, type arg_type, type cont_type, mapping state)

Description

Type attribute handler for "sprintf_format".

Parameter attr

Attribute to handle, either "sprintf_format" or "strict_sprintf_format".

Parameter fmt

Sprintf-style formatting string to generate type information from.

Parameter arg_type

Declared type of the fmt argument (typically string).

Parameter cont_type

Continuation function type after the fmt argument. This is scanned for the type attribute "sprintf_args" to determine where the remaining arguments to sprintf() will come from.

Parameter state

State mapping.

This function is typically called from PikeCompiler()->apply_attribute_constant() and is used to perform stricter compile-time argument checking of sprintf()-style functions.

It currently implements two operating modes depending on the value of attr:

"strict_sprintf_format"

The formatting string fmt is known to always be passed to sprintf().

"sprintf_format"

The formatting string fmt is passed to sprintf() only if there are "sprintf_args".

Returns

Returns cont_type with "sprintf_args" replaced by the arguments required by the fmt formatting string, and "sprintf_result" replaced by the resulting string type.

See also

PikeCompiler()->apply_attribute_constant(), sprintf()


Constant __null_program

constant __null_program

Description

Program used internally by the compiler to create objects that are later modified into instances of the compiled program by the compiler.

See also

__placeholder_object


Method __parse_pike_type

string(8bit) __parse_pike_type(string(8bit) t)


Constant __placeholder_object

constant __placeholder_object

Description

Object used internally by the compiler.

See also

__null_program


Method _equal

bool _equal(mixed o)


Method _gdb_breakpoint

void _gdb_breakpoint()

Description

This function only exists so that it is possible to set a gdb breakpoint on the function pike_gdb_breakpoint.


Method _m_delete

mixed _m_delete(mixed key)

Description

m_delete callback.


Method _random

array _random(function(:void) random_string, function(:void) random)

Description

Get a random entry.

Returns

An array ({ key, value }).


Method abs

float abs(float f)
int abs(int f)
object abs(object f)

Description

Return the absolute value for f. If f is an object it must implement lfun::`< and unary lfun::`-.


Method acos

float acos(int|float f)

Description

Return the arcus cosine value for f. The result will be in radians.

See also

cos(), asin()


Method acosh

float acosh(int|float f)

Description

Return the hyperbolic arcus cosine value for f.

See also

cosh(), asinh()


Method add_constant

void add_constant(string name, mixed value)
void add_constant(string name)

Description

Add a new predefined constant.

This function is often used to add builtin functions. All programs compiled after the add_constant() function has been called can access value by the name name.

If there is a constant called name already, it will be replaced by by the new definition. This will not affect already compiled programs.

Calling add_constant() without a value will remove that name from the list of constants. As with replacing, this will not affect already compiled programs.

See also

all_constants()


Method add_include_path

void add_include_path(string tmp)

Description

Add a directory to search for include files.

This is the same as the command line option -I.

Note

Note that the added directory will only be searched when using < > to quote the included file.

See also

remove_include_path()


Method add_module_path

void add_module_path(string path, string|void subpath)

Description

Add a directory to search for modules.

This is the same as the command line option -M.

See also

remove_module_path()

Parameter path

a string containing a path to search for Pike modules. May be a directory, or a path to a ZIP archive. If a ZIP archive path is provided, modules will be loaded from a directory, "modules" within the ZIP archive (see the subpath argument).

Parameter subpath

if path is a ZIP archive, this argument will determine the path within the archive to be searched.


Method add_program_path

void add_program_path(string tmp)

Description

Add a directory to search for programs.

This is the same as the command line option -P.

See also

remove_program_path()


Method aggregate

array aggregate(mixed ... elements)

Description

Construct an array with the arguments as indices.

This function could be written in Pike as:

array aggregate(mixed ... elems) { return elems; }
Note

Arrays are dynamically allocated there is no need to declare them like int a[10]=allocate(10); (and it isn't possible either) like in C, just array(int) a=allocate(10); will do.

See also

sizeof(), arrayp(), allocate()


Method aggregate_mapping

mapping aggregate_mapping(mixed ... elems)

Description

Construct a mapping.

Groups the arguments together two and two in key-index pairs and creates a mapping of those pairs. Generally, the mapping literal syntax is handier: ([ key1:val1, key2:val2, ... ])

See also

sizeof(), mappingp(), mkmapping()


Method aggregate_multiset

multiset aggregate_multiset(mixed ... elems)

Description

Construct a multiset with the arguments as indices. The multiset will not contain any values. This method is most useful when constructing multisets with map or similar; generally, the multiset literal syntax is handier: (<elem1, elem2, ...>) With it, it's also possible to construct a multiset with values: (<index1: value1, index2: value2, ...>)

See also

sizeof(), multisetp(), mkmultiset()


Method all_constants

mapping(string:mixed) all_constants()

Description

Returns a mapping containing all global constants, indexed on the name of the constant, and with the value of the constant as value.

See also

add_constant()


Method allocate

array allocate(int size)
array allocate(int size, mixed init)

Description

Allocate an array of size elements. If init is specified then each element is initialized by copying that value recursively.

See also

sizeof(), aggregate(), arrayp()


Method array_sscanf

array array_sscanf(string data, string format)

Description

This function works just like sscanf(), but returns the matched results in an array instead of assigning them to lvalues. This is often useful for user-defined sscanf strings.

See also

sscanf(), `/()


Method asin

float asin(int|float f)

Description

Return the arcus sine value for f. The result will be in radians.

See also

sin(), acos()


Method asinh

float asinh(int|float f)

Description

Return the hyperbolic arcus sine value for f.

See also

sinh(), acosh()


Method atan

float atan(int|float f)

Description

Returns the arcus tangent value for f. The result will be in radians.

See also

tan(), asin(), acos(), atan2()


Method atan2

float atan2(float f1, float f2)

Description

Returns the arcus tangent value for f1/f2, and uses the signs of f1 and f2 to determine the quadrant. The result will be in radians.

See also

tan(), asin(), acos(), atan()


Method atanh

float atanh(int|float f)

Description

Returns the hyperbolic arcus tangent value for f.

See also

tanh(), asinh(), acosh()


Method atomic_get_set

mixed atomic_get_set(mapping|object map, mixed key, mixed val)
mixed atomic_get_set(array arr, int index, mixed val)

Description

Replace atomically the value for a key in a mapping or array.

Parameter map
Parameter arr

Mapping or array to alter.

Parameter key
Parameter index

Key or index to change the value for.

Parameter val

Value to change to. If value is UNDEFINED and map is a mapping this function function behaves exactly as m_delete(map, key).

Returns

Returns the previous value for key. If map is a mapping and there was no previous value UNDEFINED is returned.

If map is an object lfun::_m_replace() will be called in it.

See also

m_delete()


Method basetype

string basetype(mixed x)

Description

Same as sprintf("%t",x);

See also

sprintf()


Method bkey

string bkey(mixed key)

Description

Render the internally used binary representation of the key into a string as a strings of '0's and '1's.


Method cast

mapping cast(string type)

Description

Cast callback. Supports only cast to mapping and behaves as the inverse of create().


Method ceil

float ceil(int|float f)

Description

Return the closest integer value greater or equal to f.

Note

ceil() does not return an int, merely an integer value stored in a float.

See also

floor(), round()


Method column

array column(array data, mixed index)

Description

Extract a column from a two-dimensional array.

This function is exactly equivalent to:

map(data, lambda(mixed x,mixed y) { return x[y]; }, index)

Except of course it is a lot shorter and faster. That is, it indices every index in the array data on the value of the argument index and returns an array with the results.

See also

rows()


Method compile

program compile(string source, CompilationHandler|void handler, int|void major, int|void minor, program|void target, object|void placeholder)

Description

Compile a string to a program.

This function takes a piece of Pike code as a string and compiles it into a clonable program.

The optional argument handler is used to specify an alternative error handler. If it is not specified the current master object will be used.

The optional arguments major and minor are used to tell the compiler to attempt to be compatible with Pike major.minor.

Note

Note that source must contain the complete source for a program. It is not possible to compile a single expression or statement.

Also note that compile() does not preprocess the program. To preprocess the program you can use compile_string() or call the preprocessor manually by calling cpp().

See also

compile_string(), compile_file(), cpp(), master(), CompilationHandler, DefaultCompilerEnvironment


Method compile

protected program compile(string source, object|void handler, int|void major, int|void minor, program|void target, object|void placeholder)


Method compile_file

program compile_file(string filename, object|void handler, void|program p, void|object o)

Description

Compile the Pike code contained in the file filename into a program.

This function will compile the file filename to a Pike program that can later be instantiated. It is the same as doing compile_string(Stdio.read_file(filename), filename).

See also

compile(), compile_string(), cpp()


Method compile_string

program compile_string(string source, void|string filename, object|void handler, void|program p, void|object o, void|int _show_if_constant_errors)

Description

Compile the Pike code in the string source into a program. If filename is not specified, it will default to "-".

Functionally equal to compile(cpp(sourcefilename)).

See also

compile(), cpp(), compile_file()


Method copy_value

mixed copy_value(mixed value)

Description

Copy a value recursively.

If the result value is changed destructively (only possible for multisets, arrays and mappings) the copied value will not be changed.

The resulting value will always be equal to the copied (as tested with the function equal()), but they may not the the same value (as tested with `==()).

See also

equal()


Method cos

float cos(int|float f)

Description

Return the cosine value for f. f should be specified in radians.

See also

acos(), sin(), tan()


Method cosh

float cosh(int|float f)

Description

Return the hyperbolic cosine value for f.

See also

acosh(), sinh(), tanh()


Method cpp

string cpp(string data, mapping|string|void current_file, int|string|void charset, object|void handler, void|int compat_major, void|int compat_minor, void|int picky_cpp)

Description

Run a string through the preprocessor.

Preprocesses the string data with Pike's builtin ANSI-C look-alike preprocessor. If the current_file argument has not been specified, it will default to "-". charset defaults to "ISO-10646".

If the second argument is a mapping, no other arguments may follow. Instead, they have to be given as members of the mapping (if wanted). The following members are recognized:

"current_file" : string

Name of the current file. It is used for generating #line directives and for locating include files.

"charset" : int|string

Charset to use when processing data.

"handler" : object

Compilation handler.

"compat_major" : int

Sets the major pike version used for compat handling.

"compat_minor" : int

Sets the minor pike version used for compat handling.

"picky_cpp" : int

Generate more warnings.

"keep_comments" : int

This option keeps cpp() from removing comments. Useful in combination with the prefix feature below.

"prefix" : string

If a prefix is given, only prefixed directives will be processed. For example, if the prefix is "foo", then #foo_ifdef COND and foo___LINE__ would be processed, #ifdef COND and __LINE__ would not.

"predefines" : mapping(string:mixed)

Mapping of predefined macros in addition to those returned by CPP()->get_predefines().

See also

compile()


Method cpp

protected string cpp(string data, mapping|string|void current_file, int|string|void charset, object|void handler, void|int compat_major, void|int compat_minor, void|int picky_cpp)


Method ctime

string ctime(int timestamp)

Description

Convert the output from a previous call to time() into a readable string containing the current year, month, day and time.

Like localtime, this function might throw an error if the ctime(2) call failed on the system. It's platform dependent what time ranges that function can handle, e.g. Windows doesn't handle a negative timestamp.

See also

strftime(), time(), localtime(), gmtime(), mktime()


Method decode_value

mixed decode_value(string coded_value, void|Codec|int(-1..-1) codec)

Description

Decode a value from the string coded_value.

This function takes a string created with encode_value() or encode_value_canonic() and converts it back to the value that was coded.

If codec is specified, it's used as the codec for the decode. If none is specified, then one is instantiated through master()->Decoder(). As a compatibility fallback, the master itself is used if it has no Decoder class. If codec is the special value -1, then decoding of types, functions, programs and objects is disabled.

Note

Decoding a coded_value that you have not generated yourself is a security risk that can lead to execution of arbitrary code, unless codec is specified as -1.

See also

encode_value(), encode_value_canonic()


Method delay

void delay(int|float s)

Description

This function makes the thread stop for s seconds.

Only signal handlers can interrupt the sleep. Other callbacks are not called during delay. Beware that this function uses busy-waiting to achieve the highest possible accuracy.

See also

signal(), sleep()


Method depth

int(0..) depth()

Description

Calculate the depth of the tree.


Method describe_backtrace

string describe_backtrace(mixed trace, void|int linewidth)

Description

Return a readable message that describes where the backtrace trace was made (by backtrace).

It may also be an error object or array (typically caught by a catch), in which case the error message also is included in the description.

Pass linewidth -1 to disable wrapping of the output.

See also

backtrace(), describe_error(), catch(), throw()


Method describe_error

string describe_error(mixed err)

Description

Return the error message from an error object or array (typically caught by a catch). The type of the error is checked, hence err is declared as mixed and not object|array.

If an error message couldn't be obtained, a fallback message describing the failure is returned. No errors due to incorrectness in err are thrown.

See also

describe_backtrace(), get_backtrace


Method destruct

bool destruct(void|object o)

Description

Mark an object as destructed.

Calls o->_destruct(), and then clears all variables in the object. If no argument is given, the current object is destructed.

All pointers and function pointers to this object will become zero. The destructed object will be freed from memory as soon as possible.

Returns

Returns 1 if o has an lfun::_destruct() that returned 1 and inhibited destruction.


Method encode_value

string encode_value(mixed value, Codec|void codec)

Description

Code a value into a string.

This function takes a value, and converts it to a string. This string can then be saved, sent to another Pike process, packed or used in any way you like. When you want your value back you simply send this string to decode_value() and it will return the value you encoded.

Almost any value can be coded, mappings, floats, arrays, circular structures etc.

If codec is specified, it's used as the codec for the encode. If none is specified, then one is instantiated through master()->Encoder(). As a compatibility fallback, the master itself is used if it has no Encoder class.

If codec->nameof(o) returns UNDEFINED for an object, val = o->encode_object(o) will be called. The returned value will be passed to o->decode_object(o, val) when the object is decoded.

Note

When only simple types like int, floats, strings, mappings, multisets and arrays are encoded, the produced string is very portable between pike versions. It can at least be read by any later version.

The portability when objects, programs and functions are involved depends mostly on the codec. If the byte code is encoded, i.e. when Pike programs are actually dumped in full, then the string can probably only be read by the same pike version.

See also

decode_value(), sprintf(), encode_value_canonic()


Method encode_value_canonic

string encode_value_canonic(mixed value, object|void codec)

Description

Code a value into a string on canonical form.

Takes a value and converts it to a string on canonical form, much like encode_value(). The canonical form means that if an identical value is encoded, it will produce exactly the same string again, even if it's done at a later time and/or in another Pike process. The produced string is compatible with decode_value().

Note

Note that this function is more restrictive than encode_value() with respect to the types of values it can encode. It will throw an error if it can't encode to a canonical form.

See also

encode_value(), decode_value()


Method enumerate

array(int) enumerate(int n)
array enumerate(int n, void|mixed step, void|mixed start, void|function(:void) operator)

Description

Create an array with an enumeration, useful for initializing arrays or as first argument to map() or foreach().

The defaults are: step = 1, start = 0, operator = `+

Advanced use

The resulting array is calculated like this:

array enumerate(int n, mixed step, mixed start, function operator)
{
  array res = allocate(n);
  for (int i=0; i < n; i++)
  {
    res[i] = start;
    start = operator(start, step);
  }
  return res;
}
See also

map(), foreach()


Method equal

int equal(mixed a, mixed b)

Description

This function checks if the values a and b are equivalent.

Returns

If either of the values is an object the (normalized) result of calling lfun::_equal() will be returned.

Returns 1 if both values are false (zero, destructed objects, prototype functions, etc).

Returns 0 (zero) if the values have different types.

Otherwise depending on the type of the values:

int

Returns the same as a == b.

array

The contents of a and b are checked recursively, and if all their contents are equal and in the same place, they are considered equal.

Note that for objects this case is only reached if neither a nor b implements lfun::_equal().

type

Returns (a <= b) && (b <= a).

See also

copy_value(), `==()


Method error

void error(sprintf_format f, sprintf_args ... args)

Description

Throws an error. A more readable version of the code throw( ({ sprintf(f, @args), backtrace() }) ).


Constant is_gssapi_error
Constant error_type

constant int is_gssapi_error
constant string error_type

Description

Object recognition constants.


Constant is_gssapi_missing_services_error
Constant error_type

constant int is_gssapi_missing_services_error
constant string error_type

Description

Object recognition constants.


Method exp

float exp(float|int f)

Description

Return the natural exponential of f. log( exp( x ) ) == x as long as exp(x) doesn't overflow an int.

See also

pow(), log()


Method filter

mixed filter(mixed arr, void|mixed fun, mixed ... extra)

Description

Filters the elements in arr through fun.

arr is treated as a set of elements to be filtered, as follows:

array
multiset
string

Each element is filtered with fun. The return value is of the same type as arr and it contains the elements that fun accepted. fun is applied in order to each element, and that order is retained between the kept elements.

If fun is an array, it should have the same length as arr. In this case, the elements in arr are kept where the corresponding positions in fun are nonzero. Otherwise fun is used as described below.

mapping

The values are filtered with fun, and the index/value pairs it accepts are kept in the returned mapping.

program

The program is treated as a mapping containing the identifiers that are indexable from it and their values.

object

If there is a lfun::cast method in the object, it's called to try to cast the object to an array, a mapping, or a multiset, in that order, which is then filtered as described above.

Unless something else is mentioned above, fun is used as filter like this:

function

fun is called for each element. It gets the current element as the first argument and extra as the rest. The element is kept if it returns true, otherwise it's filtered out.

object

The object is used as a function like above, i.e. the lfun::`() method in it is called.

multiset
mapping

fun is indexed with each element. The element is kept if the result is nonzero, otherwise it's filtered out.

"zero or left out"

Each element that is callable is called with extra as arguments. The element is kept if the result of the call is nonzero, otherwise it's filtered out. Elements that aren't callable are also filtered out.

string

Each element is indexed with the given string. If the result of that is zero then the element is filtered out, otherwise the result is called with extra as arguments. The element is kept if the return value is nonzero, otherwise it's filtered out.

This is typically used when arr is a collection of objects, and fun is the name of some predicate function in them.

Note

The function is never destructive on arr.

See also

map(), foreach()


Method floor

float floor(int|float f)

Description

Return the closest integer value less or equal to f.

Note

floor() does not return an int, merely an integer value stored in a float.

See also

ceil(), round()


Method get_active_compilation_handler

CompilationHandler get_active_compilation_handler()

Description

Returns the currently active compilation compatibility handler, or 0 (zero) if none is active.

Note

This function should only be used during a call of compile().

See also

get_active_error_handler(), compile(), master()->get_compilation_handler(), CompilationHandler


Method get_active_compiler

CompilerEnvironment.PikeCompiler|zero get_active_compiler()

Description

Returns the most recent of the currently active pike compilers, or UNDEFINED if none is active.

Note

This function should only be used during a call of compile().

See also

get_active_error_handler(), compile(), master()->get_compilation_handler(), CompilationHandler


Method get_active_error_handler

CompilationHandler get_active_error_handler()

Description

Returns the currently active compilation error handler (second argument to compile()), or 0 (zero) if none is active.

Note

This function should only be used during a call of compile().

See also

get_active_compilation_handler(), compile(), CompilationHandler


Method get_all_groups

array(array(int|string|array(string))) get_all_groups()

Description

Returns an array of arrays with all groups in the system groups source. Each element in the returned array has the same structure as in getgrent function.

Note

The groups source is system dependant. Refer to your system manuals for information about how to set the source.

Returns
Array
array(int|string|array(string)) 0..

Array with info about the group

See also

getgrent()


Method get_all_users

array(array(int|string)) get_all_users()

Description

Returns an array with all users in the system.

Returns

An array with arrays of userinfo as in getpwent.

See also

getpwent() getpwnam() getpwuid()


Method get_backtrace

array get_backtrace(object|array err)

Description

Return the backtrace array from an error object or array (typically caught by a catch), or zero if there is none. Errors are thrown on if there are problems retrieving the backtrace.

See also

describe_backtrace(), describe_error()


Method get_groups_for_user

array(int) get_groups_for_user(int|string user)

Description

Gets all groups which a given user is a member of.

Parameter user

UID or loginname of the user

Returns
Array
array 0..

Information about all the users groups

See also

get_all_groups() getgrgid() getgrnam() getpwuid() getpwnam()


Method get_iterator

Iterator get_iterator(object|array|mapping|multiset|string data, mixed ... args)

Description

Creates and returns a canonical iterator for data.

Returns
data can have any of the following types:
object

If data is an object with lfun::_get_iterator defined then it's called in it with the arguments args to create the iterator.

If data is an object that lacks lfun::_get_iterator then it's assumed to already be an iterator object, and is simply returned.

array

If data is an array, an Array.Iterator object will be returned.

mapping

If data is a mapping, a Mapping.Iterator object will be returned

multiset

If data is a multiset, a Multiset.Iterator object will be returned

string

If data is a string, a String.Iterator object will be returned

Note

This function is used by foreach to get an iterator for an object.

See also

Iterator, lfun::_get_iterator


Method getenv

mapping(string:string) getenv(void|int force_update)

Description

Queries the environment variables.

Parameter force_update

A cached copy of the real environment is kept to make this function quicker. If the optional flag force_update is nonzero then the real environment is queried and the cache is updated from it. That can be necessary if the environment changes through other means than putenv, typically from a C-level library.

Returns

Returns the whole environment as a mapping. Destructive operations on the mapping will not affect the internal environment representation.

Variable names and values cannot be wide strings nor contain '\0' characters. Variable names also cannot contain '=' characters.

Note

On NT the environment variable name is case insensitive.

See also

putenv()


Method getenv

string getenv(string varname, void|int force_update)

Description

Query the value of a specific environment variable.

Parameter varname

Environment variable to query.

Parameter force_update

A cached copy of the real environment is kept to make this function quicker. If the optional flag force_update is nonzero then the real environment is queried and the cache is updated from it. That can be necessary if the environment changes through other means than putenv, typically from a C-level library.

Returns

Returns the value of the environment variable varname if it exists, and 0 (zero) otherwise.

Variable names and values cannot be wide strings nor contain '\0' characters. Variable names also cannot contain '=' characters.

Note

On NT the environment variable name is case insensitive.

See also

putenv()


Method getgrgid

array(int|string|array(string)) getgrgid(int gid)

Description

Get the group entry for the group with the id gid using the systemfunction getgrid(3).

Parameter gid

The id of the group

Returns

An array with the information about the group

Array
string 0

Group name

string 1

Group password (encrypted)

int 2

ID of the group

array 3..

Array with UIDs of group members

See also

getgrent() getgrnam()


Method getgrnam

array(int|string|array(string)) getgrnam(string str)

Description

Get the group entry for the group with the name str using the systemfunction getgrnam(3).

Parameter str

The name of the group

Returns

An array with the information about the group

Array
string 0

Group name

string 1

Group password (encrypted)

int 2

ID of the group

array 3..

Array with UIDs of group members

See also

getgrent() getgrgid()


Method gethrdtime

int gethrdtime(void|int nsec)

Description

Return the high resolution real time spent with threads disabled since the Pike interpreter was started. The time is normally returned in microseconds, but if the optional argument nsec is nonzero it's returned in nanoseconds.

Note

The actual accuracy on many systems is significantly less than microseconds or nanoseconds. See System.REAL_TIME_RESOLUTION.

See also

_disable_threads(), gethrtime()


Method gethrtime

int gethrtime(void|int nsec)

Description

Return the high resolution real time since some arbitrary event in the past. The time is normally returned in microseconds, but if the optional argument nsec is nonzero it's returned in nanoseconds.

It's system dependent whether or not this time is monotonic, i.e. if it's unaffected by adjustments of the calendaric clock in the system. System.REAL_TIME_IS_MONOTONIC tells what it is. Pike tries to use monotonic time for this function if it's available.

Note

The actual accuracy on many systems is significantly less than microseconds or nanoseconds. See System.REAL_TIME_RESOLUTION.

See also

System.REAL_TIME_IS_MONOTONIC, System.REAL_TIME_RESOLUTION, time(), System.gettimeofday(), gethrvtime(), Pike.implicit_gc_real_time


Method gethrvtime

int gethrvtime(void|int nsec)

Description

Return the CPU time that has been consumed by this process or thread. -1 is returned if the system couldn't determine it. The time is normally returned in microseconds, but if the optional argument nsec is nonzero it's returned in nanoseconds.

The CPU time includes both user and system time, i.e. it's approximately the same thing you would get by adding together the "utime" and "stime" fields returned by System.getrusage (but perhaps with better accuracy).

It's however system dependent whether or not it's the time consumed in all threads or in the current one only; System.CPU_TIME_IS_THREAD_LOCAL tells which. If both types are available then thread local time is preferred.

Note

The actual accuracy on many systems is significantly less than microseconds or nanoseconds. See System.CPU_TIME_RESOLUTION.

Note

The garbage collector might run automatically at any time. The time it takes is not included in the figure returned by this function, so that normal measurements aren't randomly clobbered by it. Explicit calls to gc are still included, though.

Note

The special function gauge is implemented with this function.

See also

System.CPU_TIME_IS_THREAD_LOCAL, System.CPU_TIME_RESOLUTION, gauge(), System.getrusage(), gethrtime()


Method getpid

int getpid()

Description

Returns the process ID of this process.

See also

System.getppid(), System.getpgrp()


Method getpwnam

array(int|string) getpwnam(string str)

Description

Get the user entry for login str using the systemfunction getpwnam(3).

Parameter str

The login name of the user whos userrecord is requested.

Returns

An array with the information about the user

Array
string 0

Users username (loginname)

string 1

User password (encrypted)

int 2

Users ID

int 3

Users primary group ID

string 4

Users real name an possibly some other info

string 5

Users home directory

string 6

Users shell

See also

getpwuid() getpwent()


Method getpwuid

array(int|string) getpwuid(int uid)

Description

Get the user entry for UID uid using the systemfunction getpwuid(3).

Parameter uid

The uid of the user whos userrecord is requested.

Returns

An array with the information about the user

Array
string 0

Users username (loginname)

string 1

User password (encrypted)

int 2

Users ID

int 3

Users primary group ID

string 4

Users real name an possibly some other info

string 5

Users home directory

string 6

Users shell

See also

getpwnam() getpwent()


Method getxattr

string getxattr(string file, string attr, void|bool symlink)

Description

Return the value of a specified attribute, or 0 if it does not exist.


Method glob

bool glob(string glob, string str)
string glob(array(string) glob, string str)
array(string) glob(string glob, array(string) str)
array(string) glob(array(string) glob, array(string) str)

Description

Match strings against a glob pattern.

Parameter glob
string

The glob pattern. A question sign ('?') matches any character and an asterisk ('*') matches a string of arbitrary length. All other characters only match themselves.

array(string)

the function returns the matching glob if any of the given patterns match. Otherwise 0. If the second argument is an array it will behave as if the first argument is a string (see below)

Parameter str
string

1 is returned if the string str matches glob, 0 (zero) otherwise.

array(string)

All strings in the array str are matched against glob, and those that match are returned in an array (in the same order).

See also

sscanf(), Regexp


Method gmtime

mapping(string:int) gmtime(int timestamp)

Description

Convert seconds since 00:00:00 UTC, Jan 1, 1970 into components.

This function works like localtime() but the result is not adjusted for the local time zone.

See also

localtime(), time(), ctime(), mktime(), strptime()


Method has_index

int has_index(string haystack, int index)
int has_index(array haystack, int index)
int has_index(mapping|multiset|object|program haystack, mixed index)

Description

Search for index in haystack.

Returns

Returns 1 if index is in the index domain of haystack, or 0 (zero) if not found.

This function is equivalent to (but sometimes faster than):

search(indices(haystack), index) != -1
Note

A negative index in strings and arrays as recognized by the index operators `[]() and `[]=() is not considered a proper index by has_index()

See also

has_value(), has_prefix(), has_suffix(), indices(), search(), values(), zero_type()


Method has_prefix

int has_prefix(string|object s, string prefix)

Description

Returns 1 if the string s starts with prefix, returns 0 (zero) otherwise.

When s is an object, it needs to implement lfun::_sizeof() and lfun::`[].

See also

has_suffix(), has_value(), search()


Method has_suffix

int has_suffix(string s, string suffix)

Description

Returns 1 if the string s ends with suffix, returns 0 (zero) otherwise.

See also

has_prefix(), has_value(), search()


Method has_value

int has_value(string haystack, string value)
int has_value(string haystack, int value)
int has_value(array|mapping|object|program haystack, mixed value)

Description

Search for value in haystack.

Returns

Returns 1 if value is in the value domain of haystack, or 0 (zero) if not found.

This function is in all cases except when both arguments are strings equivalent to (but sometimes faster than):

search(values(haystack), value) != -1

If both arguments are strings, has_value() is equivalent to:

search(haystack, value) != -1
See also

has_index(), indices(), search(), has_prefix(), has_suffix(), values(), zero_type()


Method hash

int hash(string s)
int hash(string s, int max)

Description

Return an integer derived from the string s. The same string always hashes to the same value, also between processes, architectures, and Pike versions (see compatibility notes below, though).

If max is given, the result will be >= 0 and < max, otherwise the result will be >= 0 and <= 0x7fffffff.

Note

The hash algorithm was changed in Pike 8.1. If you want a hash that is compatible with Pike 8.0 and earlier, use hash_8_0().

The hash algorithm was also changed in Pike 7.5. If you want a hash that is compatible with Pike 7.4 and earlier, use hash_7_4(). The difference with regards to hash_8_0() only affects wide strings.

The hash algorithm was also changed in Pike 7.1. If you want a hash that is compatible with Pike 7.0 and earlier, use hash_7_0().

Note

This hash function differs from the one provided by hash_value(), in that hash_value() returns a process specific value.

See also

hash_7_0(), hash_7_4(), hash_8_0(), hash_value


Method hash_7_0

int hash_7_0(string s)
int hash_7_0(string s, int max)

Description

Return an integer derived from the string s. The same string always hashes to the same value, also between processes.

If max is given, the result will be >= 0 and < max, otherwise the result will be >= 0 and <= 0x7fffffff.

Note

This function is provided for backward compatibility with code written for Pike up and including version 7.0.

This function is not NUL-safe, and is byte-order dependant.

See also

hash(), hash_7_4


Method hash_7_4

int hash_7_4(string s)
int hash_7_4(string s, int max)

Description

Return an integer derived from the string s. The same string always hashes to the same value, also between processes.

If max is given, the result will be >= 0 and < max, otherwise the result will be >= 0 and <= 0x7fffffff.

Note

This function is provided for backward compatibility with code written for Pike up and including version 7.4.

This function is byte-order dependant for wide strings.

See also

hash_7_6(), hash_7_0


Method hash_8_0

int hash_8_0(string s)
int hash_8_0(string s, int max)

Description

Return an integer derived from the string s. The same string always hashes to the same value, also between processes, architectures, and Pike versions (see compatibility notes below, though).

If max is given, the result will be >= 0 and < max, otherwise the result will be >= 0 and <= 0x7fffffff.

Deprecated

Use hash_value() for in-process hashing (eg, for implementing lfun::_hash()) or one of the cryptographic hash functions.

Note

This function is really bad at hashing strings. Similar string often return similar hash values.

It is especially bad for url:s, paths and similarly formatted strings.

Note

The hash algorithm was changed in Pike 7.5. If you want a hash that is compatible with Pike 7.4 and earlier, use hash_7_4(). The difference only affects wide strings.

The hash algorithm was also changed in Pike 7.1. If you want a hash that is compatible with Pike 7.0 and earlier, use hash_7_0().

Note

This hash function differs from the one provided by hash_value(), in that hash_value() returns a process specific value.

See also

hash(), hash_7_0(), hash_7_4(), hash_value


Method hash_value

int hash_value(mixed value)

Description

Return a hash value for the argument. It's an integer in the native integer range.

The hash will be the same for the same value in the running process only (the memory address is typically used as the basis for the hash value).

If the value is an object with an lfun::__hash, that function is called and its result returned.

Note

This is the hashing method used by mappings.

See also

lfun::__hash()


Method is_absolute_path

int is_absolute_path(string p)

Description

Check if a path p is fully qualified (ie not relative).

Returns

Returns 1 if the path is absolute, 0 otherwise.


Constant is_sql_null

constant int is_sql_null

Description

SQL Null marker.

Deprecated

Replaced by is_val_null.


Constant is_val_null

constant int is_val_null

Description

Nonzero recognition constant.


Method iterator_index

mixed iterator_index(object iter)

Description

Get the current index for iter.

See also

get_iterator()


Method iterator_next

bool iterator_next(object iter)

Description

Advance iter one step.

See also

get_iterator()


Method iterator_value

mixed iterator_value(object iter)

Description

Get the current value for iter.

See also

get_iterator()


Method kill

bool kill(int pid, int signal)

Description

Send a signal to another process.

Some signals and their supposed purpose:

SIGHUP

Hang-up, sent to process when user logs out.

SIGINT

Interrupt, normally sent by ctrl-c.

SIGQUIT

Quit, sent by ctrl-\.

SIGILL

Illegal instruction.

SIGTRAP

Trap, mostly used by debuggers.

SIGABRT

Aborts process, can be caught, used by Pike whenever something goes seriously wrong.

SIGEMT

Emulation trap.

SIGFPE

Floating point error (such as division by zero).

SIGKILL

Really kill a process, cannot be caught.

SIGBUS

Bus error.

SIGSEGV

Segmentation fault, caused by accessing memory where you shouldn't. Should never happen to Pike.

SIGSYS

Bad system call. Should never happen to Pike.

SIGPIPE

Broken pipe.

SIGALRM

Signal used for timer interrupts.

SIGTERM

Termination signal.

SIGUSR1

Signal reserved for whatever you want to use it for. Note that some OSs reserve this signal for the thread library.

SIGUSR2

Signal reserved for whatever you want to use it for. Note that some OSs reserve this signal for the thread library.

SIGCHLD

Child process died. This signal is reserved for internal use by the Pike run-time.

SIGPWR

Power failure or restart.

SIGWINCH

Window change signal.

SIGURG

Urgent socket data.

SIGIO

Pollable event.

SIGSTOP

Stop (suspend) process.

SIGTSTP

Stop (suspend) process. Sent by ctrl-z.

SIGCONT

Continue suspended.

SIGTTIN

TTY input for background process.

SIGTTOU

TTY output for background process.

SIGVTALRM

Virtual timer expired.

SIGPROF

Profiling trap.

SIGXCPU

Out of CPU.

SIGXFSZ

File size limit exceeded.

SIGSTKFLT

Stack fault

Returns
1

Success.

0

Failure. errno() is set to EINVAL, EPERM or ESRCH.

Note

Note that you have to use signame to translate the name of a signal to its number.

Note that the kill function is not available on platforms that do not support signals. Some platforms may also have signals not listed here.

See also

signal(), signum(), signame(), fork()


Method limit

int|float|object limit(int|float|object minval, int|float|object x, int|float|object maxval)

Description

Limits the value x so that it's between minval and maxval. If x is an object, it must implement the lfun::`< method.

See also

max() and min()


Method listxattr

array(string) listxattr(string file, void|bool symlink)

Description

Return an array of all extended attributes set on the file


Method load_module

program load_module(string module_name)

Description

Load a binary module.

This function loads a module written in C or some other language into Pike. The module is initialized and any programs or constants defined will immediately be available.

When a module is loaded the C function pike_module_init() will be called to initialize it. When Pike exits pike_module_exit() will be called. These two functions must be available in the module.

Note

The current working directory is normally not searched for dynamic modules. Please use "./name.so" instead of just "name.so" to load modules from the current directory.


Method localtime

mapping(string:int) localtime(int timestamp)

Description

Convert seconds since 00:00:00 UTC, 1 Jan 1970 into components.

Returns

This function returns a mapping with the following components:

"sec" : int(0..60)

Seconds over the minute.

"min" : int(0..59)

Minutes over the hour.

"hour" : int(0..23)

Hour of the day.

"mday" : int(1..31)

Day of the month.

"mon" : int(0..11)

Month of the year.

"year" : int(0..)

Year since 1900.

"wday" : int(0..6)

Day of week (0 = Sunday).

"yday" : int(0..365)

Day of the year.

"isdst" : bool

Is daylight-saving time active.

"timezone" : int

Offset from UTC, including daylight-saving time adjustment.

An error is thrown if the localtime(2) call failed on the system. It's platform dependent what time ranges that function can handle, e.g. Windows doesn't handle a negative timestamp.

Note

Prior to Pike 7.5 the field "timezone" was sometimes not present, and was sometimes not adjusted for daylight-saving time.

See also

Calendar, gmtime(), time(), ctime(), mktime(), strptime()


Method log

float log(int|float f)

Description

Return the natural logarithm of f. exp( log(x) ) == x for x > 0.

See also

pow(), exp()


Method lower_case

string lower_case(string s)
int lower_case(int c)

Description

Convert a string or character to lower case.

Returns

Returns a copy of the string s with all upper case characters converted to lower case, or the character c converted to lower case.

Note

Assumes the string or character to be coded according to ISO-10646 (aka Unicode). If they are not, Charset.decoder can do the initial conversion for you.

Note

Prior to Pike 7.5 this function only accepted strings.

See also

upper_case(), Charset.decoder


Method m_add

void m_add(multiset|object l, mixed val)

Description

Add a member to a multiset.

See also

m_delete()


Method m_clear

void m_clear(mapping|multiset|object map)

Description

Clear the contents of a mapping or multiset.

This function clears the content of the mapping or multiset map so that it becomes empty. This is an atomic operation.

If map is an object lfun::_m_clear() will be called in it.

See also

m_delete()


Method m_delete

mixed m_delete(object|mapping|multiset map, mixed index)

Description

If map is an object that implements lfun::_m_delete(), that function will be called with index as its single argument.

Otherwise if map is a mapping or multiset the entry with index index will be removed from map destructively.

If the mapping or multiset does not have an entry with index index, nothing is done.

Returns

The value that was removed will be returned, and UNDEFINED otherwise.

Note

Note that m_delete() changes map destructively.

See also

mappingp()


Method map

mixed map(mixed arr, void|mixed fun, mixed ... extra)

Description

Applies fun to the elements in arr and collects the results.

arr is treated as a set of elements, as follows:

array
multiset
string

fun is applied in order to each element. The results are collected, also in order, to a value of the same type as arr, which is returned.

mapping

fun is applied to the values, and each result is assigned to the same index in a new mapping, which is returned.

program

The program is treated as a mapping containing the identifiers that are indexable from it and their values.

object

If there is a lfun::cast method in the object, it's called to try to cast the object to an array, a mapping, or a multiset, in that order, which is then handled as described above.

fun is applied in different ways depending on its type:

function

fun is called for each element. It gets the current element as the first argument and extra as the rest. The result of the call is collected.

object

fun is used as a function like above, i.e. the lfun::`() method in it is called.

array

Each element of the fun array will be called for each element of arr.

multiset
mapping

fun is indexed with each element. The result of that is collected.

"zero or left out"

Each element that is callable is called with extra as arguments. The result of the calls are collected. Elements that aren't callable gets zero as result.

string

Each element is indexed with the given string. If the result of that is zero then a zero is collected, otherwise it's called with extra as arguments and the result of that call is collected.

This is typically used when arr is a collection of objects, and fun is the name of some function in them.

Note

The function is never destructive on arr.

See also

filter(), enumerate(), foreach()


Method master

object master()

Description

Return the current master object.

Note

May return UNDEFINED if no master has been loaded yet.

See also

replace_master()


Method max

int|float|object max(int|float|object, int|float|object ... args)
string max(string, string ... args)
int(0..0) max()

Description

Returns the largest value among args. Compared objects must implement the lfun::`< method.

See also

min() and limit()


Method min

int|float|object min(int|float|object, int|float|object ... args)
string min(string, string ... args)
int(0..0) min()

Description

Returns the smallest value among args. Compared objects must implement the lfun::`< method.

See also

max() and limit()


Method mkmapping

mapping mkmapping(array ind, array val)

Description

Make a mapping from two arrays.

Makes a mapping ind[x]:val[x], 0 <= x < sizeof(ind).

ind and val must have the same size.

This is the inverse operation of indices() and values().

See also

indices(), values()


Method mkmultiset

multiset mkmultiset(array a)

Description

This function creates a multiset from an array.

See also

aggregate_multiset()


Method mktime

int mktime(mapping(string:int) tm)
int mktime(int sec, int min, int hour, int mday, int mon, int year, int|void isdst, int|void tz)

Description

This function converts information about date and time into an integer which contains the number of seconds since 00:00:00 UTC, Jan 1, 1970.

You can either call this function with a mapping containing the following elements:

"sec" : int(0..60)

Seconds over the minute.

"min" : int(0..59)

Minutes over the hour.

"hour" : int(0..23)

Hour of the day.

"mday" : int(1..31)

Day of the month.

"mon" : int(0..11)

Month of the year.

"year" : int(0..)

Year since 1900.

"isdst" : int(-1..1)

Is daylight-saving time active. If omitted or set to -1, it means that the information is not available.

"timezone" : int

The timezone offset from UTC in seconds. If omitted, the time will be calculated in the local timezone.

Or you can just send them all on one line as the second syntax suggests.

Note

For proper UTC calculations ensure that isdst = 0 and timezone = 0; omitting either one of these parameters will mess up the UTC calculation.

Note

On some operating systems (notably AIX and Win32), dates before 00:00:00 UTC, Jan 1, 1970 are not supported.

On most 32-bit systems, the supported range of dates is from Dec 13, 1901 20:45:52 UTC through to Jan 19, 2038 03:14:07 UTC (inclusive).

On most 64-bit systems, the supported range of dates is expressed in 56 bits and is thus practically unlimited (at least up to 1141 milion years in the past and into the future).

See also

time(), ctime(), localtime(), gmtime(), strftime()


Method normalize_path

string normalize_path(string path)

Description

Replaces "\" with "/" if runing on MS Windows. It is adviced to use System.normalize_path instead.


Method nth

mixed nth(int(0..) n)

Description

Get the nth entry in order.

Returns

An array ({ key, value }).


Method object_variablep

bool object_variablep(object o, string var)

Description

Find out if an object identifier is a variable.

Returns

This function returns 1 if var exists as a non-protected variable in o, and returns 0 (zero) otherwise.

See also

indices(), values()


Method objectp

int objectp(mixed arg)

Description

Returns 1 if arg is an object, 0 (zero) otherwise.

See also

mappingp(), programp(), arrayp(), stringp(), functionp(), multisetp(), floatp(), intp()


Method pow

int|float pow(float|int n, float|int x)
mixed pow(object n, float|int|object x)

Description

Return n raised to the power of x. If both n and x are integers the result will be an integer. If n is an object its pow method will be called with x as argument.

See also

exp(), log()


Method putenv

void putenv(string varname, void|string value)

Description

Sets the environment variable varname to value.

If value is omitted or zero, the environment variable varname is removed.

varname and value cannot be wide strings nor contain '\0' characters. varname also cannot contain '=' characters.

Note

On NT the environment variable name is case insensitive.

See also

getenv()


Method random

array random(mapping m)
float random(float max)
int random(int max)
mixed random(object o)
mixed random(array|multiset x)

Description

Get a random value generated by the default RandomSystem.

See also

RandomSystem()->random(), random_string()


Method random_seed

void random_seed(int seed)

Description

This function sets the initial value for the random generator.

See also

random()

Deprecated

Random.Deterministic


Method random_string

string random_string(int len)

Description

Get a string of random characters 0..255 with the length len from the default RandomSystem.

See also

RandomSystem()->random_string(), random()


Method remove_include_path

void remove_include_path(string tmp)

Description

Remove a directory to search for include files.

This function performs the reverse operation of add_include_path().

See also

add_include_path()


Method remove_module_path

void remove_module_path(string tmp)

Description

Remove a directory to search for modules.

This function performs the reverse operation of add_module_path().

See also

add_module_path()


Method remove_program_path

void remove_program_path(string tmp)

Description

Remove a directory to search for programs.

This function performs the reverse operation of add_program_path().

See also

add_program_path()


Method removexattr

void removexattr(string file, string attr, void|bool symlink)

Description

Remove the specified extended attribute.


Method replace

string replace(string s, string from, string to)
string replace(string s, array(string) from, array(string) to)
string replace(string s, array(string) from, string to)
string replace(string s, mapping(string:string) replacements)
array replace(array a, mixed from, mixed to)
mapping replace(mapping a, mixed from, mixed to)

Description

Generic replace function.

This function can do several kinds replacement operations, the different syntaxes do different things as follows:

If all the arguments are strings, a copy of s with every occurrence of from replaced with to will be returned. Special case: to will be inserted between every character in s if from is the empty string.

If the first argument is a string, and the others array(string), a string with every occurrance of from[i] in s replaced with to[i] will be returned. Instead of the arrays from and to a mapping equivalent to mkmapping(fromto) can be used.

If the first argument is an array or mapping, the values of a which are `==() with from will be replaced with to destructively. a will then be returned.

Note

Note that replace() on arrays and mappings is a destructive operation.


Method replace_master

void replace_master(object o)

Description

Replace the master object with o.

This will let you control many aspects of how Pike works, but beware that master.pike may be required to fill certain functions, so it is usually a good idea to have your master inherit the original master and only re-define certain functions.

FIXME: Tell how to inherit the master.

See also

master()


Method reverse

string reverse(string s, int|void start, int|void end)
array reverse(array a, int|void start, int|void end)
int reverse(int i, int|void start, int|void end)
mixed reverse(object o, mixed ... options)

Description

Reverses a string, array or int.

Parameter s

String to reverse.

Parameter a

Array to reverse.

Parameter i

Integer to reverse.

Parameter o

Object to reverse.

Parameter start

Optional start index of the range to reverse. Default: 0 (zero).

Parameter end

Optional end index of the range to reverse. Default for strings: sizeof(s)-1. Default for arrays: sizeof(a)-1. Default for integers: Pike.get_runtime_info()->int_size - 1.

Parameter options

Optional arguments that are to be passed to lfun::_reverse().

This function reverses a string, char by char, an array, value by value or an int, bit by bit and returns the result. It's not destructive on the input value. For objects it simply calls lfun::_reverse() in the object, and returns the result.

Reversing strings can be particularly useful for parsing difficult syntaxes which require scanning backwards.

See also

sscanf()


Method round

float round(int|float f)

Description

Return the closest integer value to f.

Note

round() does not return an int, merely an integer value stored in a float.

See also

floor(), ceil()


Method rows

array rows(mixed data, array index)

Description

Select a set of rows from an array.

This function is en optimized equivalent to:

map(index, lambda(mixed x) { return data[x]; })

That is, it indices data on every index in the array index and returns an array with the results.

See also

column()


Method search

int search(string haystack, string|int needle, int|void start, int|void end)
int search(array haystack, mixed needle, int|void start, int|void end)
mixed search(mapping haystack, mixed needle, mixed|void start)
mixed search(object haystack, mixed needle, mixed|void start, mixed ... extra_args)

Description

Search for needle in haystack.

Parameter haystack

Item to search in. This can be one of:

string

When haystack is a string needle must be a string or an int, and the first occurrence of the string or int is returned.

array

When haystack is an array, needle is compared only to one value at a time in haystack.

mapping

When haystack is a mapping, search() tries to find the index connected to the data needle. That is, it tries to lookup the mapping backwards.

object

When haystack is an object implementing lfun::_search(), the result of calling lfun::_search() with needle, start and any extra_args will be returned.

If haystack is an object that doesn't implement lfun::_search() it is assumed to be an Iterator, and implement Iterator()->index(), Iterator()->value(), and Iterator()->next(). search() will then start comparing elements with `==() until a match with needle is found. If needle is found haystack will be advanced to the element, and the iterator index will be returned. If needle is not found, haystack will be advanced to the end.

Parameter start

If the optional argument start is present search is started at this position. This has no effect on mappings.

Parameter end

If the optional argument end is present, the search will terminate at this position (exclusive) if not found earlier.

Returns

Returns the position of needle in haystack if found.

If not found the returned value depends on the type of haystack:

string|array

-1.

mapping|Iterator

UNDEFINED.

object

The value returned by lfun::_search().

Note

If start is supplied to an iterator object without an lfun::_search(), haystack will need to implement Iterator()->set_index().

Note

For mappings and object UNDEFINED will be returned when not found. In all other cases -1 will be returned when not found.

See also

indices(), values(), zero_type(), has_value(), has_prefix(), has_suffix()


Method set_priority

int set_priority(string level, int(0..)|void pid)


Method set_weak_flag

array|mapping|multiset set_weak_flag(array|mapping|multiset m, int state)

Description

Set the value m to use weak or normal references in its indices and/or values (whatever is applicable). state is a bitfield built by using | between the following flags:

Pike.WEAK_INDICES

Use weak references for indices. Only applicable for multisets and mappings.

Pike.WEAK_VALUES

Use weak references for values. Only applicable for arrays and mappings.

Pike.WEAK

Shorthand for Pike.WEAK_INDICES|Pike.WEAK_VALUES.

If a flag is absent, the corresponding field will use normal references. state can also be 1 as a compatibility measure; it's treated like Pike.WEAK.

Returns

m will be returned.


Method setxattr

void setxattr(string file, string attr, string value, int flags, void|bool symlink)

Description

Set the attribute attr to the value value.

The flags parameter can be used to refine the semantics of the operation.

Stdio.XATTR_CREATE specifies a pure create, which fails if the named attribute exists already.

Stdio.XATTR_REPLACE specifies a pure replace operation, which fails if the named attribute does not already exist.

By default (no flags), the extended attribute will be created if need be, or will simply replace the value if the attribute exists.

Returns

1 if successful, 0 otherwise, setting errno.


Method sgn

int sgn(mixed value)
int sgn(mixed value, mixed zero)

Description

Check the sign of a value.

Returns

Returns -1 if value is less than zero, 1 if value is greater than zero and 0 (zero) otherwise.

See also

abs()


Method signal

function(int|void:void) signal(int sig, function(int|void:void) callback)
function(int|void:void) signal(int sig)

Description

Trap signals.

This function allows you to trap a signal and have a function called when the process receives a signal. Although it IS possible to trap SIGBUS, SIGSEGV etc, I advise you not to; Pike should not receive any such signals, and if it does, it is because of bugs in the Pike interpreter. And all bugs should be reported, no matter how trifle.

The callback will receive the signal number as its only argument.

See the documentation for kill() for a list of signals.

If no second argument is given, the signal handler for that signal is restored to the default handler.

If the second argument is zero, the signal will be completely ignored.

Returns

Returns the previous signal function, or 0 if none had been registered.

See also

kill(), signame(), signum()


Method signame

string signame(int sig)

Description

Returns a string describing the signal sig.

See also

kill(), signum(), signal()


Method signum

int signum(string sig)

Description

Get a signal number given a descriptive string.

This function is the inverse of signame().

See also

signame(), kill(), signal()


Method sin

float sin(int|float f)

Description

Returns the sine value for f. f should be specified in radians.

See also

asin(), cos(), tan()


Method sinh

float sinh(int|float f)

Description

Returns the hyperbolic sine value for f.

See also

asinh(), cosh(), tanh()


Method sizeof

int(0..) sizeof(string arg)
int(0..) sizeof(array arg)
int(0..) sizeof(mapping arg)
int(0..) sizeof(multiset arg)
int(0..) sizeof(object arg)

Description

Size query.

Returns

The result will be as follows:

arg can have any of the following types:
string

The number of characters in arg will be returned.

array|multiset

The number of elements in arg will be returned.

mapping

The number of key-value pairs in arg will be returned.

object

If arg implements lfun::_sizeof(), that function will be called. Otherwise the number of non-protected (ie public) symbols in arg will be returned.

See also

lfun::_sizeof()


Method sleep

void sleep(int|float s, void|int abort_on_signal)

Description

This function makes the thread stop for s seconds.

Only signal handlers can interrupt the sleep, and only when abort_on_signal is set. If more than one thread is running the signal must be sent to the sleeping thread. Other callbacks are not called during sleep.

If s is zero then this thread will yield to other threads but not sleep otherwise. Note that Pike yields internally at regular intervals so it's normally not necessary to do this.

See also

signal(), delay()


Method sort

array sort(array(mixed) index, array(mixed) ... data)

Description

Sort arrays destructively.

This function sorts the array index destructively. That means that the array itself is changed and returned, no copy is created.

If extra arguments are given, they are supposed to be arrays of the same size as index. Each of these arrays will be modified in the same way as index. I.e. if index 3 is moved to position 0 in index index 3 will be moved to position 0 in all the other arrays as well.

The sort order is as follows:

  • Integers and floats are sorted in ascending order.

  • Strings are sorted primarily on the first characters that are different, and secondarily with shorter strings before longer. Different characters are sorted in ascending order on the character value. Thus the sort order is not locale dependent.

  • Arrays are sorted recursively on the first element. Empty arrays are sorted before nonempty ones.

  • Multisets are sorted recursively on the first index. Empty multisets are sorted before nonempty ones.

  • Objects are sorted in ascending order according to `<(), `>() and `==().

  • Other types aren't reordered.

  • Different types are sorted in this order: Arrays, mappings, multisets, objects, functions, programs, strings, types, integers and floats. Note however that objects can control their ordering wrt other types with `<, `> and `==, so this ordering of types only applies to objects without those functions.

Returns

The first argument is returned.

Note

The sort is stable, i.e. elements that are compare-wise equal aren't reordered.

See also

Array.sort_array, reverse()


Method sprintf

string sprintf(strict_sprintf_format format, sprintf_args ... args)

Description

Print formated output to string.

The format string is a string containing a description of how to output the data in args. This string should generally speaking have one %<modifiers><operator> format specifier (examples: %s, %0d, %-=20s) for each of the arguments.

The following modifiers are supported:

'0'

Zero pad numbers (implies right justification).

'!'

Toggle truncation.

' '

Pad positive integers with a space.

'+'

Pad positive integers with a plus sign.

'-'

Left adjust within field size (default is right).

'|'

Centered within field size.

'='

Column mode if strings are greater than field width. Breaks between words (possibly skipping or adding spaces). Can not be used together with '/'.

'/'

Column mode with rough line break (break at exactly field width instead of between words). Can not be used together with '='.

'#'

Table mode, print a list of '\n' separated words (top-to-bottom order).

'$'

Inverse table mode (left-to-right order).

'n'

(Where n is a number or *) field width specifier.

':n'
'.n'

Precision specifier.

';n'

Column width specifier.

'*'

If n is a * then next argument is used for precision/field size. The argument may either be an integer, or a modifier mapping as received by lfun::_sprintf():

"precision" : int|void

Precision.

"width" : int(0..)|void

Field width.

"flag_left" : bool|void

Indicates that the output should be left-aligned.

"indent" : int(0..)|void

Indentation level in %O-mode.

"'"

Set a pad string. ' cannot be a part of the pad string (yet).

'~'

Get pad string from argument list.

'<'

Use same argument again.

'^'

Repeat this on every line produced.

'@'

Repeat this format for each element in the argument array.

'>'

Put the string at the bottom end of column instead of top.

'_'

Set width to the length of data.

'[n]'

Select argument number n. Use * to use the next argument as selector. The arguments are numbered starting from 0 (zero) for the first argument after the format. Note that this only affects where the current operand is fetched.

The following operators are supported:

'%'

Percent.

'b'

Signed binary integer.

'd'

Signed decimal integer.

'u'

Unsigned decimal integer.

'o'

Signed octal integer.

'x'

Lowercase signed hexadecimal integer.

'X'

Uppercase signed hexadecimal integer.

'c'

Character. If a fieldsize has been specified this will output the low-order bytes of the integer in network (big endian) byte order. To get little endian byte order, negate the field size.

'f'

Float. (Locale dependent formatting.)

'g'

Heuristically chosen representation of float. (Locale dependent formatting.)

'G'

Like %g, but uses uppercase E for exponent.

'e'

Exponential notation float. (Locale dependent output.)

'E'

Like %e, but uses uppercase E for exponent.

'F'

Binary IEEE representation of float (%4F gives single precision, %8F gives double precision) in network (big endian) byte order. To get little endian byte order, negate the field size.

's'

String.

'q'

Quoted string. Escapes all control and non-8-bit characters, as well as the quote characters '\\' and '\"'.

'O'

Any value, debug style. Do not rely on the exact formatting; how the result looks can vary depending on locale, phase of the moon or anything else the lfun::_sprintf() method implementor wanted for debugging.

'p'

Hexadecimal representation of the memory address of the object. Integers and floats have no address, and are printed as themselves.

'H'

Binary Hollerith string. Equivalent to sprintf("%c%s",        strlen(str), str). Arguments (such as width etc) adjust the length-part of the format. Requires 8-bit strings.

'n'

No argument. Same as "%s" with an empty string as argument. Note: Does take an argument array (but ignores its content) if the modifier '@' is active.

't'

Type of the argument.

'{'

Perform the enclosed format for every element of the argument array.

'}'

Most modifiers and operators are combinable in any fashion, but some combinations may render strange results.

If an argument is an object that implements lfun::_sprintf(), that callback will be called with the operator as the first argument, and the current modifiers as the second. The callback is expected to return a string.

Note

sprintf-style formatting is applied by many formatting functions, such write() and werror(). It is also possible to get sprintf-style compile-time argument checking by using the type-attributes sprintf_format or strict_sprintf_format in combination with sprintf_args.

Note

The 'q' operator was added in Pike 7.7.

Note

Support for specifying modifiers via a mapping was added in Pike 7.8. This support can be tested for with the constant String.__HAVE_SPRINTF_STAR_MAPPING__.

Note

Support for specifying little endian byte order to 'F' was added in Pike 7.8. This support can be tested for with the constant String.__HAVE_SPRINTF_NEGATIVE_F__.

Example
Pike v7.8 release 263 running Hilfe v3.5 (Incremental Pike Frontend)
> sprintf("The unicode character %c has character code %04X.", 'A', 'A');
(1) Result: "The unicode character A has character code 0041."
> sprintf("#%@02X is the HTML code for purple.", Image.Color.purple->rgb());
(2) Result: "#A020F0 is the HTML code for purple."
> int n=4711;
> sprintf("%d = hexadecimal %x = octal %o = %b binary", n, n, n, n);
(3) Result: "4711 = hexadecimal 1267 = octal 11147 = 1001001100111 binary"
> write(#"Formatting examples:
Left adjusted  [%-10d]
Centered       [%|10d]
Right adjusted [%10d]
Zero padded    [%010d]
", n, n, n, n);
Formatting examples:
Left adjusted  [4711      ]
Centered       [   4711   ]
Right adjusted [      4711]
Zero padded    [0000004711]
(5) Result: 142
int screen_width=70;
> write("%-=*s\n", screen_width,
>> "This will wordwrap the specified string within the "+
>> "specified field size, this is useful say, if you let "+
>> "users specify their screen size, then the room "+
>> "descriptions will automagically word-wrap as appropriate.\n"+
>> "slosh-n's will of course force a new-line when needed.\n");
This will wordwrap the specified string within the specified field
size, this is useful say, if you let users specify their screen size,
then the room descriptions will automagically word-wrap as
appropriate.
slosh-n's will of course force a new-line when needed.
(6) Result: 355
> write("%-=*s %-=*s\n", screen_width/2,
>> "Two columns next to each other (any number of columns will "+
>> "of course work) independantly word-wrapped, can be useful.",
>> screen_width/2-1,
>> "The - is to specify justification, this is in addherence "+
>> "to std sprintf which defaults to right-justification, "+
>> "this version also supports centre and right justification.");
Two columns next to each other (any The - is to specify justification,
number of columns will of course    this is in addherence to std
work) independantly word-wrapped,   sprintf which defaults to
can be useful.                      right-justification, this version
                                    also supports centre and right
                                    justification.
(7) Result: 426
> write("%-$*s\n", screen_width,
>> "Given a\nlist of\nslosh-n\nseparated\n'words',\nthis option\n"+
>> "creates a\ntable out\nof them\nthe number of\ncolumns\n"+
>> "be forced\nby specifying a\npresision.\nThe most obvious\n"+
>> "use is for\nformatted\nls output.");
Given a          list of          slosh-n
separated        'words',         this option
creates a        table out        of them
the number of    columns          be forced
by specifying a  presision.       The most obvious
use is for       formatted        ls output.
(8) Result: 312
> write("%-#*s\n", screen_width,
>> "Given a\nlist of\nslosh-n\nseparated\n'words',\nthis option\n"+
>> "creates a\ntable out\nof them\nthe number of\ncolumns\n"+
>> "be forced\nby specifying a\npresision.\nThe most obvious\n"+
>> "use is for\nformatted\nls output.");
Given a          creates a        by specifying a
list of          table out        presision.
slosh-n          of them          The most obvious
separated        the number of    use is for
'words',         columns          formatted
this option      be forced        ls output.
(9) Result: 312
> sample = ([ "align":"left", "valign":"middle" ]);
(10) Result: ([ /* 2 elements */
         "align":"left",
         "valign":"middle"
       ])
> write("<td%{ %s='%s'%}>\n", (array)sample);
<td valign='middle' align='left
See also

lfun::_sprintf(), strict_sprintf_format, sprintf_format, sprintf_args, String.__HAVE_SPRINTF_STAR_MAPPING__, String.__HAVE_SPRINTF_NEGATIVE_F__.


Constant sprintf_args

constant sprintf_args

Description

Type constant used for typing extra arguments that are sent to sprintf().

See also

strict_sprintf_format, sprintf_format, sprintf()


Constant sprintf_format

constant sprintf_format

Description

Type constant used for typing arguments that are optionally sent to sprintf() depending on the presence of extra arguments.

See also

strict_sprintf_format, sprintf_args, sprintf()


Constant sprintf_result

constant sprintf_result

Description

Type constant used for typing the return value from sprintf().

See also

strict_sprintf_format, sprintf_format, sprintf()


Method sqrt

float sqrt(float f)
int sqrt(int i)
mixed sqrt(object o)

Description

Returns the square root of f, or in the integer case, the square root truncated to the closest lower integer. If the argument is an object, the lfun _sqrt in the object will be called.

See also

pow(), log(), exp(), floor(), lfun::_sqrt


Method sscanf

int sscanf(string data, string format, mixed ... lvalues)

Description

The purpose of sscanf is to match a string data against a format string and place the matching results into a list of variables. The list of lvalues are destructively modified (which is only possible because sscanf really is a special form, rather than a pike function) with the values extracted from the data according to the format specification. Only the variables up to the last matching directive of the format string are touched.

The format string may contain strings separated by special matching directives like %d, %s %c and %f. Every such directive corresponds to one of the lvalues, in the order they are listed. An lvalue is the name of a variable, a name of a local variable, an index into an array, mapping or object. It is because of these lvalues that sscanf can not be implemented as a normal function.

Whenever a percent character is found in the format string, a match is performed, according to which operator and modifiers follow it:

"%b"

Reads a binary integer ("0101" makes 5)

"%d"

Reads a decimal integer ("0101" makes 101).

"%o"

Reads an octal integer ("0101" makes 65).

"%x"

Reads a hexadecimal integer ("0101" makes 257).

"%D"

Reads an integer that is either octal (leading zero), hexadecimal (leading 0x) or decimal. ("0101" makes 65).

"%c"

Reads one character and returns it as an integer ("0101" makes 48, or '0', leaving "101" for later directives). Using the field width and endianness modifiers, you can decode integers of any size and endianness. For example "%-2c" decodes "0101" into 12592, leaving "01" for later directives. The sign modifiers can be used to modify the signature of the data, making "%+1c" decode "ä" into -28.

"%n"

Returns the current character offset in data. Note that any characters matching fields scanned with the "!"-modifier are removed from the count (see below).

"%f"

Reads a float ("0101" makes 101.0).

"%F"

Reads a float encoded according to the IEEE single precision binary format ("0101" makes 6.45e-10, approximately). Given a field width modifier of 8 (4 is the default), the data will be decoded according to the IEEE double precision binary format instead. (You will however still get a float, unless your pike was compiled with the configure argument --with-double-precision.)

"%s"

Reads a string. If followed by %d, %s will only read non-numerical characters. If followed by a %[], %s will only read characters not present in the set. If followed by normal text, %s will match all characters up to but not including the first occurrence of that text.

"%H"

Reads a Hollerith-encoded string, i.e. first reads the length of the string and then that number of characters. The size and byte order of the length descriptor can be modified in the same way as %c. As an example "%2H" first reads "%2c" and then the resulting number of characters.

"%[set]"

Matches a string containing a given set of characters (those given inside the brackets). Ranges of characters can be defined by using a minus character between the first and the last character to be included in the range. Example: %[0-9H] means any number or 'H'. Note that sets that includes the character '-' must have it first (not possible in complemented sets, see below) or last in the brackets to avoid having a range defined. Sets including the character ']' must list this first too. If both '-' and ']' should be included then put ']' first and '-' last. It is not possible to make a range that ends with ']'; make the range end with '\' instead and put ']' at the beginning of the set. Likewise it is generally not possible to have a range start with '-'; make the range start with '.' instead and put '-' at the end of the set. If the first character after the [ bracket is '^' (%[^set]), and this character does not begin a range, it means that the set is complemented, which is to say that any character except those inside brackets is matched. To include '-' in a complemented set, it must be put last, not first. To include '^' in a non-complemented set, it can be put anywhere but first, or be specified as a range ("^-^").

"%{format%}"

Repeatedly matches 'format' as many times as possible and assigns an array of arrays with the results to the lvalue.

"%O"

Match a Pike constant, such as string or integer (currently only integer, string and character constants are functional).

"%%"

Match a single percent character (hence this is how you quote the % character to just match, and not start an lvalue matcher directive).

Similar to sprintf, you may supply modifiers between the % character and the operator, to slightly change its behaviour from the default:

"*"

The operator will only match its argument, without assigning any variable.

number

You may define a field width by supplying a numeric modifier. This means that the format should match that number of characters in the input data; be it a number characters long string, integer or otherwise ("0101" using the format %2c would read an unsigned short 12337, leaving the final "01" for later operators, for instance).

"-"

Supplying a minus sign toggles the decoding to read the data encoded in little-endian byte order, rather than the default network (big-endian) byte order.

"+"

Interpret the data as a signed entity. In other words, "%+1c" will read "\xFF" as -1 instead of 255, as "%1c" would have.

"!"

Ignore the matched characters with respect to any following "%n".

Note

Sscanf does not use backtracking. Sscanf simply looks at the format string up to the next % and tries to match that with the string. It then proceeds to look at the next part. If a part does not match, sscanf immediately returns how many % were matched. If this happens, the lvalues for % that were not matched will not be changed.

Example
// a will be assigned "oo" and 1 will be returned
sscanf("foo", "f%s", a);

// a will be 4711 and b will be "bar", 2 will be returned
sscanf("4711bar", "%d%s", a, b);

// a will be 4711, 2 will be returned
sscanf("bar4711foo", "%*s%d", a);

// a will become "test", 2 will be returned
sscanf(" \t test", "%*[ \t]%s", a);

// Remove "the " from the beginning of a string
// If 'str' does not begin with "the " it will not be changed
sscanf(str, "the %s", str);

// It is also possible to declare a variable directly in the sscanf call;
// another reason for sscanf not to be an ordinary function:

sscanf("abc def", "%s %s", string a, string b);
Returns

The number of directives matched in the format string. Note that a string directive (%s or %[]) counts as a match even when matching just the empty string (which either may do).

See also

sprintf, array_sscanf


Method strftime

string(1..255) strftime(string(1..255) format, mapping(string:int) tm)

Description

Convert the structure to a string.

%a

The abbreviated weekday name according to the current locale

%A

The full weekday name according to the current locale.

%b

The abbreviated month name according to the current locale.

%B

The full month name according to the current locale.

%c

The preferred date and time representation for the current locale.

%C

The century number (year/100) as a 2-digit integer.

%d

The day of the month as a decimal number (range 01 to 31).

%D

Equivalent to %m/%d/%y. (for Americans only. Americans should note that in other countries %d/%m/%y is rather common. This means that in international context this format is ambiguous and should not be used.)

%e

Like %d, the day of the month as a decimal number, but a leading zero is replaced by a space.

%E

Modifier: use alternative format, see below.

%F

Equivalent to %Y-%m-%d (the ISO 8601 date format). (C99)

%G

The ISO 8601 week-based year (see NOTES) with century as a decimal number. The 4-digit year corresponding to the ISO week number (see %V). This has the same format and value as %Y, except that if the ISO week number belongs to the previous or next year, that year is used instead.

%g

Like %G, but without century, that is, with a 2-digit year (00-99). (TZ)

%h

Equivalent to %b.

%H

The hour as a decimal number using a 24-hour clock (range 00 to 23).

%I

The hour as a decimal number using a 12-hour clock (range 01 to 12).

%j

The day of the year as a decimal number (range 001 to 366).

%m

The month as a decimal number (range 01 to 12).

%M

The minute as a decimal number (range 00 to 59).

%n

A newline character. (SU)

%O

Modifier: use alternative format, see below. (SU)

%p

Either "AM" or "PM" according to the given time value, or the corresponding strings for the current locale. Noon is treated as "PM" and midnight as "AM".

%P

Like %p but in lowercase: "am" or "pm" or a corresponding string for the current locale.

%r

The time in a.m. or p.m. notation. In the POSIX locale this is equivalent to %I:%M:%S %p.

%R

The time in 24-hour notation (%H:%M). (SU) For a version including the seconds, see %T below.

%s

The number of seconds since the Epoch, 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000 (UTC). (TZ)

%S

The second as a decimal number (range 00 to 60). (The range is up to 60 to allow for occasional leap seconds.)

%t

A tab character. (SU)

%T

The time in 24-hour notation (%H:%M:%S). (SU)

%u

The day of the week as a decimal, range 1 to 7, Monday being 1. See also %w. (SU)

%U

The week number of the current year as a decimal number, range 00 to 53, starting with the first Sunday as the first day of week 01. See also %V and %W.

%V

The ISO 8601 week number of the current year as a decimal number, range 01 to 53, where week 1 is the first week that has at least 4 days in the new year. See also %U and %W.

%w

The day of the week as a decimal, range 0 to 6, Sunday being 0. See also %u.

See also

ctime(), mktime(), strptime(), Gettext.setlocale


Constant strict_sprintf_format

constant strict_sprintf_format

Description

Type constant used for typing arguments that are always sent to sprintf() regardless of the presence of extra arguments.

See also

sprintf_format, sprintf_args, sprintf()


Method string_filter_non_unicode

string(1..) string_filter_non_unicode(string s)

Description

Replace the most obviously non-unicode characters from s with the unicode replacement character.

Note

This will replace characters outside the ranges 0x00000000-0x0000d7ff and 0x0000e000-0x0010ffff with 0xffea (the replacement character).

See also

Charset.encoder(), string_to_unicode(), unicode_to_string(), utf8_to_string(), string_to_utf8()


Method string_to_unicode

string(8bit) string_to_unicode(string s, int(0..2)|void byteorder)

Description

Converts a string into an UTF16 compliant byte-stream.

Parameter s

String to convert to UTF16.

Parameter byteorder

Byte-order for the output. One of:

0

Network (aka big-endian) byte-order (default).

1

Little-endian byte-order.

2

Native byte-order.

Note

Throws an error if characters not legal in an UTF16 stream are encountered. Valid characters are in the range 0x00000 - 0x10ffff, except for characters 0xfffe and 0xffff.

Characters in range 0x010000 - 0x10ffff are encoded using surrogates.

See also

Charset.decoder(), string_to_utf8(), unicode_to_string(), utf8_to_string()


Method string_to_utf8

utf8_string string_to_utf8(string s)
utf8_string string_to_utf8(string s, int extended)

Description

Convert a string into a UTF-8 compliant byte-stream.

Parameter s

String to encode into UTF-8.

Parameter extended

Bitmask with extension options.

1

Accept and encode the characters outside the valid ranges using the same algorithm. Such encoded characters are however not UTF-8 compliant.

2

Encode characters outside the BMP with UTF-8 encoded UTF-16 (ie split them into surrogate pairs and encode).

Note

Throws an error if characters not valid in an UTF-8 stream are encountered. Valid characters are in the ranges 0x00000000-0x0000d7ff and 0x0000e000-0x0010ffff.

See also

Charset.encoder(), string_to_unicode(), unicode_to_string(), utf8_to_string()


Method stringp

int stringp(mixed arg)

Description

Returns 1 if arg is a string, 0 (zero) otherwise.

See also

intp(), programp(), arrayp(), multisetp(), objectp(), mappingp(), floatp(), functionp()


Method strptime

mapping(string:int) strptime(string(1..255) data, string(1..255) format)

Description

Parse the given data using the format in format as a date.

%%

The % character.

%a or %A

The weekday name according to the C locale, in abbreviated form or the full name.

%b or %B or %h

The month name according to the C locale, in abbreviated form or the full name.

%c

The date and time representation for the C locale.

%C

The century number (0-99).

%d or %e

The day of month (1-31).

%D

Equivalent to %m/%d/%y.

%H

The hour (0-23).

%I

The hour on a 12-hour clock (1-12).

%j

The day number in the year (1-366).

%m

The month number (1-12).

%M

The minute (0-59).

%n

Arbitrary whitespace.

%p

The C locale's equivalent of AM or PM.

%R

Equivalent to %H:%M.

%S

The second (0-60; 60 may occur for leap seconds; earlier also 61 was allowed).

%t

Arbitrary whitespace.

%T

Equivalent to %H:%M:%S.

%U

The week number with Sunday the first day of the week (0-53).

%w

The weekday number (0-6) with Sunday = 0.

%W

The week number with Monday the first day of the week (0-53).

%x

The date, using the C locale's date format.

%X

The time, using the C locale's time format.

%y

The year within century (0-99). When a century is not otherwise specified, values in the range 69-99 refer to years in the twentieth century (1969-1999); values in the range 00-68 refer to years in the twenty-first century (2000-2068).

%Y

The year, including century (for example, 1991).

See also

localtime(), gmtime(), strftime()


Method tan

float tan(int|float f)

Description

Returns the tangent value for f. f should be specified in radians.

See also

atan(), sin(), cos()


Method tanh

float tanh(int|float f)

Description

Returns the hyperbolic tangent value for f.

See also

atanh(), sinh(), cosh()


Constant this

constant this

Description

Builtin read only variable that evaluates to the current object.

See also

this_program, this_object()


Constant this_function

constant this_function

Description

Builtin constant that evaluates to the current function.

See also

this, this_object()


Method this_object

object this_object(void|int level)

Description

Returns the object we are currently evaluating in.

Parameter level

level may be used to access the object of a surrounding class: The object at level 0 is the current object, the object at level 1 is the one belonging to the class that surrounds the class that the object comes from, and so on.

Note

As opposed to a qualified this reference such as global::this, this function doesn't always access the objects belonging to the lexically surrounding classes. If the class containing the call has been inherited then the objects surrounding the inheriting class are accessed.


Constant this_program

constant this_program

Description

Builtin constant that evaluates to the current program.

See also

this, this_object()


Method throw

mixed|void throw(mixed value)

Description

Throw value to a waiting catch.

If no catch is waiting the global error handling will send the value to master()->handle_error().

If you throw an array with where the first index contains an error message and the second index is a backtrace, (the output from backtrace()) then it will be treated exactly like a real error by overlying functions.

See also

catch


Method time

int time()
int time(int(1..1) one)
float time(int(2..) t)

Description

This function returns the number of seconds since 00:00:00 UTC, 1 Jan 1970.

The second syntax does not query the system for the current time, instead the last time value used by the pike process is returned again. It avoids a system call, and thus is slightly faster, but can be wildly inaccurate. Pike queries the time internally when a thread has waited for something, typically in sleep or in a backend (see Pike.Backend).

The third syntax can be used to measure time more precisely than one second. It returns how many seconds have passed since t. The precision of this function varies from system to system.

See also

ctime(), localtime(), mktime(), gmtime(), System.gettimeofday(), gethrtime()


Method ualarm

int ualarm(int useconds)

Description

Set an alarm clock for delivery of a signal.

alarm() arranges for a SIGALRM signal to be delivered to the process in useconds microseconds.

If useconds is 0 (zero), no new alarm will be scheduled.

Any previous alarms will in any case be canceled.

Returns

Returns the number of microseconds remaining until any previously scheduled alarm was due to be delivered, or zero if there was no previously scheduled alarm.

Note

This function is only available on platforms that support signals.

See also

alarm(), signal(), call_out()


Method unicode_to_string

string unicode_to_string(string(8bit) s, int(0..2)|void byteorder)

Description

Converts an UTF16 byte-stream into a string.

Parameter s

String to convert to UTF16.

Parameter byteorder

Default input byte-order. One of:

0

Network (aka big-endian) byte-order (default).

1

Little-endian byte-order.

2

Native byte-order.

Note that this argument is disregarded if s starts with a BOM.

See also

Charset.decoder(), string_to_unicode(), string_to_utf8(), utf8_to_string()


Method upper_case

string upper_case(string s)
int upper_case(int c)

Description

Convert a string or character to upper case.

Returns

Returns a copy of the string s with all lower case characters converted to upper case, or the character c converted to upper case.

Note

Assumes the string or character to be coded according to ISO-10646 (aka Unicode). If they are not, Charset.decoder can do the initial conversion for you.

Note

Prior to Pike 7.5 this function only accepted strings.

See also

lower_case(), Charset.decoder


Method utf8_to_string

string utf8_to_string(utf8_string s)
string utf8_to_string(utf8_string s, int extended)

Description

Converts an UTF-8 byte-stream into a string.

Parameter s

String of UTF-8 encoded data to decode.

Parameter extended

Bitmask with extension options.

1

Accept and decode the extension used by string_to_utf8().

2

Accept and decode UTF-8 encoded UTF-16 (ie accept and decode valid surrogates).

Note

Throws an error if the stream is not a legal UTF-8 byte-stream.

Note

In conformance with RFC 3629 and Unicode 3.1 and later, non-shortest forms are not decoded. An error is thrown instead.

See also

Charset.encoder(), string_to_unicode(), string_to_utf8(), unicode_to_string(), validate_utf8()


Method validate_utf8

bool validate_utf8(utf8_string s)
bool validate_utf8(utf8_string s, int extended)

Description

Checks whether a string is a valid UTF-8 byte-stream.

Parameter s

String of UTF-8 encoded data to validate.

Parameter extended

Bitmask with extension options.

1

Accept the extension used by string_to_utf8(), including lone UTF-16 surrogates.

2

Accept UTF-8 encoded UTF-16 (ie accept valid surrogate-pairs).

Returns

Returns 0 (zero) if the stream is not a legal UTF-8 byte-stream, and 1 if it is.

Note

In conformance with RFC 3629 and Unicode 3.1 and later, non-shortest forms are considered invalid.

See also

Charset.encoder(), string_to_unicode(), string_to_utf8(), unicode_to_string(), utf8_to_string()


Method werror

int werror(string fmt, mixed ... args)

Description

Writes a string on stderr. Works just like Stdio.File.write on Stdio.stderr.


Method write

int write(string fmt, mixed ... args)

Description

Writes a string on stdout. Works just like Stdio.File.write on Stdio.stdout.


Typedef zero

typedef int(0..0) zero

Description

Zero datatype.

Enum bool

Description

Boolean datatype.


Constant false
Constant true

constant false
constant true

Class Codec

Description

An Encoder and a Decoder lumped into a single instance which can be used for both encoding and decoding.


Inherit Decoder

inherit Decoder : Decoder


Inherit Encoder

inherit Encoder : Encoder

Class CompilationHandler

Description

Objects used by the compiler to handle references to global symbols, modules, external files, etc.

There can be up to three compilation handlers active at the same time during a compilation. They are in order of precedence:

  1. The error handler

    This is the object passed to compile() as the second argument (if any). This object is returned by get_active_error_handler() during a compilation.

  2. The compatibility handler

    This is the object returned by master()->get_compilation_handler() (if any), which the compiler calls when it sees #pike-directives, or expressions using the version scope (eg 7.4::rusage). This object is returned by get_active_compilation_handler() during a compilation.

  3. The master object.

    This is returned by master() at any time.

Any of the objects may implement a subset of the CompilationHandler functions, and the first object that implements a function will be used. The error handler object can thus be used to block certain functionality (eg to restrict the number of available functions).

See also

master()->get_compilation_handler(), get_active_error_handler(), get_active_compilation_handler(), compile()


Method compile_error

void compile_error(string filename, int line, string msg)

Description

Called by compile() and cpp() when they encounter errors in the code they compile.

Parameter filename

File where the error was detected.

Parameter line

Line where the error was detected.

Parameter msg

Description of error.

See also

compile_warning().


Method compile_exception

void compile_exception(mixed exception)

Description

Called by compile() and cpp() if they trigger exceptions.


Method compile_warning

void compile_warning(string filename, int line, string msg)

Description

Called by compile() to report warnings.

Parameter filename

File which triggered the warning.

Parameter line

Line which triggered the warning.

Parameter msg

Warning message.

See also

compile_error()


Method get_default_module

mapping(string:mixed)|object get_default_module()

Description

Returns the default module from which global symbols will be fetched.

Returns

Returns the default module, or 0 (zero).

If 0 (zero) is returned the compiler use the mapping returned by all_constants() as fallback.

See also

get_predefines()


Method get_predefines

mapping(string:mixed) get_predefines()

Description

Called by cpp() to get the set of global symbols.

Returns

Returns a mapping from symbol name to symbol value. Returns zero on failure.

See also

resolv(), get_default_module()


Method handle_import

mixed handle_import(string path, string filename, CompilationHandler handler)

Description

Called by compile() and cpp() to handle import directives specifying specific paths.

Returns

Returns the resolved value, or UNDEFINED on failure.


Method handle_include

string handle_include(string header_file, string current_file, bool is_local_ref)

Description

Called by cpp() to resolv #include and #string directives.

Parameter header_file

File that was requested for inclusion.

Parameter current_file

File where the directive was found.

Parameter is_local_ref

Specifies reference method.

0

Directive was #include <header_file>.

1

Directive was #include "header_file".

Returns

Returns the filename to pass to read_include() if found, and 0 (zero) on failure.

See also

read_include()


Method read_include

string read_include(string filename)

Description

Called by cpp() to read included files.

Parameter filename

Filename as returned by handle_include().

Returns

Returns a string with the content of the header file on success, and 0 (zero) on failure.

See also

handle_include()


Method resolv

mixed resolv(string symbol, string filename, CompilationHandler handler)

Description

Called by compile() and cpp() to resolv module references.

Returns

Returns the resolved value, or UNDEFINED on failure.

See also

get_predefines()

Class CompilerEnvironment

Description

predef::CompilerEnvironment that supports handlers.

The compiler environment.

By inheriting this class and overloading the functions, it is possible to make a custom Pike compiler.

Note

Prior to Pike 7.8 this sort of customization has to be done either via custom master objects, or via CompilationHandlers.

See also

CompilationHandler, MasterObject, master(), replace_master()


Method compile

program compile(string source, object|void handler, int|void major, int|void minor, program|void target, object|void placeholder)


Method compile

program compile(string source, CompilationHandler|void handler, int|void major, int|void minor, program|void target, object|void placeholder)

Description

Compile a string to a program.

This function takes a piece of Pike code as a string and compiles it into a clonable program.

The optional argument handler is used to specify an alternative error handler. If it is not specified the current master object will be used.

The optional arguments major and minor are used to tell the compiler to attempt to be compatible with Pike major.minor.

Note

This function essentially performs

program compile(mixed ... args)
    {
      return PikeCompiler(@args)->compile();
    }
Note

Note that source must contain the complete source for a program. It is not possible to compile a single expression or statement.

Also note that compile() does not preprocess the program. To preprocess the program you can use compile_string() or call the preprocessor manually by calling cpp().

See also

compile_string(), compile_file(), cpp(), master(), CompilationHandler


Method compile_exception

int compile_exception(mixed err)


Method format_exception

string|zero format_exception(mixed err)


Method get_compilation_handler

object get_compilation_handler(int major, int minor)

Description

Get compatibility handler for Pike major.minor.

The default implementation calls the corresponding function in the master object.

Note

This function is typically called by PikeCompiler()->get_compilation_handler().

See also

MasterObject()->get_compilation_handler().


Method get_default_module

mapping(string:mixed)|object get_default_module()

Description

Get the default module for the current compatibility level (ie typically the value returned by predef::all_constants()).

The default implementation calls the corresponding function in the master object.

Returns
mapping(string:mixed)|object

Constant table to use.

int(0..0)

Use the builtin constant table.

Note

This function is typically called by Pike_compiler()->get_default_module().

See also

MasterObject()->get_default_module().


Method handle_import

program handle_import(string module, string current_file, object|void handler)

Description

Look up an import module.

The default implementation calls the corresponding function in the master object.

See also

MasterObject()->handle_import().


Method handle_import

program handle_import(string module, string current_file, object|void handler, object|void compat_handler)


Method handle_inherit

program handle_inherit(string inh, string current_file, object|void handler)

Description

Look up an inherit inh.

The default implementation calls the corresponding function in the master object.

See also

MasterObject()->handle_inherit().


Method handle_inherit

program handle_inherit(string inh, string current_file, object|void handler, object|void compat_handler)


Inherit OrigCompilerEnvironment

inherit predef::CompilerEnvironment : OrigCompilerEnvironment


Inherit Reporter

inherit Reporter : Reporter

Description

Implements the Reporter API.

See also

Reporter()->report(), Reporter()->SeverityLevel


Method resolv

mixed resolv(string identifier, string filename, object|void handler, object|void compat_handler)


Method resolv

mixed resolv(string identifier, string filename, object|void handler, object|void compat_handler)

Description

Look up identifier in the current context.

The default implementation calls the corresponding function in the handlers (if any), falling back to the master object.

Returns

Returns the value of the identifier if found, and UNDEFINED if not.

Class CompilerEnvironment.CPP

Description

The state for an instance of the preprocessor.

See also

predef::cpp()


Method apply_handler

protected mixed apply_handler(string fun, mixed ... args)


Method change_cpp_compatibility

void change_cpp_compatibility(int major, int minor)


Method change_cpp_compatibility

void change_cpp_compatibility(int major, int minor)

Description

Change the pike compatibility level for this preprocessor to the specified version of Pike.

Parameter major

Major version of Pike to attempt to be compatible with. Specifying a major version of -1 is a short hand for specifying __REAL_MAJOR__ and __REAL_MINOR__.

Parameter minor

Minor version of Pike to attempt to be compatible with.

This function is called by the preprocessor to set the compatibility level.

The default implementation performs some normalization, and then sets compat_major and compat_minor to their respective values (which in turn affects symbols such as __MAJOR__ and __MINOR__).


Method clear_macros

void clear_macros()

Description

Clear the set of macros.

It is recomended to call this function when the CPP object is no longer to be used.

See also

define_macro()


Variable handler
Variable compat_handler

object CompilerEnvironment.CPP.handler
object CompilerEnvironment.CPP.compat_handler


Method compile_exception

int compile_exception(mixed err)


Method cpp_error

void cpp_error(sprintf_format msg, sprintf_args ... arguments)

Description

Convenience function for reporting a cpp error at the current position.

This function calls report() with the same arguments, but prefixed with suitable defaults.

See also

report()


Method create

CompilerEnvironment.CPP CompilerEnvironment.CPP(string|void current_file, int|string|void charset, object|void handler, void|int compat_major, void|int compat_minor, void|int picky_cpp)
CompilerEnvironment.CPP CompilerEnvironment.CPP(mapping(string:mixed) options)

Description

Initialize the preprocessor.

Parameter options

If the first argument is a mapping, no other arguments may follow. Instead, they have to be given as members of the mapping (if wanted). The following members are then recognized:

"current_file" : string

Name of the current file. It is used for generating #line directives and for locating include files.

"charset" : int|string

Charset to use when processing data.

"handler" : object

Compilation handler.

"compat_major" : int

Sets the major pike version used for compat handling.

"compat_minor" : int

Sets the minor pike version used for compat handling.

"picky_cpp" : int

Generate more warnings.

"keep_comments" : int

This option keeps cpp() from removing comments. Useful in combination with the prefix feature below.

"prefix" : string

If a prefix is given, only prefixed directives will be processed. For example, if the prefix is "foo", then #foo_ifdef COND and foo___LINE__ would be processed, #ifdef COND and __LINE__ would not.

Parameter current_file

If the current_file argument has not been specified, it will default to "-".

Parameter charset

Turn on automatic character set detection if 1, otherwise specifies the character set used by the input. Defaults to "ISO-10646".

See also

compile()


Method create

CompilerEnvironment.CPP CompilerEnvironment.CPP(string|void current_file, int|string|void charset, object|void handler, void|int compat_major, void|int compat_minor, void|int picky_cpp)
CompilerEnvironment.CPP CompilerEnvironment.CPP(mapping(string:mixed) options)

Description

Initialize the preprocessor.

Parameter options

If the first argument is a mapping, no other arguments may follow. Instead, they have to be given as members of the mapping (if wanted). The following members are then recognized:

"current_file" : string

Name of the current file. It is used for generating #line directives and for locating include files.

"charset" : int|string

Charset to use when processing data.

"handler" : object

Compilation handler.

"compat_major" : int

Sets the major pike version used for compat handling.

"compat_minor" : int

Sets the minor pike version used for compat handling.

"picky_cpp" : int

Generate more warnings.

"keep_comments" : int

This option keeps cpp() from removing comments. Useful in combination with the prefix feature below.

"prefix" : string

If a prefix is given, only prefixed directives will be processed. For example, if the prefix is "foo", then #foo_ifdef COND and foo___LINE__ would be processed, #ifdef COND and __LINE__ would not.

"predefines" : mapping(string:mixed)

Mapping of predefined macros in addition to those returned by CPP()->get_predefines().

Parameter current_file

If the current_file argument has not been specified, it will default to "-".

Parameter charset

Turn on automatic character set detection if 1, otherwise specifies the character set used by the input. Defaults to "ISO-10646".

See also

compile()


Method define_ansi_macros

void define_ansi_macros()

Description

Adds some cpp macros defined by the ANSI-C standards, such as __FILE__, __LINE__, etc.

See also

define_macro(), define_pike_macros()


Method define_macro

void define_macro(string name, string|object|array|function(:void)|void value, int(-1..)|void numargs, int(2bit)|void flags)

Description

Define a cpp macro.

Parameter name

Name of macro to define. Ending the name with "()" changes the defaults for numargs and flags to 0 and 3 respectively.

Parameter value

Macro definition. Defaults to "1".

Parameter numargs

Number of required arguments to a function-style macro. -1 indicates not function-style. Defaults to -1.

Parameter flags

Bit-wise or of flags affecting the macro behavior:

1

Function style macro with a variable number of arguments. Invalid if numargs is -1.

2

Keep newlines emitted by the macro.

Defaults to 0.

See also

define_multiple_macros()


Method define_multiple_macros

void define_multiple_macros(mapping(string:string|function(:void)|object)|void predefs)

Description

Define multiple macros in one operation.

Parameter predefs

Macros to define.

See also

define_macro(), CompilationHandler()->get_predefines(), _take_over_initial_predefines()


Method define_pike_macros

void define_pike_macros()

Description

Adds some pike-specific cpp macros, such as __DIR__, __VERSION__, [__PIKE__], etc.

See also

define_macro(), define_ansi_macros()


Method format_exception

string|zero format_exception(mixed err)


Method format_exception

string format_exception(mixed err)

Description

Format an exception caught by cpp as a suitable cpp error message.

Parameter err

Caught value.

Returns

Returns one of:

zero

Generate a cpp error using the default format (ie call master()->describe_error(), and replace any newlines with spaces).

string

Cpp error message to report(). The empty string supresses the cpp error.

The default implementation just returns 0.


Method get_compilation_handler

object get_compilation_handler(int major, int minor)


Method get_predefines

mapping(string:string|function(:void)|object) get_predefines()


Method get_predefines

mapping(string:string|function(:void)|object) get_predefines()

Description

Get the predefined macros for this preprocessor.

This function is called by init_pike_cpp() to retrieve the set of macros to define at initialization.

The default implementation returns the internal set of predefined macros unless _take_over_initial_predefines() has been called, in which case it instead calls the corresponding function in the master.

Note

This function does NOT return the set of currently defined macros.

See also

init_pike_cpp(), define_multiple_macros(), _take_over_initial_predefines()


Method handle_include

string handle_include(string header_file, string current_file, bool is_local_ref)


Inherit this_program

inherit ::this_program : this_program


Method init_pike_cpp

void init_pike_cpp()

Description

Convenience function for initializing the preprocessor to Pike defaults.

The default implementation is essentially:

{
      define_ansi_macros();
      define_pike_macros();
      define_multiple_macros(get_predefines());
    }

Method read_include

string read_include(string filename)


Method report

void report(SeverityLevel severity, string filename, int(1..) linenumber, string subsystem, sprintf_format message, sprintf_args ... extra_args)

Description

Report a diagnostic from the preprocessor.

Parameter severity

The severity of the diagnostic.

Parameter filename
Parameter linenumber

Location which triggered the diagnostic.

Parameter subsystem

Typically "cpp".

Parameter message

String with the diagnostic message, with optional sprintf()-style formatting (if any extra_args).

Parameter extra_args

Extra arguments to sprintf().

The default implementation does the following:

  • If there's a handler which implements Reporter()->report(), call it with the same arguments.

  • Otherwise if there's a handler which implements compile_warning() or compile_error() that matches severity, call it with suitable arguments.

  • Otherwise if there's a compat handler, use it in the same manner as the handler.

  • Otherwise fall back to calling ::report() with the same arguments.

Note

In Pike 8.0 and earlier MasterObject()->report() was not called.

See also

Reporter()->report()


Method report

void report(SeverityLevel severity, string filename, int(1..) linenumber, string subsystem, string message, mixed ... extra_args)

Description

Report a diagnostic from the preprocessor.

Parameter severity

The severity of the diagnostic.

Parameter filename
Parameter linenumber

Location which triggered the diagnostic.

Parameter subsystem

Always "cpp".

Parameter message

String with the diagnostic message, with optional sprintf()-style formatting (if any extra_args).

Parameter extra_args

Extra arguments to sprintf().

The default implementation just calls CompilerEnviroment::report() in the parent with the same arguments.

See also

Reporter()->report(), cpp_error()


Method resolv

mixed resolv(string sym)


Method resolv

mixed resolv(string sym)

Description

Attempt to resolve a symbol.

The default implementation calls CompilerEnvironment()->resolv() in the parent object, with the remaining arguments taken from the current CPP context.

Returns

Returns the value of sym if found, and UNDEFINED if not.

Class CompilerEnvironment.PikeCompiler

Description

The Pike compiler.

An object of this class compiles a single string of Pike code.


Method apply_attribute_constant

type apply_attribute_constant(string attr, mixed value, type arg_type, void cont_type, mapping state)

Description

Handle constant arguments to attributed function argument types.

Parameter attr

Attribute that arg_type had.

Parameter value

Constant value sent as parameter.

Parameter arg_type

Declared type of the function argument.

Parameter cont_type

Continuation function type after the current argument.

This function is called when a function is called with the constant value value and it has been successfully matched against arg_type, and arg_type had the type attribute attr.

This function is typically used to perform specialized argument checking and to allow for a strengthening of the function type based on value.

The default implementation implements the "sprintf_format", "sscanf_format" and "sscanf_76_format" attributes.

Parameter state

Mapping intended to hold state during checking of multiple arguments.

Returns

Returns a continuation type if it succeeded in strengthening the type.

Returns UNDEFINED otherwise (this is not an error indication).

See also

pop_type_attribute(), push_type_attribute()


Method apply_handler

protected mixed apply_handler(string fun, mixed ... args)


Method apply_type_attribute

bool apply_type_attribute(string attribute, type a, type|zero b, mapping|void state)
bool apply_type_attribute(string attribute, type a)

Description

Type attribute handler.

Parameter attribute

Attribute that a had.

Parameter a

Type of the value being called.

Parameter b

Type of the first argument in the call, or UNDEFINED if no more arguments.

Called during type checking when a has been successfully had a partial evaluation with the argument b and a had the type attribute attribute before the evaluation.

The default implementation implements the "deprecated" attribute.

Parameter state

Mapping intended to hold state during checking of multiple arguments.

Returns

Returns 1 if the type check should be allowed (ie __attribute__(attribute, a)(b)) is valid, and 0 (zero) otherwise.

See also

pop_type_attribute(), push_type_attribute()


Method change_compiler_compatibility

void change_compiler_compatibility(int major, int minor)


Method change_compiler_compatibility

void change_compiler_compatibility(int major, int minor)

Description

Change compiler to attempt to be compatible with Pike major.minor.


Variable handler
Variable compat_handler

object CompilerEnvironment.PikeCompiler.handler
object CompilerEnvironment.PikeCompiler.compat_handler


Method compile

program compile()

Description

Compile the current source into a program.

This function compiles the current Pike source code into a clonable program.

See also

compile_string(), compile_file(), cpp(), master(), CompilationHandler, create()


Method create

CompilerEnvironment.PikeCompiler CompilerEnvironment.PikeCompiler(string|void source, CompilationHandler|void handler, int|void major, int|void minor, program|void target, object|void placeholder)

Description

Create a PikeCompiler object for a source string.

This function takes a piece of Pike code as a string and initializes a compiler object accordingly.

Parameter source

Source code to compile.

Parameter handler

The optional argument handler is used to specify an alternative error handler. If it is not specified the current master object at compile time will be used.

Parameter major
Parameter minor

The optional arguments major and minor are used to tell the compiler to attempt to be compatible with Pike major.minor.

Parameter target

__empty_program() program to fill in. The virgin program returned by __empty_program() will be modified and returned by compile() on success.

Parameter placeholder

__null_program() placeholder object to fill in. The object will be modified into an instance of the resulting program on successfull compile. Note that lfun::create() in the program will be called without any arguments.

Note

Note that source must contain the complete source for a program. It is not possible to compile a single expression or statement.

Also note that no preprocessing is performed. To preprocess the program you can use compile_string() or call the preprocessor manually by calling cpp().

Note

Note that all references to target and placeholder should removed if compile() failes. On failure the placeholder object will be destructed.

See also

compile_string(), compile_file(), cpp(), master(), CompilationHandler


Method create

CompilerEnvironment.PikeCompiler CompilerEnvironment.PikeCompiler(string|void source, object|void handler, int|void major, int|void minor, program|void target, object|void placeholder)


Variable current_file

string CompilerEnvironment.PikeCompiler.current_file

Description

The name of the file currently being compiled (during an active compilation).


Variable current_line

int CompilerEnvironment.PikeCompiler.current_line

Description

The current line number (during an active compilation).


Method get_compilation_handler

object get_compilation_handler(int major, int minor)


Method get_compilation_handler

object get_compilation_handler(int major, int minor)

Description

Get compatibility handler for Pike major.minor.

Note

This function is called by change_compiler_compatibility().


Method get_default_module

mapping(string:mixed)|object get_default_module()


Method get_default_module

mapping(string:mixed)|object get_default_module()

Description

Get the default module for the current compatibility level (ie typically the value returned by predef::all_constants()).

The default implementation calls the corresponding function in the current handler, the current compatibility handler or in the parent CompilerEnvironment in that order.

Returns
mapping(string:mixed)|object

Constant table to use.

int(0..0)

Use the builtin constant table.

Note

This function is called by change_compiler_compatibility().


Method handle_import

program handle_import(string module)


Method handle_import

program handle_import(string module)

Description

Look up an import module.


Method handle_inherit

program handle_inherit(string inh)


Method handle_inherit

program handle_inherit(string inh)

Description

Look up an inherit inh in the current program.


Method index_type_attribute

bool index_type_attribute(string attribute, type a, type i)

Description

Type attribute handler.

Called during type checking when a value of the type a is indexed with a value of type i and a had the type attribute attribute before the comparison.

The default implementation implements the "deprecated" attribute.

Returns

Returns 1 if the type check should be allowed (ie __attribute__(attribute, a)[i]), and 0 (zero) otherwise.

See also

pop_type_attribute(), push_type_attribute()


Inherit this_program

inherit ::this_program : this_program


Method pop_type_attribute

bool pop_type_attribute(string attribute, type a, type b)

Description

Type attribute handler.

Called during type checking when a <= b and a had the type attribute attribute before the comparison.

The default implementation implements the "deprecated" attribute.

Returns

Returns 1 if the type check should be allowed (ie __attribute__(attribute, a) <= b), and 0 (zero) otherwise.

See also

push_type_attribute(), index_type_attribute()


Method push_type_attribute

bool push_type_attribute(string attribute, type a, type b)

Description

Type attribute handler.

Called during type checking when a <= b and b had the type attribute attribute before the comparison.

The default implementation implements the "deprecated" attribute.

Returns

Returns 1 if the type check should be allowed (ie a <= __attribute__(attribute, b)), and 0 (zero) otherwise.

See also

pop_type_attribute(), index_type_attribute()


Method report

void report(SeverityLevel severity, string filename, int linenumber, string subsystem, string message, mixed ... extra_args)


Method report

void report(SeverityLevel severity, string filename, int linenumber, string subsystem, string message, mixed ... extra_args)

Description

Report a diagnostic from the compiler.

The default implementation attempts to call the first corresponding function in the active handlers in priority order:

  1. Call handler->report().

  2. Call handler->compile_warning() or handler->compile_error() depending on severity.

  3. Call compat->report().

  4. Call compat->compile_warning() or compat->compile_error() depending on severity.

  5. Fallback: Call CompilerEnvironment()->report() in the parent object.

The arguments will be as follows:

report()

The report() function will be called with the same arguments as this function.

compile_warning()/compile_error()

Depending on the severity either compile_warning() or compile_error() will be called.

They will be called with the filename, linenumber and formatted message as arguments.

Note that these will not be called for the NOTICE severity, and that compile_error() will be used for both ERROR and FATAL.

Note

In Pike 7.8 and earlier the report() function was not called in the handlers.

See also

CompilerEnvironment()->report()


Method resolv

mixed resolv(string identifier)


Method resolv

mixed resolv(string identifier)

Description

Resolve the symbol identifier.

The default implementation calls CompilerEnvironment()->resolv() in the parent object, with the remaining arguments taken from the current PikeCompiler context.

Returns

Returns the value of sym if found, and UNDEFINED if not.


Method suppress_deprecation_warnings

bool suppress_deprecation_warnings()

Description

Allows to query whether (during an active compilation) deprecation warnings are supposed to be suppressed.

Returns

1 if deprecation warnings should be suppressed, 0 otherwise.

Class CompilerEnvironment.PikeCompiler.CompilerState

Description

Keeps the state of a single program/class during compilation.

Note

Not in use yet!

Class CompilerEnvironment.define


Method `()

string res = CompilerEnvironment.define()()

Parameter arguments

Array of arguments to the macro. Zero if no parenthesis.

Parameter context

CPP context we are evaluating in.

Returns

Returns the expansion of the macro on success, and 0 (zero) on failure (typically due to invalid arguments).

Class CompilerEnvironment.lock

Description

This class acts as a lock against other threads accessing the compiler.

The lock is released when the object is destructed.

Class Decoder

Description

Codec used by decode_value() to decode objects, functions and programs which have been encoded by Encoder.nameof in the corresponding Encoder object.


Method __register_new_program

object __register_new_program(program p)

Description

Called to register the program that is being decoded. Might get called repeatedly with several other programs that are being decoded recursively. The only safe assumption is that when the top level thing being decoded is a program, then the first call will be with the unfinished embryo that will later become that program.

Returns

Returns either zero or a placeholder object. A placeholder object must be a clone of __null_program. When the program is finished, the placeholder object will be converted to a clone of it. This is used for pike module objects.


Method functionof

function(:void) functionof(string data)

Description

Decode function encoded in data.

This function is called by decode_value() when it encounters encoded functions.

Parameter data

Encoding of some function as returned by Encoder.nameof().

Returns

Returns the decoded function.

See also

objectof(), programof()


Method objectof

object objectof(string data)

Description

Decode object encoded in data.

This function is called by decode_value() when it encounters encoded objects.

Parameter data

Encoding of some object as returned by Encoder.nameof().

Returns

Returns the decoded object.

See also

functionof(), programof()


Method programof

program programof(string data)

Description

Decode program encoded in data.

This function is called by decode_value() when it encounters encoded programs.

Parameter data

Encoding of some program as returned by Encoder.nameof().

Returns

Returns the decoded program.

See also

functionof(), objectof()

Class Encoder

Description

Codec used by encode_value() to encode objects, functions and programs. Its purpose is to look up some kind of identifier for them, so they can be mapped back to the corresponding instance by decode_value(), rather than creating a new copy.


Method nameof

mixed nameof(object|function(:void)|program x)

Description

Called by encode_value() to encode objects, functions and programs.

Returns

Returns something encodable on success, typically a string. The returned value will be passed to the corresponding objectof(), functionof() or programof() by decode_value().

If it returns UNDEFINED then encode_value starts to encode the thing recursively, so that decode_value later will rebuild a copy.

Note

encode_value() has fallbacks for some classes of objects, functions and programs.

See also

Decoder.objectof(), Decoder.functionof(), Decoder.objectof()

Class Iterator

Description

This is the interface for iterator objects. They implement an interface to a collection or stream of data items and a cursor that can be used to iterate over and examine individual items in the data set.

Iterators are typically created to access a data set in some specific object, array, mapping, multiset or string. An object can have several iterators that access different data sets in it, or the same in different ways. E.g. strings have both an iterator for access char-by-char (String.Iterator), and another for access over splitted substrings (String.SplitIterator). lfun::_get_iterator may be defined in an object to get an instance of the canonical iterator type for it. It's used by e.g. foreach to iterate over objects conveniently.

It's not an error to advance an iterator past the beginning or end of the data set; `!() will only return true then, and _iterator_index and _iterator_value will return UNDEFINED. An iterator in that state need not keep track of positions, so it's undefined what happens if it's "moved back" into the set of items.

Backward movement for iterators is optional. It's supported if and only if `-() is defined, but even then it's undefined how far back the iterator can move. Therefore iterators may support only a limited amount of backward movement, e.g. when they access a stream through a limited buffer. If such an iterator is moved back past the limit then it'll behave as if it's pointing entirely outside the data set (see above).

An iterator that doesn't support backward movement at all should throw an error if it's attempted.

See also

predef::get_iterator, lfun::_get_iterator, Array.Iterator, Mapping.Iterator, Multiset.Iterator, String.Iterator, String.SplitIterator.


Method _iterator_index

mixed _iterator_index()

Description

Returns the current index, or UNDEFINED if the iterator doesn't point to any item.

If there's no obvious index set then the index is the current position in the data set, counting from 0 (zero).


Method _iterator_next

int _iterator_next()

Description

If this function is defined it should advance the iterator one step, just like `+=(1) would do.

Note

This is the preferred way to advance the iterator, since it reduces the overhead.

Note

This function was optional in Pike 7.6 and earlier.

Returns

Returns 1 if it succeeded in advancing, and 0 (zero) if it has reached the end of the iterator.

See also

`+, `+=, `-


Method _iterator_value

mixed _iterator_value()

Description

Returns the current value, or UNDEFINED if the iterator doesn't point to any item.


Method _random

void random( Iterator arg )

Description

If this function is defined then it sets the iterator to point to a random item in the accessible set. The random distribution should be rectangular within that set, and the pseudorandom sequence provided by random should be used.


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( Iterator arg )

Description

Returns the total number of items in the data set according to this iterator. If the size of the data set is unlimited or unknown then this function shouldn't be defined.


Method `!

bool res = !Iterator()

Description

Returns 0 (zero) when the iterator points to an item, 1 otherwise.


Method `+

Iterator res = Iterator() + steps

Description

Returns a clone of this iterator which is advanced the specified number of steps. The amount may be negative to move backwards. If the iterator doesn't support backward movement it should throw an exception in that case.

See also

_iterator_next, `+=, `-


Method `+=

Iterator() += steps

Description

Advance this iterator the specified number of steps and return it. The amount may be negative to move backwards. If the iterator doesn't support backward movement it should throw an exception in that case.

Note

foreach calls this function with a step value of 1 if _iterator_next() doesn't exist for compatibility with Pike 7.6 and earlier.

Note

foreach will call this function even when the the iterator has more than one reference. If you want to loop over a copy of the iterator, you can create a copy by adding 0 (zero) to it:

Iterator iterator;
    ...
    foreach(iterator+0; mixed index; mixed value) {
      ...
    }
Note

Even though this function is sufficient for foreach to advance the iterator, _iterator_next() is the preferred API.

See also

_iterator_next, `+, `-


Method `-

Iterator res = Iterator() - steps

Description

This lfun should be defined if and only if the iterator supports backward movement to some degree. It should back up the specified number of steps. The amount may be negative to move forward.

See also

_iterator_next, `+, `+=


Method create

Iterator Iterator(void|mixed data)

Description

Initialize this iterator to access a data set in data. The type of data is specific to the iterator implementation. An iterator may also access some implicit data set, in which case data isn't specified at all.

The iterator initially points to the first item in the data set, if there is any.

The iterator does not need to support being reused, so this function is typically declared protected.


Method first

optional bool first()

Description

If this function is defined then it resets the iterator to point to the first item.

Returns

Returns zero if there are no items at all in the data set, one otherwise.

Note

It's not enough to set the iterator to the earliest accessible item. If the iterator doesn't support backing up to the original start position then this function should not be implemented.


Method set_index

optional void set_index(zero index)

Description

If this function is defined it should set the iterator at the specified index.

Note

It should be possible to set the index at the end of the iterator.

Class MasterObject

Description

Master control program for Pike.

See also

predef::master(), predef::replace_master()


Variable Decoder

program MasterObject.Decoder

Description

This program in the master is cloned and used as codec by decode_value if it wasn't given any codec. An instance is only created on-demand the first time decode_value encounters something for which it needs a codec, i.e. the result of a call to Pike.Encoder.nameof.

See also

Decoder, Pike.Decoder


Variable Encoder

program MasterObject.Encoder

Description

This program in the master is cloned and used as codec by encode_value if it wasn't given any codec. An instance is only created on-demand the first time encode_value encounters something for which it needs a codec, i.e. an object, program, or function.

See also

Encoder, Pike.Encoder


Method _main

void _main(array(string(8bit)) orig_argv)

Description

This function is called when all the driver is done with all setup of modules, efuns, tables etc. etc. and is ready to start executing _real_ programs. It receives the arguments not meant for the driver.


Variable _pike_file_name
Variable _master_file_name

string MasterObject._pike_file_name
string MasterObject._master_file_name

Description

These are useful if you want to start other Pike processes with the same options as this one was started with.


Method add_filesystem_handler

mixed add_filesystem_handler(string mountpoint, object filesystem)

Description

mount a filesystem handler to be used by the resolver. on its own does noting, but may be used with add_module_path and friends to enable modules to be loaded from Filesystem objects.

Parameter mountpoint

the location in the filesystem to mount the handler

Parameter filesystem

a filesystem object that will handle requests for the given mountpoint.

Example

master()->add_filesystem_handler("/foo/bar.zip", Filesystem.Zip("/foo/bar.zip")); master()->add_module_path("/foo/bar.zip/lib");

See also

find_handler_for_path()


Method asyncp

bool asyncp()

Description

Returns 1 if we're in async-mode, e.g. if the main method has returned a negative number.


Method backend_thread

object backend_thread()

Description

The backend_thread() function is useful to determine if you are the backend thread - important when doing async/sync protocols. This method is only available if thread_create is present.


Constant bt_max_string_len

constant int MasterObject.bt_max_string_len

Description

This constant contains the maximum length of a function entry in a backtrace. Defaults to 200 if no BT_MAX_STRING_LEN define has been given.


Method cast_to_object

object cast_to_object(string oname, string current_file, object|void current_handler)

Description

This function is called when the drivers wants to cast a string to an object because of an implict or explicit cast. This function may also receive more arguments in the future.


Method cast_to_object

object cast_to_object(string str, string|void current_file)

Description

Called by the Pike runtime to cast strings to objects.

Parameter str

String to cast to object.

Parameter current_file

Filename of the file that attempts to perform the cast.

Returns

Returns the resulting object.

See also

cast_to_program()


Method cast_to_program

program cast_to_program(string pname, string current_file, object|void handler)

Description

This function is called when the driver wants to cast a string to a program, this might be because of an explicit cast, an inherit or a implict cast. In the future it might receive more arguments, to aid the master finding the right program.


Method cast_to_program

program cast_to_program(string str, string|void current_file)

Description

Called by the Pike runtime to cast strings to programs.

Parameter str

String to cast to object.

Parameter current_file

Filename of the file that attempts to perform the cast.

Returns

Returns the resulting program.

See also

cast_to_object()


Variable cflags

string MasterObject.cflags

Description

Flags suitable for use when compiling Pike C modules


Variable compat_major

int MasterObject.compat_major

Description

Major pike version to emulate.

This is typically set via the option "-V".

See also

compat_minor


Variable compat_minor

int MasterObject.compat_minor

Description

Minor pike version to emulate.

This is typically set via the option "-V".

See also

compat_major


Method compile_error

void compile_error(string file, int line, string err)

Description

This function is called whenever a compile error occurs. line is zero for errors that aren't associated with any specific line. err is not newline terminated.

See also

compile_warning(), compile_exception(), get_inhibit_compile_errors(), set_inhibit_compile_errors(),


Method compile_exception

int compile_exception(array|object trace)

Description

This function is called when an exception is caught during compilation. Its message is also reported to compile_error if this function returns zero.

See also

compile_error(), compile_warning(), get_inhibit_compile_errors(), set_inhibit_compile_errors(),


Method compile_warning

void compile_warning(string file, int line, string err)

Description

This function is called whenever a compile warning occurs. line is zero for warnings that aren't associated with any specific line. err is not newline terminated.

See also

compile_error(), compile_exception(), get_inhibit_compile_errors(), set_inhibit_compile_errors(),


Variable currentversion

Version MasterObject.currentversion

Description

Version information about the current Pike version.


Method decode_charset

string decode_charset(string data, string charset)

Description

This function is called by cpp() when it wants to do character code conversion.


Method decode_charset

string decode_charset(string raw, string charset)

Description

Convert raw from encoding charset to UNICODE.

This function is called by cpp() when it encounters #charset directives.

Parameter raw

String to convert.

Parameter charset

Name of encoding that raw uses.

Returns

raw decoded to UNICODE, or 0 (zero) if the decoding failed.

See also

Charset


Method describe_backtrace

string describe_backtrace(mixed exception)

Description

Called by various routines to format a readable description of an exception.

Parameter exception

Something that was thrown. Usually an Error.Generic object, or an array with the following content:

Array
string msg

Error message.

array(backtrace_frame|array(mixed)) backtrace

Backtrace to the point where the exception occurred.

Returns

Returns a string describing the exeception.

Note

Usually added by the initialization code the global name space with add_constant().

See also

predef::describe_backtrace()


Method describe_function

string|zero describe_function(function(:void) f)

Description

Function called by describe_backtrace() to describe functions in the backtrace.


Method describe_module

string describe_module(object|program mod, array(object)|void ret_obj)

Description

Describe the path to the module mod.

Parameter mod

If mod is a program, attempt to describe the path to a clone of mod.

Parameter ret_obj

If an instance of mod is found, it will be returned by changing element 0 of ret_obj.

Returns

The a description of the path.

Note

The returned description will end with a proper indexing method currently either "." or "->".


Method describe_object

string|zero describe_object(object o)

Description

Function called by sprintf("%O") for objects that don't have an lfun::_sprintf(), or have one that returns UNDEFINED.


Method describe_program

string|zero describe_program(program|function(:void) p)

Description

Function called by sprintf("%O") for programs.


Variable doc_prefix

string MasterObject.doc_prefix

Description

Prefix for autodoc files.


Variable programs
Variable documentation
Variable source_cache

mapping(string:program|NoValue) MasterObject.programs
mapping(program:object) MasterObject.documentation
mapping(program:string) MasterObject.source_cache

Description

Mapping containing the cache of currently compiled files.

This mapping currently has the following structure:

filename : program

The filename path separator is / on both NT and UNIX.

Note

Special cases: The current master program is available under the name "/master", and the program containing the main function under "/main".


Method enable_source_cache

void enable_source_cache()

Description

Enable caching of sources from compile_string()


Method fc_reverse_lookup

string fc_reverse_lookup(object obj)

Description

Returns the path for obj in fc, if it got any.


Method find_handler_for_path

string|zero find_handler_for_path(string file)

Description

Return the mountpoint for the filesystem handler handling the file (if any).

See also

add_filesystem_handler()


Method get_compat_master

object get_compat_master(int major, int minor)

Description

Return a master object compatible with the specified version of Pike.

This function is used to implement the various compatibility versions of master().

See also

get_compilation_handler(), master()


Method get_compilation_handler

CompilationHandler get_compilation_handler(int major, int minor)

Description

Get compilation handler for simulation of Pike vmajor.minor.

This function is called by cpp() when it encounters #pike directives.

Parameter major

Major version.

Parameter minor

Minor version.

Returns

Returns a compilation handler for Pike >= major.minor.


Method get_inhibit_compile_errors

mixed get_inhibit_compile_errors()

Description

Get the current compile error, warning and exception behaviour.

See set_inhibit_compile_errors() for details.

See also

set_inhibit_compile_errors()


Method get_precompiled_mtime

int get_precompiled_mtime(string id)

Description

Given an identifier returned by query_precompiled_names, returns the mtime of the precompiled entry. Returns -1 if there is no entry.


Method handle_attribute

optional bool handle_attribute(mixed value, string attribute)

Description

This function is called in runtime check_types mode (-rt), when encountering a soft cast to an attributed type.

Parameter value

Value that is about to receive the attribute.

Parameter attribute

Type attribute to validate.

Returns

Returns one of:

1

If the attribute is valid for the value.

0

If the attribute is not valid for the value.

UNDEFINED

If the attribute is unsupported.

The default master implements validation of the "utf8" attribute.


Method handle_error

void handle_error(mixed exception)

Description

Called by the Pike runtime if an exception isn't caught.

Parameter exception

Value that was throw()'n.

See also

describe_backtrace()


Method handle_error

void handle_error(array|object trace)

Description

This function is called when an error occurs that is not caught with catch().


Method handle_inherit

program handle_inherit(string pname, string current_file, object|void handler)

Description

This function is called whenever a inherit is called for. It is supposed to return the program to inherit. The first argument is the argument given to inherit, and the second is the file name of the program currently compiling. Note that the file name can be changed with #line, or set by compile_string, so it can not be 100% trusted to be a filename. previous_object(), can be virtually anything in this function, as it is called from the compiler.


Variable include_prefix

string MasterObject.include_prefix

Description

Prefix for Pike-related C header files.


Inherit Codec

inherit Codec : Codec


Inherit CompatResolver

inherit CompatResolver : CompatResolver


Inherit CompilationHandler

inherit CompilationHandler : CompilationHandler

Description

The master object acts as fallback compilation handler for compile() and cpp().


Inherit Pike_8_0_master

protected inherit Pike_8_0_master : Pike_8_0_master

Description

Namespaces for compat masters.

This inherit is used to provide compatibility namespaces for get_compat_master().

See also

get_compat_master()


Inherit __master

inherit Builtin.__master : __master


Variable is_pike_master

int MasterObject.is_pike_master

Description

This integer variable should exist in any object that aspires to be the master. It gets set to 1 when the master is installed, and is therefore set in any object that is or has been the master. That makes the Encoder class encode references to the master and all ex-masters as references to the current master object.


Variable ldflags

string MasterObject.ldflags

Description

Flags suitable for use when linking Pike C modules


Method master_read_file

string|zero master_read_file(string file)

Description

Read a file from the master filesystem.

The master filesystem defaults to the system filesystem, but additional mountpoints may be added via add_filesystem_handler().

All file I/O performed by the MasterObject is performed via this function and its related functions.

See also

add_filesystem_handler(), find_handler_for_path(), master_get_dir(), master_file_stat()


Method module_defined

array(string) module_defined(object|program mod)

Description

Find the files in which mod is defined, as they may be hidden away in joinnodes and dirnodes

Parameter mod

The module we are looking for.

Returns

An array of strings with filenames. (one for each file in a joinnode, or just one otherwise)


Variable no_precompile

int MasterObject.no_precompile

Description

Turn off loading of precompiled modules.


Method objects_reverse_lookup

program objects_reverse_lookup(object obj)

Description

Returns the program for obj, if known to the master.


Constant out_of_date_warning

constant int MasterObject.out_of_date_warning

Description

Should Pike complain about out of date compiled files. 1 means yes and 0 means no. Controlled by the OUT_OF_DATE_WARNING define.


Method program_path_to_name

string program_path_to_name(string path, void|string module_prefix, void|string module_suffix, void|string object_suffix)

Description

Converts a module path on the form "Foo.pmod/Bar.pmod" or "/path/to/pike/lib/modules/Foo.pmod/Bar.pmod" to a module identifier on the form "Foo.Bar".

If module_prefix or module_suffix are given, they are prepended and appended, respectively, to the returned string if it's a module file (i.e. ends with ".pmod" or ".so"). If object_suffix is given, it's appended to the returned string if it's an object file (i.e. ends with ".pike").


Method programs_reverse_lookup

string programs_reverse_lookup(program prog)

Description

Returns the path for prog in programs, if it got any.


Method query_precompiled_names

array(string) query_precompiled_names(string fname)

Description

Returns identifiers (e.g. file names) of potentially precompiled files in priority order.


Method read_precompiled

string read_precompiled(string id)

Description

Given an identifier returned by query_precompiled_names, returns the precompiled entry. Can assume the entry exists.


Method runtime_warning

void runtime_warning(string subsystem, string msg, mixed|void data)

Description

Called by the Pike runtime to warn about data inconsistencies.

Parameter subsystem

Runtime subsystem where the warning was generated. Currently the following subsystems may call this function:

"gc"

The garbage collector.

Parameter msg

Warning message. Currently the following messages may be generated:

"bad_cycle"

A cycle where the destruction order isn't deterministic was detected by the garbage collector.

data will in this case contain an array of the elements in the cycle.

Parameter data

Optional data that further describes the warning specified by msg.


Method runtime_warning

void runtime_warning(string where, string what, mixed ... args)

Description

Called for every runtime warning. The first argument identifies where the warning comes from, the second identifies the specific message, and the rest depends on that. See code below for currently implemented warnings.


Method set_inhibit_compile_errors

void set_inhibit_compile_errors(mixed behaviour)

Description

Set the compile error, warning and exception behaviour.

Parameter behaviour

The desired behaviour. One of:

int(0..0)

Output compilation errors and warnings to stderr. This is the default behaviour.

int(1..1)

Inhibit output of compilator diagnostics.

function(string, int, string:void)

Function to call for compilation errors. Compilation warnings and exceptions are inhibited.

The function will be called with the same arguments as those passed to compile_error().

CompilationHandler

Compilation handler to use for diagnostics.

Note

Note that the behaviour is thread local, and is not copied to new threads when they are created.

See also

get_inhibit_compile_errors()


Method show_doc

object show_doc(program|object|function(:void) obj)

Description

Show documentation for the item obj

Parameter obj

The object for which the documentation should be shown

Returns

an AutoDoc object


Variable show_if_constant_errors

int MasterObject.show_if_constant_errors

Description

Show compilation warnings from compilation of cpp() #if constant() expressions.

This is typically set via the option "--picky-cpp".


Method thread_quanta_exceeded

void thread_quanta_exceeded(Thread.Thread thread, int ns)

Description

Function called when a thread has exceeded the thread quanta.

Parameter thread

Thread that exceeded the thread quanta.

Parameter ns

Number of nanoseconds that the thread executed before allowing other threads to run.

The default master prints a diagnostic and the thread backtrace to Stdio.stderr.

Note

This function runs in a signal handler context, and should thus avoid handling of mutexes, etc.

See also

get_thread_quanta(), set_thread_quanta()


Method unregister

void unregister(program p)

Description

Unregister a program that was only partially compiled.

Called by compile() to clean up references to partially compiled programs.

Parameter p

Partially compiled program that should no longer be referenced.

FIXME

Shouldn't this function be in the compilation handler?


Variable want_warnings

int MasterObject.want_warnings

Description

If not zero compilation warnings will be written out on stderr.

Class MasterObject.Codec

Description

Encoder and Decoder rolled into one. This is for mainly compatibility; there's typically no use combining encoding and decoding into the same object.


Method create

MasterObject.Codec MasterObject.Codec(void|mixed encoded)

Description

The optional argument is the thing to encode; it's passed on to Encoder.


Inherit Decoder

inherit Decoder : Decoder


Inherit Encoder

inherit Encoder : Encoder

Class MasterObject.CompatResolver

Description

Resolver of symbols not located in the program being compiled.


Method add_include_path

void add_include_path(string tmp)

Description

Add a directory to search for include files.

This is the same as the command line option -I.

Note

Note that the added directory will only be searched when using < > to quote the included file.

See also

remove_include_path()


Method add_module_path

void add_module_path(string path, string|void subpath)

Description

Add a directory to search for modules.

This is the same as the command line option -M.

See also

remove_module_path()

Parameter path

a string containing a path to search for Pike modules. May be a directory, or a path to a ZIP archive. If a ZIP archive path is provided, modules will be loaded from a directory, "modules" within the ZIP archive (see the subpath argument).

Parameter subpath

if path is a ZIP archive, this argument will determine the path within the archive to be searched.


Method add_predefine

void add_predefine(string name, mixed value)

Description

Add a define (without arguments) which will be implicitly defined in cpp calls.


Method add_program_path

void add_program_path(string tmp)

Description

Add a directory to search for programs.

This is the same as the command line option -P.

See also

remove_program_path()


Method create

MasterObject.CompatResolver MasterObject.CompatResolver(mixed version, CompatResolver|void fallback_resolver)

Description

The CompatResolver is initialized with a value that can be casted into a "%d.%d" string, e.g. a version object.

It can also optionally be initialized with a fallback resolver.


Variable fallback_resolver

CompatResolver MasterObject.CompatResolver.fallback_resolver

Description

If we fail to resolv, try the fallback.

Typical configuration:

0.6->7.0->7.2-> ... ->master


Method get_default_module

mapping get_default_module()

Description

Return the default module for the CompatResolver.

This is the mapping that corresponds to the predef:: name space for the compatibility level, and is the value returned by all_constants() for the same.


Method get_predefines

mapping get_predefines()

Description

Returns a mapping with the current predefines.


Method handle_include

string|zero handle_include(string f, string current_file, int local_include)

Description

This function is called whenever an #include directive is encountered. It receives the argument for #include and should return the file name of the file to include.

See also

read_include()


Variable handler_root_modules

mapping(object:joinnode) MasterObject.CompatResolver.handler_root_modules

Description

Lookup from handler module to corresponding root_module.


Method instantiate_static_modules

protected mapping(string:mixed) instantiate_static_modules(object|mapping static_modules)

Description

Instantiate static modules in the same way that dynamic modules are instantiated.


Variable pike_include_path

array(string) MasterObject.CompatResolver.pike_include_path

Description

The complete include search path


Variable pike_module_path

array(string) MasterObject.CompatResolver.pike_module_path

Description

The complete module search path


Variable pike_program_path

array(string) MasterObject.CompatResolver.pike_program_path

Description

The complete program search path


Method read_include

string read_include(string f)

Description

Read the file specified by handle_include().

See also

handle_include()


Method remove_include_path

void remove_include_path(string tmp)

Description

Remove a directory to search for include files.

This function performs the reverse operation of add_include_path().

See also

add_include_path()


Method remove_module_path

void remove_module_path(string tmp)

Description

Remove a directory to search for modules.

This function performs the reverse operation of add_module_path().

See also

add_module_path()


Method remove_predefine

void remove_predefine(string name)

Description

Remove a define from the set that are implicitly defined in cpp calls.


Method remove_program_path

void remove_program_path(string tmp)

Description

Remove a directory to search for programs.

This function performs the reverse operation of add_program_path().

See also

add_program_path()


Method resolv

mixed resolv(string identifier, string|void current_file, object|void current_handler, object|void current_compat_handler)

Description

Resolve the identifier expression.

Returns

Returns the value of the identifier if it exists, and UNDEFINED otherwise.


Method resolv_base

mixed resolv_base(string identifier, string|void current_file, object|void current_handler, object|void current_compat_handler)

Description

Look up identifier in the root module.


Method resolv_or_error

mixed resolv_or_error(string identifier, string|void current_file, void|object current_handler)

Description

Same as resolv, but throws an error instead of returning UNDEFINED if the resolv failed.


Variable root_module

joinnode MasterObject.CompatResolver.root_module

Description

Join node of the root modules for this resolver.


Variable system_module_path

array(string) MasterObject.CompatResolver.system_module_path

Description

The pike system module path, not including any set by the user.

Class MasterObject.Decoder

Description

Codec for use with decode_value. This is the decoder corresponding to Encoder. See that one for more details.


Method create

MasterObject.Decoder MasterObject.Decoder(void|string fname, void|int mkobj, void|object handler)


Method decode_object

array(mixed)|zero decode_object(object o, mixed data)

Description

Restore the state of an encoded object.

Parameter o

Object to modify.

Parameter data

State information from Encoder()->encode_object().

The default implementation calls o->_decode(data) if the object has an _decode(), otherwise if data is an array, returns it to indicate that lfun::create() should be called.

Note

This function is called before lfun::create() in the object has been called, but after lfun::__INIT() has been called.

Returns

Returns an array to indicate to the caller that lfun::create() should be called with the elements of the array as arguments.

Returns 0 (zero) to inhibit calling of lfun::create().

See also

Encoder()->encode_object()


Variable fname
Variable mkobj
Variable handler

void|string MasterObject.Decoder.fname
void|int MasterObject.Decoder.mkobj
void|object MasterObject.Decoder.handler

Class MasterObject.Describer

Description

Class used by describe_backtrace() to describe values in backtraces.


Inherit DestructImmediate

inherit _static_modules.Builtin.DestructImmediate : DestructImmediate

Class MasterObject.Encoder

Description

Codec for use with encode_value. It understands all the standard references to builtin functions, pike modules, and the main program script.

The format of the produced identifiers are documented here to allow extension of this class:

The produced names are either strings or arrays. The string variant specifies the thing to look up according to the first character:

'c' Look up in all_constants(). 's' Look up in _static_modules. 'r' Look up with resolv(). 'p' Look up in programs. 'o' Look up in programs, then look up the result in objects. 'f' Look up in fc.

In the array format, the first element is a string as above and the rest specify a series of things to do with the result:

A string Look up this string in the result. 'm' Get module object in dirnode. 'p' Do object_program(result).

All lowercase letters and the symbols ':', '/' and '.' are reserved for internal use in both cases where characters are used above.


Method create

MasterObject.Encoder MasterObject.Encoder(void|mixed encoded)

Description

Creates an encoder instance. If encoded is specified, it's encoded instead of being reverse resolved to a name. That's necessary to encode programs.


Method nameof

string|array nameof(mixed what, void|array(object) module_object)

Description

When module_object is set and the name would end with an object_program step (i.e. 'p'), then drop that step so that the name corresponds to the object instead. module_object[0] will receive the found object.

Class MasterObject.Pike_7_8_master

Description

Pike 7.8 master compatibility interface.

Most of the interface is implemented via mixin, or overloading by more recent masters.

This interface is used for compatibility with Pike 7.8.

Deprecated

Replaced by predef::MasterObject.

See also

get_compat_master(), master(), predef::MasterObject

Class MasterObject.Pike_8_0_master

Description

Pike 8.0 master compatibility interface.

Most of the interface is implemented via mixin, or overloading by more recent masters.

This interface is used for compatibility with Pike 8.0.

Deprecated

Replaced by predef::MasterObject.

See also

get_compat_master(), master(), predef::MasterObject


Inherit Pike_7_8_master

inherit Pike_7_8_master : Pike_7_8_master

Class MasterObject.Version

Description

Contains version information about a Pike version.


Method `<
Method `>
Method `==
Method __hash

int res = MasterObject.Version() < v
int res = MasterObject.Version() > v
int res = MasterObject.Version() == v
int hash_value( MasterObject.Version arg )

Description

Methods define so that version objects can be compared and ordered.


Method cast

(int)MasterObject.Version()
(float)MasterObject.Version()
(string)MasterObject.Version()
(array)MasterObject.Version()
(mapping)MasterObject.Version()
(multiset)MasterObject.Version()

Description

The version object can be casted into a string.


Method create

MasterObject.Version MasterObject.Version(int major, int minor)

Description

Set the version in the object.


Variable major
Variable minor

int MasterObject.Version.major
int MasterObject.Version.minor

Description

The major and minor parts of the version.

Class MasterObject.dirnode

Description

Module node representing a single directory.

See also

joinnode


Variable dirname
Variable compilation_handler
Variable name

string MasterObject.dirnode.dirname
object|void MasterObject.dirnode.compilation_handler
string|void MasterObject.dirnode.name


Method create

MasterObject.dirnode MasterObject.dirnode(string dirname, object|void compilation_handler, string|void name)

Class MasterObject.joinnode

Description

Module node holding possibly multiple directories, and optionally falling back to another level.

See also

dirnode


Variable joined_modules
Variable compilation_handler
Variable fallback_module
Variable name

array(object|mapping) MasterObject.joinnode.joined_modules
object|void MasterObject.joinnode.compilation_handler
joinnode|mapping(mixed:int(0..0))|void MasterObject.joinnode.fallback_module
string|void MasterObject.joinnode.name


Method create

MasterObject.joinnode MasterObject.joinnode(array(object|mapping) joined_modules, object|void compilation_handler, joinnode|mapping(mixed:int(0..0))|void fallback_module, string|void name)

Class RandomInterface


Method random

array random(mapping m)

Description

Returns a random index-value pair from the mapping.

Array
mixed 0

The index of the mapping entry.

mixed 1

The value f the mapping entry.

Throws

Throws an exception if the mapping is empty.


Method random

float random(float max)

Description

This function returns a random number in the range 0 .. max.

See also

Random


Method random

int random(int max)

Description

This function returns a random number in the range 0 .. max-1.

See also

Random


Method random

mixed random(object o)

Description

If random is called with an object, lfun::_random will be called in the object.

Throws

Throws an exception if the object doesn't have a _random method.

See also

lfun::_random()


Method random

mixed random(array|multiset x)

Description

Returns a random element from x.

Throws

Throws an exception if the array or multiset is empty.


Method random_string

string(8bit) random_string(int(0..))

Description

Prototype for the randomness generating function.

Override this symbol to implement a usable class.

Class RandomSystem


Inherit RandomInterface

inherit RandomInterface : RandomInterface


Method random_string

string(8bit) random_string(int(0..) len)

Description

Return a string of random data from the system randomness pool.

On POSIX platforms this reads random data from /dev/urandom on other platforms it may use other methods.

Throws

May throw errors on unexpected state.

Class Reporter

Description

API for reporting parse errors and similar.


Method report

void report(SeverityLevel severity, string filename, int(1..) linenumber, string subsystem, string message, mixed ... extra_args)

Description

Report a diagnostic from the compiler.

Parameter severity

The severity of the diagnostic.

Parameter filename
Parameter linenumber

Location which triggered the diagnostic.

Parameter subsystem

Compiler subsystem that generated the diagnostic.

Parameter message

sprintf()-style formatting string with the diagnostic message.

Parameter extra_args

Extra arguments to sprintf().

The default implementation does the following:

  • If there's a MasterObject()->report(), call it with the same arguments as ourselves.

  • Otherwise depending on severity:

    NOTICE

    Ignored.

    WARNING

    Calls MasterObject()->compile_warning().

    ERROR

    Calls MasterObject()->compile_error().

    FATAL

If there's no master object yet, the diagnostic is output to Stdio.stderr.

Note

In Pike 7.8 and earlier MasterObject()->report() was not called.

See also

PikeCompiler()->report()

Enum Reporter.SeverityLevel

Description

Message severity level. { NOTICE, WARNING, ERROR, FATAL }

See also

report()


Constant NOTICE
Constant WARNING
Constant ERROR
Constant FATAL

constant Reporter.NOTICE
constant Reporter.WARNING
constant Reporter.ERROR
constant Reporter.FATAL

Class __dirnode


Inherit dirnode

inherit MasterObject.dirnode : dirnode

Class __joinnode


Inherit joinnode

inherit MasterObject.joinnode : joinnode

Class mklibpike


Method parse

mapping(string:array(array(Parser.C.Token))) parse(array(Parser.C.Token) tokens)

Description

Returns a mapping from symbol to a tuple of return type and parameters.

Class mklibpike.C_Include_Handler


Method create

mklibpike.C_Include_Handler mklibpike.C_Include_Handler(array(string) search_path)


Variable search_path

array(string) mklibpike.C_Include_Handler.search_path

Class string_assignment


Method `[]

int res = string_assignment()[ i ]

Description

String index operator.


Method `[]=

string_assignment()[ i ] = j

Description

String assign index operator.

Module Arg

Description

Argument parsing module

This module supports two rather different methods of argument parsing. The first is suitable quick argument parsing without much in the way of checking:

int main( int c, array(string) argv )
{
  mapping arguments = Arg.parse(argv);
  array files = arguments[Arg.REST];
  if( arguments->help ) print_help();
  ...
}

The Arg.parse method will return a mapping from argument name to the argument value, if any.

Non-option arguments will be placed in the index Arg.REST

The second way to use this module is to inherit the Options class and add supported arguments.

class MyArguments {
   inherit Arg.Options;
   string help_pre = "Usage: somecommand";
   Opt verbose = NoOpt("-v")|NoOpt("--verbose");
   string verbose_help = "Turn on verbose output";
   Opt help = MaybeOpt("--help");
   Opt output = HasOpt("--output")|HasOpt("-o");
   string output_help = "Determine where output goes to";
   string help_post = "Command aborted";
};

Then, in main:

MyArguments args = MyArguments(argv);

See the documentation for OptLibrary for details about the various Opt classes.


Constant APP

constant Arg.APP

Description

Constant used to represent the name of the application from the command line. Can be used when indexing an Options object.


Constant PATH

constant Arg.PATH

Description

Constant used to represent the full path of the application from the command line. Can be used when indexing an Options object.


Constant REST

constant Arg.REST

Description

Constant used to represent command line arguments not identified as options. Can be used both in the response mapping from parse and when indexing an Options object.


Method parse

mapping(string:string|int(1..)) parse(array(string) argv)

Description

Convenience function for simple argument parsing.

Handles the most common cases.

The return value is a mapping from option name to the option value.

The special index Arg.REST will be set to the remaining arguments after all options have been parsed.

The following argument syntaxes are supported:

--foo         ->  "foo":1
--foo=bar     ->  "foo":"bar"
-bar          ->  "b":1,"a":1,"r":1
-bar=foo      ->  "b":1,"a":1,"r":"foo" (?)
--foo --bar   ->  "foo":1,"bar":1
--foo - --bar ->  "foo":1
--foo x --bar ->  "foo":1 (?)
-foo          ->  "f":1,"o":2
-x -x -x      ->  "x":3
Example
void main(int n, array argv)
{
  mapping opts = Arg.parse(argv);
  argv = opts[Arg.REST];
  if( opts->help ) /*... */
}

Class Arg.LowOptions


Variable application

protected string Arg.LowOptions.application


Variable argv

protected array(string) Arg.LowOptions.argv


Method cast

(int)Arg.LowOptions()
(float)Arg.LowOptions()
(string)Arg.LowOptions()
(array)Arg.LowOptions()
(mapping)Arg.LowOptions()
(multiset)Arg.LowOptions()


Method create

Arg.LowOptions Arg.LowOptions(array(string) _argv, void|mapping(string:string) env)


Inherit OptLibrary

protected inherit OptLibrary : OptLibrary


Variable opts

protected mapping(string:Opt) Arg.LowOptions.opts


Method unhandled_argument

protected bool unhandled_argument(array(string) argv, mapping(string:string) env)


Variable values

protected mapping(string:int(1..1)|string) Arg.LowOptions.values

Class Arg.OptLibrary

Description

This class contains a library of parser for different type of options.

Class Arg.OptLibrary.Default

Description

Default value for a setting.

Example

Opt output = HasOpt("-o")|Default("a.out");


Inherit Opt

inherit Opt : Opt

Class Arg.OptLibrary.Env

Description

Environment fallback for an option. Can of course be used as only Opt source.

Example

Opt debug = NoOpt("--debug")|Env("MY_DEBUG");


Inherit Opt

inherit Opt : Opt

Class Arg.OptLibrary.HasOpt

Description

Parses an option that has a parameter. --foo=bar, -x bar and -x=bar will set the variable to bar.

Example

Opt user = HasOpt("--user")|HasOpt("-u");


Inherit NoOpt

inherit NoOpt : NoOpt

Class Arg.OptLibrary.Int

Description

Wrapper class that converts the option argument to an integer.

Example

Opt foo = Int(HasOpt("--foo")|Default(4711));


Method create

Arg.OptLibrary.Int Arg.OptLibrary.Int(Opt opt)


Inherit Opt

inherit Opt : Opt


Variable opt

Opt Arg.OptLibrary.Int.opt

Class Arg.OptLibrary.MaybeOpt

Description

Parses an option that may have a parameter. --foo, -x and x in a sequence like -axb will set the variable to 1. --foo=bar, -x bar and -x=bar will set the variable to bar.

Example

Opt debug = MaybeOpt("--debug");


Inherit NoOpt

inherit NoOpt : NoOpt

Class Arg.OptLibrary.Multiple

Description

Wrapper class that allows multiple instances of an option.

Example

Opt filter = Multiple(HasOpt("--filter"));


Method create

Arg.OptLibrary.Multiple Arg.OptLibrary.Multiple(Opt opt)


Inherit Opt

inherit Opt : Opt


Variable opt

Opt Arg.OptLibrary.Multiple.opt

Class Arg.OptLibrary.NoOpt

Description

Parses an option without parameter, such as --help, -x or "x" from -axb.

Example

Opt verbose = NoOpt("-v")|NoOpt("--verbose");


Inherit Opt

inherit Opt : Opt

Class Arg.OptLibrary.Opt

Description

Base class for parsing an argument. Inherit this class to create custom made option types.


Method __sprintf

protected string __sprintf()

Description

This function will be called by _sprintf, which handles formatting of chaining between objects.


Method get_opts

array(string) get_opts()

Description

Should return a list of options that are parsed. To properly chain argument parsers, return your_opts +  ::get_opts().


Method get_value

mixed get_value(array(string) argv, mapping(string:string) env, mixed previous)

Description

The overloading method should calculate the value of the option and return it. Methods processing argv should only look at argv[0] and if it matches, set it to 0. Returning UNDEFINED means the option was not set (or matched). To properly chain arguments parsers, return ::get_value(argv, env, previous) instead of UNDEFINED, unless you want to explicitly stop the chain and not set this option.

Class Arg.Options

Description

The option parser class that contains all the argument objects.


Variable help
Variable help_help

Opt Arg.Options.help
protected string Arg.Options.help_help

Description

Options that trigger help output.


Inherit LowOptions

inherit LowOptions : LowOptions


Method unhandled_argument

protected bool unhandled_argument(array(string) argv, mapping(string:string) env)

Class Arg.SimpleOptions

Description

Options parser with a unhandled_argument implementation that parses most common argument formats.


Inherit LowOptions

inherit LowOptions : LowOptions


Method unhandled_argument

bool unhandled_argument(array(string) argv, mapping(string:string) env)

Description

Handles arguments as described in Arg.parse

Module Audio

Module Audio.Codec

Class Audio.Codec.decoder

Description

Decoder object.

Note

It needs _Ffmpeg.ffmpeg module for real work.


Method create

Audio.Codec.decoder Audio.Codec.decoder(string|void codecname, object|void _codec)

Description

Creates decoder object

Parameter codecnum

Some of supported codec, like _Ffmpeg.CODEC_ID_*

Parameter _codec

The low level object will be used for decoder. By default _Ffmpeg.ffmpeg object will be used.

Note

Until additional library is implemented the second parameter _codec hasn't effect.

See also

_Ffmpeg.ffmpeg, _Ffmpeg.CODEC_ID_MP2


Method decode

mapping|int decode(int|void partial)

Description

Decodes audio data

Parameter partial

Only one frame will be decoded per call.

Returns

If successfull a mapping with decoded data and byte number of used input data is returned, 0 otherwise.


Method from_file

this_program|zero from_file(Audio.Format.ANY file)

Description

Set codec type from file

It uses Audio.Format.ANY's method get_map() to determine which codec should be used.

Parameter file

The object Audio.Format.ANY.


Method get_status

mapping get_status()

Description

Returns decoder status

Module Audio.Format

Description

Audio data format handling

Note

API remains marked "unstable".

Class Audio.Format.ANY


Method check_format

int check_format()

Description

Check if data are correctly formated.


Method get_data

string get_data()

Description

Returns data only.

Note

The operation is destructive. Ie. current data cursor is moved over.

See also

get_frame, get_sample


Method get_frame

string get_frame()

Description

Returns frame for current position and moves cursor forward.

Note

The operation is destructive. Ie. current data cursor is moved over.

See also

get_data, get_sample


Method get_map

mapping get_map()


Method get_sample

mapping get_sample()

Description

Returns sample for current position and moves cursor forward.

Note

The operation is destructive. Ie. current data cursor is moved over.

See also

get_frame, get_data


Method read_file

this_program read_file(string filename, int|void nocheck)

Description

Reads data from file

See also

read_streamed


Method read_streamed

this_program read_streamed(string filename, int|void nocheck)

Description

Reads data from stream

Ie. for packetized data source the beggining of data is searched.

See also

read_file


Method read_string

this_program read_string(string data, int|void nocheck)

Description

Reads data from string

Class Audio.Format.MP3

Description

A MP3 file parser with ID3 tag support.


Method get_frame

mapping|int get_frame()

Description

Gets next frame from file

Frame is represented by the following mapping. It contains from parsed frame headers and frame data itself.

([ "bitrate": int "copyright": int(0..1), "data": frame_data, "emphasis": emphasis, "extension": "channels":0, "id":1, "layer":3, "original": int(0..1), "padding": int(0..1), "private": int(0..1), "sampling": int ])


Inherit ANY

inherit .module.ANY : ANY

Module Cache

Description

Common Caching implementation

This module serves as a front-end to different kinds of caching systems. It uses two helper objects to actually store data, and to determine expiration policies.

To create a new cache, do Cache.cache( Cache.Storage.Base storage_type, Cache.Policy.Base expiration_policy )

The cache store instances of Cache.Data.

Class Cache.Data

Description

Base stored object for the cache system.


Variable atime

int Cache.Data.atime

Description

last-access time.


Variable cost

float Cache.Data.cost

Description

relative preciousness scale


Method create

Cache.Data Cache.Data(void|mixed value, void|int expire_time, void|float preciousness)

Description

expire_time is relative and in seconds.


Variable ctime

int Cache.Data.ctime

Description

creation-time


Method data

mixed data()

Description

A method in order to allow for lazy computation


Variable etime

int Cache.Data.etime

Description

expiry-time (if supplied). 0 otherwise


Method recursive_low_size

int recursive_low_size(mixed whatfor)

Description

Attempts a wild guess of an object's size. It's left here as a common utility. Some classes won't even need it.


Method size

int size()

Description

A method in order to allow for lazy computation. Used by some Policy Managers

Class Cache.cache

Description

This module serves as a front-end to different kinds of caching systems. It uses two helper objects to actually store data, and to determine expiration policies. Mechanisms to allow for distributed caching systems will be added in time, or at least that is the plan.


Method alookup

void alookup(string key, function(string, mixed, mixed ... :void) callback, int|float timeout, mixed ... args)

Description

Asynchronously look the cache up. The callback will be given as arguments the key, the value, and then any user-supplied arguments. If the timeout (in seconds) expires before any data could be retrieved, the callback is called anyways, with 0 as value.


Method async_cleanup_cache

void async_cleanup_cache()


Method create

Cache.cache Cache.cache(Cache.Storage.Base storage_mgr, Cache.Policy.Base policy_mgr, void|int cleanup_cycle_delay)

Description

Creates a new cache object. Required are a storage manager, and an expiration policy object.


Method delete

void delete(string key, void|bool hard)

Description

Forcibly removes some key. If the 'hard' parameter is supplied and true, deleted objects will also have their lfun::_destruct method called upon removal by some backends (i.e. memory)


Method lookup

mixed lookup(string key)

Description

Looks in the cache for an element with the given key and, if available, returns it. Returns 0 if the element is not available


Method start_cleanup_cycle

void start_cleanup_cycle()


Method store

void store(string key, mixed value, void|int max_life, void|float preciousness, void|multiset(string) dependants)

Description

Sets some value in the cache. Notice that the actual set operation might even not happen at all if the set data doesn't make sense. For instance, storing an object or a program in an SQL-based backend will not be done, and no error will be given about the operation not being performed.

Notice that while max_life will most likely be respected (objects will be garbage-collected at pre-determined intervals anyways), the preciousness . is to be seen as advisory only for the garbage collector If some data was stored with the same key, it gets returned. Also notice that max_life is relative and in seconds. dependants are not fully implemented yet. They are implemented after a request by Martin Stjerrholm, and their purpose is to have some weak form of referential integrity. Simply speaking, they are a list of keys which (if present) will be deleted when the stored entry is deleted (either forcibly or not). They must be handled by the storage manager.


Method threaded_cleanup_cycle

void threaded_cleanup_cycle()

Module Cache.Policy

Class Cache.Policy.Base

Description

Base class for cache expiration policies.


Method expire

void expire(Cache.Storage.Base storage)

Description

Expire callback.

This function is called to expire parts of storage.

Note

All Storage.Policy classes must MUST implement this method.

Class Cache.Policy.Multiple

Description

A multiple-policies expiration policy manager.

Thanks

Thanks to Francesco Chemolli <kinkie@roxen.com> for the contribution.


Method create

Cache.Policy.Multiple Cache.Policy.Multiple(Cache.Policy.Base ... policies)


Method expire

void expire(Cache.Storage.Base storage)

Description

This expire function calls the expire functions in all of the sub-policies in turn.


Inherit Base

inherit Cache.Policy.Base : Base

Class Cache.Policy.Null

Description

Null policy-manager for the generic Caching system

This is a policy manager that doesn't actually expire anything. It is useful in multilevel and/or network-based caches.

Thanks

Thanks to Francesco Chemolli <kinkie@roxen.com> for the contribution.


Method expire

void expire(Cache.Storage.Base storage)

Description

This is an expire function that does nothing.


Inherit Base

inherit Cache.Policy.Base : Base

Class Cache.Policy.Sized

Description

An LRU, size-constrained expiration policy manager.

Thanks

Thanks to Francesco Chemolli <kinkie@roxen.com> for the contribution.


Method create

Cache.Policy.Sized Cache.Policy.Sized(int max, void|int min)


Method expire

void expire(Cache.Storage.Base storage)


Inherit Base

inherit Cache.Policy.Base : Base

Class Cache.Policy.Timed

Description

An access-time-based expiration policy manager.


Inherit Base

inherit Cache.Policy.Base : Base

Module Cache.Storage

Class Cache.Storage.Base

Description

Base class for cache storage managers.

All Cache.Storage managers must provide these methods.


Method aget

void aget(string key, function(string, int(0..0)|Cache.Data, mixed ... :void) callback, mixed ... extra_callback_args)

Description

Fetch some data from the cache asynchronously.

callback() will get as first argument key, and as second argument 0 (cache miss) or an Cache.Data object, plus any additional argument that the user may have supplied.


Method delete

mixed delete(string key, void|bool hard)

Description

Delete the entry specified by key from the cache (if present).

If hard is 1, some backends may force a destruct() on the deleted value.

Dependants (if present) are automatically deleted.

Returns

Returns the deleted entry.


Method first
Method next

int(0..0)|string first()
int(0..0)|string next()

Description

These two functions are an iterator over the cache. There is an internal cursor, which is reset by each call to first(). Subsequent calls to next() will iterate over all the contents of the cache.

These functions are not meant to be exported to the user, but are solely for the policy managers' benefit.


Method get

int(0..0)|Cache.Data get(string key, void|bool notouch)

Description

Fetch some data from the cache synchronously.

Note

Be careful, as with some storage managers it might block the calling thread for some time.


Method set

void set(string key, mixed value, void|int max_life, void|float preciousness, void|multiset(string) dependants)

Description

Data-object creation is performed here if necessary, or in get() depending on the backend.

This allows the storage managers to have their own data class implementation.

Class Cache.Storage.Gdbm

Description

A GBM-based storage manager.

This storage manager provides the means to save data to memory. In this manager I'll add reference documentation as comments to interfaces. It will be organized later in a more comprehensive format

Settings will be added later.

Thanks

Thanks to Francesco Chemolli <kinkie@roxen.com> for the contribution.


Method create

Cache.Storage.Gdbm Cache.Storage.Gdbm(string path)

Description

A GDBM storage-manager must be hooked to a GDBM Database.


Inherit Base

inherit Cache.Storage.Base : Base

Class Cache.Storage.Gdbm.Data


Inherit Data

inherit Cache.Data : Data

Class Cache.Storage.Memory

Description

A RAM-based storage manager.

This storage manager provides the means to save data to memory. In this manager I'll add reference documentation as comments to interfaces. It will be organized later in a more comprehensive format

Settings will be added later.

Thanks

Thanks to Francesco Chemolli <kinkie@roxen.com> for the contribution.


Method get

int(0..0)|Cache.Data get(string key, void|int notouch)

Description

Fetches some data from the cache. If notouch is set, don't touch the data from the cache (meant to be used by the storage manager only)


Inherit Base

inherit Cache.Storage.Base : Base

Class Cache.Storage.Memory.Data


Inherit Data

inherit Cache.Data : Data

Class Cache.Storage.MySQL

Description

An SQL-based storage manager

This storage manager provides the means to save data to an SQL-based backend.

For now it's mysql only, dialectization will be added at a later time. Serialization should be taken care of by the low-level SQL drivers.

Note

An administrator is supposed to create the database and give the user enough privileges to write to it. It will be care of this driver to create the database tables itself.

Thanks

Thanks to Francesco Chemolli <kinkie@roxen.com> for the contribution.


Method create

Cache.Storage.MySQL Cache.Storage.MySQL(string sql_url)


Inherit Base

inherit Cache.Storage.Base : Base

Class Cache.Storage.MySQL.Data

Description

Database manipulation is done externally. This class only returns values, with some lazy decoding.


Inherit Data

inherit Cache.Data : Data

Class Cache.Storage.Yabu

Description

A Yabu-based storage manager.

Settings will be added later.

Thanks

Thanks to Francesco Chemolli <kinkie@roxen.com> for the contribution.


Method create

Cache.Storage.Yabu Cache.Storage.Yabu(string path)


Inherit Base

inherit Cache.Storage.Base : Base

Class Cache.Storage.Yabu.Data


Inherit Data

inherit Cache.Data : Data

Module CommonLog

Description

The CommonLog module is used to parse the lines in a www server's logfile, which must be in "common log" format -- such as used by default for the access log by Roxen, Caudium, Apache et al.


Method read

int read(function(array(int|string), int:void) callback, Stdio.File|string logfile, void|int offset)

Description

Reads the log file and calls the callback function for every parsed line. For lines that fails to be parsed the callback is not called not is any error thrown. The number of bytes read are returned.

Parameter callback

The callbacks first argument is an array with the different parts of the log entry.

Array
string remote_host 
int(0..0)|string ident_user 
int(0..0)|string auth_user 
int year 
int month 
int day 
int hours 
int minutes 
int seconds 
int timezone 
int(0..0)|string method

One of "GET", "POST", "HEAD" etc.

int(0..0)|string path 
string protocol

E.g. "HTTP/1.0"

int reply_code

One of 200, 404 etc.

int bytes 

The second callback argument is the current offset to the end of the current line.

Parameter logfile

The logfile to parse. Either an open Stdio.File object, or a string with the path to the logfile.

Parameter offset

The absolute position in the file where the parser should begin. Note that the offset defaults to 0 (zero), NOT the current offset of logfile.

Module DVB

Description

Implements Digital Video Broadcasting interface

Note

Only Linux version is supported.

Class DVB.Audio

Description

Object for controlling an audio subsystem on full featured cards.


Method create

DVB.Audio DVB.Audio(int card_number)
DVB.Audio DVB.Audio()

Description

Create a Audio object.

Parameter card_number

The number of card equipment.


Method mixer

int mixer(int left, int right)
int mixer(int both)

Description

Sets output level on DVB audio device.

See also

mute()


Method mute

int mute(int mute)
int mute()

Description

Mute or unmute audio device.

See also

mixer()


Method status

mapping status()

Description

Returns mapping of current audio device status.

Class DVB.Stream

Description

Represents an elementary data stream (PES).


Method _destruct

int _destruct()

Description

Purge a stream reader.

See also

DVB.dvb()->stream(), read()


Method close

void close()

Description

Closes an open stream.

See also

read()


Method read

string|int read()

Description

Read data from a stream. It reads up to read buffer size data.

Note

Read buffer size is 4096 by default.

See also

DVB.dvb()->stream(), close()


Method set_buffer

int set_buffer(int len)

Description

Sets stream's internal buffer.

Note

The size is 4096 by default.

See also

read()

Class DVB.dvb

Description

Main class.


Method analyze_pat

mapping analyze_pat()

Description

Return mapping of all PMT.

sid:prognum


Method analyze_pmt

array(mapping)|int analyze_pmt(int sid, int prognum)

Description

Parse PMT table.

See also

analyze_pat()


Method create

DVB.dvb DVB.dvb(int card_number)

Description

Create a DVB object.

Parameter card_number

The number of card equipment.

Note

The number specifies which device will be opened. Ie. /dev/ost/demux0, /dev/ost/demux1 ... for DVB v0.9.4 or /dev/dvb/demux0, /dev/dvb/demux1 ... for versions 2.0+


Method fe_info

mapping fe_info()

Description

Return info of a frondend device.

Note

The information heavily depends on driver. Many fields contain dumb values.


Method fe_status

mapping|int fe_status()

Description

Return status of a DVB object's frondend device.

Returns

The resulting mapping contains the following fields:

"power" : string

If 1 the frontend is powered up and is ready to be used.

"signal" : string

If 1 the frontend detects a signal above a normal noise level

"lock" : string

If 1 the frontend successfully locked to a DVB signal

"carrier" : string

If 1 carrier dectected in signal

"biterbi" : string

If 1 then lock at viterbi state

"sync" : string

If 1 then TS sync byte detected

"tuner_lock" : string

If 1 then tuner has a frequency lock


Method get_pids

mapping|int get_pids()

Description

Returns mapping with info of currently tuned program's pids.

See also

tune()


Method stream

DVB.Stream stream(int pid, int|function(:void) rcb, int ptype)
DVB.Stream stream(int pid, int|function(:void) rcb)
DVB.Stream stream(int pid)

Description

Create a new stream reader object for PID.

Parameter pid

PID of stream.

Parameter rcb

Callback function called whenever there is the data to read from stream. Only for nonblocking mode.

Parameter ptype

Type of payload data to read. By default, audio data is fetched.

Note

Setting async callback doesn't set the object to nonblocking state.

See also

DVB.Stream()->read()


Method tune

int tune(int(2bit) lnb, int freq, bool|string pol, int sr)

Description

Tunes to apropriate transponder's parameters.

Parameter lnb

DiSeQc number of LNB.

Parameter freq

Frequency divided by 1000.

Parameter pol

Polarization. 0 or "v" for vertical type, 1 or "h" for horizontal one.

Parameter sr

The service rate parameter.

Module Debug


Method add_to_perf_map

void add_to_perf_map(program p)

Description

Updates the perf map file with new program p.

See also

generate_perf_map()

Note

Expects generate_perf_map() to have been called before.


Method assembler_debug

int(0..) assembler_debug(int(0..) level)

Description

Set the assembler debug level.

Returns

The old assembler debug level will be returned.

Note

This function is only available if the Pike runtime has been compiled with RTL debug.


Method compiler_trace

int(0..) compiler_trace(int(0..) level)

Description

Set the compiler trace level.

Returns

The old compiler trace level will be returned.

Note

This function is only available if the Pike runtime has been compiled with RTL debug.


Method count_objects

mapping(string:int) count_objects()

Description

Returns the number of objects of every kind in memory.


Method debug

int(0..) debug(int(0..) level)

Description

Set the run-time debug level.

Returns

The old debug level will be returned.

Note

This function is only available if the Pike runtime has been compiled with RTL debug.


Method describe

mixed describe(mixed x)

Description

Prints out a description of the thing x to standard error. The description contains various internal info associated with x.

Note

This function only exists if the Pike runtime has been compiled with RTL debug.


Method describe_encoded_value

int describe_encoded_value(string data)

Description

Describe the contents of an encode_value() string.

Returns

Returns the number of encoding errors that were detected (if any).


Method describe_program

array(array(int|string|type)) describe_program(program p)

Description

Debug function for showing the symbol table of a program.

Returns

Returns an array of arrays with the following information for each symbol in p:

Array
int modifiers

Bitfield with the modifiers for the symbol.

string symbol_name

Name of the symbol.

type value_type

Value type for the symbol.

int symbol_type

Type of symbol.

int symbol_offset

Offset into the code or data area for the symbol.

int inherit_offset

Offset in the inherit table to the inherit containing the symbol.

int inherit_level

Depth in the inherit tree for the inherit containing the symbol.

Note

The API for this function is not fixed, and has changed since Pike 7.6. In particular it would make sense to return an array of objects instead, and more information about the symbols might be added.


Method disassemble

void disassemble(function(:void) fun)

Description

Disassemble a Pike function to Stdio.stderr.

Note

This function is only available if the Pike runtime has been compiled with debug enabled.


Method dmalloc_set_name

void dmalloc_set_name()

Note

Only available when compiled with dmalloc.


Method dmalloc_set_name

void dmalloc_set_name(string filename, int(1..) linenumber)

Note

Only available when compiled with dmalloc.


Method dump_backlog

void dump_backlog()

Description

Dumps the 1024 latest executed opcodes, along with the source code lines, to standard error. The backlog is only collected on debug level 1 or higher, set with _debug or with the -d argument on the command line.

Note

This function only exists if the Pike runtime has been compiled with RTL debug.


Method dump_dmalloc_locations

void dump_dmalloc_locations(string|array|mapping|multiset|function(:void)|object|program|type o)

Note

Only available when compiled with dmalloc.


Method dump_program_tables

void dump_program_tables(program p, int(0..)|void indent)

Description

Dumps the internal tables for the program p on stderr.

Parameter p

Program to dump.

Parameter indent

Number of spaces to indent the output.


Method find_all_clones

array(object) find_all_clones(program p, bool|void include_subclasses)

Description

Return an array with all objects that are clones of p.

Parameter p

Program that the objects should be a clone of.

Parameter include_subclasses

If true, include also objects that are clones of programs that have inherited p. Note that this adds significant overhead.

This function is only intended to be used for debug purposes.

See also

map_all_objects()


Method gc_set_watch

void gc_set_watch(array|multiset|mapping|object|function(:void)|program|string x)

Description

Sets a watch on the given thing, so that the gc will print a message whenever it's encountered. Intended to be used together with breakpoints to debug the garbage collector.

Note

This function only exists if the Pike runtime has been compiled with RTL debug.


Method gc_status

mapping(string:int|float) gc_status()

Description

Get statistics from the garbage collector.

Returns

A mapping with the following content will be returned:

"num_objects" : int

Number of arrays, mappings, multisets, objects and programs.

"num_allocs" : int

Number of memory allocations since the last gc run.

"alloc_threshold" : int

Threshold for "num_allocs" when another automatic gc run is scheduled.

"projected_garbage" : float

Estimation of the current amount of garbage.

"objects_alloced" : int

Decaying average over the number of allocated objects between gc runs.

"objects_freed" : int

Decaying average over the number of freed objects in each gc run.

"last_garbage_ratio" : float

Garbage ratio in the last gc run.

"non_gc_time" : int

Decaying average over the interval between gc runs, measured in real time nanoseconds.

"gc_time" : int

Decaying average over the length of the gc runs, measured in real time nanoseconds.

"last_garbage_strategy" : string

The garbage accumulation goal that the gc aimed for when setting "alloc_threshold" in the last run. The value is either "garbage_ratio_low", "garbage_ratio_high" or "garbage_max_interval". The first two correspond to the gc parameters with the same names in Pike.gc_parameters, and the last is the minimum gc time limit specified through the "min_gc_time_ratio" parameter to Pike.gc_parameters.

"last_gc" : int

Time when the garbage-collector last ran.

"total_gc_cpu_time" : int

The total amount of CPU time that has been consumed in implicit GC runs, in nanoseconds. 0 on systems where Pike lacks support for CPU time measurement.

"total_gc_real_time" : int

The total amount of real time that has been spent in implicit GC runs, in nanoseconds.

See also

gc(), Pike.gc_parameters(), Pike.implicit_gc_real_time


Method generate_perf_map

void generate_perf_map()

Description

Generates a perf map file of all Pike code and writes it to /tmp/perf-<pid>.map. This is useful only if pike has been compiled with machine code support. It allows the linux perf tool to determine the correct name of Pike functions that were compiled to machine code by pike.


Method get_program_layout

mapping(string:int) get_program_layout(program p)

Description

Returns a mapping which describes the layout of compiled machine code in the program p. The indices of the returned mapping are function names, the values the starting address of the compiled function. The total size of the program code is stored with index 0.


Variable globals

mapping Debug.globals

Description

Can be custom filled from within your program in order to have global references to explore live datastructures using Inspect; comes preinitialised with the empty mapping, ready for use.


Method hexdump

void hexdump(string(8bit) raw)

Description

Write a hexadecimal dump of the contents of raw to Stdio.stderr.


Inherit _Debug

inherit _Debug : _Debug


Method list_open_fds

void list_open_fds()

Note

Only available when compiled with dmalloc.


Method locate_references

mixed locate_references(string|array|mapping|multiset|function(:void)|object|program|type o)

Description

This function is mostly intended for debugging. It will search through all data structures in Pike looking for o and print the locations on stderr. o can be anything but int or float.

Note

This function only exists if the Pike runtime has been compiled with RTL debug.


Method map_all_objects

int(0..) map_all_objects(function(object:void) cb)

Description

Call cb for all objects that currently exist. The callback will not be called with destructed objects as it's argument.

Objects might be missed if cb creates new objects or destroys old ones.

This function is only intended to be used for debug purposes.

Returns

The total number of objects

See also

next_object(), find_all_clones()


Method map_all_programs

int(0..) map_all_programs(function(program:void) cb)

Description

Call cb for all programs that currently exist.

Programs might be missed if cb creates new programs.

This function is only intended to be used for debug purposes.

Returns

The total number of programs

See also

map_all_objects()


Method map_all_strings

int(0..) map_all_strings(function(string:void) cb)

Description

Call cb for all strings that currently exist.

strings might be missed if cb creates new strings or destroys old ones.

This function is only intended to be used for debug purposes.

Returns

The total number of strings

See also

next_object()


Method memory_usage

mapping(string:int) memory_usage()

Description

Check memory usage.

This function is mostly intended for debugging. It delivers a mapping with information about how many arrays/mappings/strings etc. there are currently allocated and how much memory they use.

The entries in the mapping are typically paired, with one named "num_" + SYMBOL + "s" containing a count, and the other named SYMBOL + "_bytes" containing a best effort approximation of the size in bytes.

Note

Exactly what fields this function returns is version dependant.

See also

_verify_internals()


Method next

mixed next(mixed x)

Description

Find the next object/array/mapping/multiset/program or string.

All objects, arrays, mappings, multisets, programs and strings are stored in linked lists inside Pike. This function returns the next item on the corresponding list. It is mainly meant for debugging the Pike runtime, but can also be used to control memory usage.

See also

next_object(), prev()


Method next_object

object next_object(object o)
object next_object()

Description

Returns the next object from the list of all objects.

All objects are stored in a linked list.

Returns

If no arguments have been given next_object() will return the first object from the list.

If o has been specified the object after o on the list will be returned.

Note

This function is not recomended to use.

See also

destruct()


Method optimizer_debug

int(0..) optimizer_debug(int(0..) level)

Description

Set the optimizer debug level.

Returns

The old optimizer debug level will be returned.

Note

This function is only available if the Pike runtime has been compiled with RTL debug.


Method pp_memory_usage

string pp_memory_usage()

Description

Returns a pretty printed version of the output from memory_usage.


Method pp_object_usage

string pp_object_usage()

Description

Returns a pretty printed version of the output from count_objects (with added estimated RAM usage)


Method prev

mixed prev(mixed x)

Description

Find the previous object/array/mapping/multiset or program.

All objects, arrays, mappings, multisets and programs are stored in linked lists inside Pike. This function returns the previous item on the corresponding list. It is mainly meant for debugging the Pike runtime, but can also be used to control memory usage.

Note

Unlike next() this function does not work on strings.

See also

next_object(), next()


Method refs

int refs(string|array|mapping|multiset|function(:void)|object|program o)

Description

Return the number of references o has.

It is mainly meant for debugging the Pike runtime, but can also be used to control memory usage.

Note

Note that the number of references will always be at least one since the value is located on the stack when this function is executed.

See also

next(), prev()


Method remove_from_perf_map

void remove_from_perf_map(program p)

Description

Removed p from the perf map file.


Method reset_dmalloc

void reset_dmalloc()

Note

Only available when compiled with dmalloc.


Method size_object

int size_object(object o)

Description

Return the aproximate size of the object, in bytes. This might not work very well for native objects

The function tries to estimate the memory usage of variables belonging to the object.

It will not, however, include the size of objects assigned to variables in the object.

If the object has a lfun::_size_object() it will be called without arguments, and the return value will be added to the final size. It is primarily intended to be used by C-objects that allocate memory that is not normally visible to pike.

See also

lfun::_size_object(), sizeof()


Method verify_internals

void verify_internals()

Description

Perform sanity checks.

This function goes through most of the internal Pike structures and generates a fatal error if one of them is found to be out of order. It is only used for debugging.

Note

This function does a more thorough check if the Pike runtime has been compiled with RTL debug.

Class Debug.Decoder


Method create

Debug.Decoder Debug.Decoder(Stdio.Buffer input)


Variable input

Stdio.Buffer Debug.Decoder.input

Class Debug.Inspect

Description

Allows for interactive debugging and live data structure inspection in both single- and multi-threaded programs. Creates an independent background thread that every pollinterval will show a list of running threads. Optionally, a triggersignal can be specified which allows the dump to be triggered by a signal.

Example: In the program you'd like to inspect, insert the following one-liner:

Debug.Inspect("/tmp/test.pike");

Then start the program and keep it running. Next you create a /tmp/test.pike with the following content:

void create() {
 werror("Only once per modification of test.pike\n");
}

int main() {
 werror("This will run every iteration\n");
 werror("By returning 1 here, we disable the stacktrace dumps\n");
 return 0;
}

void _destruct() {
 werror("_destruct() runs just as often as create()\n");
}

Whenever you edit /tmp/test.pike, it will automatically reload the file.


Variable _callback

string|function(void:void) Debug.Inspect._callback

Description

Either the callback function which is invoked on each iteration, or the name of a file which contains a class which is (re)compiled automatically and called on each iteration.

See also

create


Variable _loopthread

Thread.Thread Debug.Inspect._loopthread

Description

The inspect-thread. It will not appear in the displayed thread-list.


Method create

Debug.Inspect Debug.Inspect(string|function(void:void)|void cb)

Description

Starts up the background thread.

Parameter cb

Specifies either the callback function which is invoked on each iteration, or the name of a file which contains a class which is (re)compiled automatically with an optional main() method, which will be called on each iteration. If the main() method returns 0, new stacktraces will be dumped every iteration; if it returns 1, stacktrace dumping will be suppressed.

Note

The compilation and the running of the callback is guarded by a catch(), so that failures (to compile) in that section will not interfere with the running program.

Note

If the list of running threads did not change, displaying the list again will be suppressed.

See also

triggersignal, pollinterval, _loopthread, _callback, Debug.globals


Method inspect

void inspect()

Description

The internal function which does all the work each pollinterval. Run it directly to force a thread-dump.


Variable pollinterval

int Debug.Inspect.pollinterval

Description

The polling interval in seconds, defaults to 4.


Variable triggersignal

int Debug.Inspect.triggersignal

Description

If assigned to, it will allow the diagnostics inspection to be triggered by this signal.

Class Debug.Rapidlog

Description

Allows for rapid collection of logdata, which is then fed to the real werror() at idle moments. This allows for logging to occur with minimal timing interference.


Method werror

void werror(string format, mixed ... args)

Description

Overloads the predef::werror() function to allow floods of logentries while introducing minimal latency. Logs are buffered, and periodically flushed from another thread. If the arrival rate of logs is excessive, it simply skips part of the logs to keep up.

Note

When parts are skipped, records are skipped in whole and will never be split up.

See also

werror_options()


Method werror_options

void werror_options(int options, void|int pollinterval, void|int drainrate, void|int maxbufentries)

Parameter options

Defaults to 0, reserved for future enhancements.

Parameter pollinterval

Pollinterval in seconds for the log-flush thread; defaults to 1. Logs will only be flushed out, if during the last pollinterval no new logs have been added.

Parameter drainrate

Maximum number of lines per second that will be dumped to stderr. Defaults to 10.

Parameter maxbufentries

Maximum number of buffered logrecords which have not been flushed to stderr yet. If this number is exceeded, the oldest maxbufentries/2 entries will be skipped; a notice to that effect is logged to stderr.

See also

werror()

Class Debug.Subject

Description

This is a probe subject which you can send in somewhere to get probed (not to be confused with a probe object, which does some active probing). All calls to LFUNs will be printed to stderr. It is possible to name the subject by passing a string as the first and only argument when creating the subject object.

Example

> object s = Debug.Subject(); create() > random(s); _random() (1) Result: 0 > abs(s); `<(0) _sprintf(79, ([ ])) (2) Result: Debug.Subject > abs(class { inherit Debug.Subject; int `<(mixed ... args) { return 1; } }()); create() `-() _destruct() (3) Result: 0 > pow(s,2); `[]("pow") Attempt to call the NULL-value Unknown program: 0(2)

Class Debug.Tracer

Description

A class that when instatiated will turn on trace, and when it's destroyed will turn it off again.


Method create

Debug.Tracer Debug.Tracer(int level)

Description

Sets the level of debug trace to level.

Class Debug.Wrapper

Description

This wrapper can be placed around another object to get printouts about what is happening to it. Only a few LFUNs are currently supported.

Example

> object x=Debug.Wrapper(Crypto.MD5()); Debug.Wrapper is proxying ___Nettle.MD5_State() > x->name(); ___Nettle.MD5_State()->name (1) Result: "md5" > !x; !___Nettle.MD5_State() (2) Result: 0


Method _indices

array indices( Debug.Wrapper arg )


Method _sizeof

int sizeof( Debug.Wrapper arg )


Method _sprintf

string sprintf(string format, ... Debug.Wrapper arg ... )


Method _values

array values( Debug.Wrapper arg )


Method `!

bool res = !Debug.Wrapper()


Method `->

mixed res = Debug.Wrapper()->X


Method `[]

mixed res = Debug.Wrapper()[ x ]


Method create

Debug.Wrapper Debug.Wrapper(object x)

Module Debug.Profiling


Method display

void display(int|void num, string|array(string)|void pattern, string|array(string)|void exclude)

Description

Show profiling information in a more-or-less readable manner. This only works if pike has been compiled with profiling support.

The function will print to stderr using werror.

This is mainly here for use from the Debug.Watchdog class, if you want to do your own formatting or output to some other channel use get_prof_info instead.


Method get_prof_info

array(array(string|float|int)) get_prof_info(string|array(string)|void include, string|array(string)|void exclude)

Description

Collect profiling data.

This will return the CPU usage, by function, since the last time the function was called.

The returned array contains the following entries per entry:

Array
string name

The name of the function.

int number_of_calls

The number of calls.

float total_self_time

Total self CPU time in milliseconds.

float total_cpu_time

Total self CPU time in milliseconds, including children.

float avg_self_time

Average self CPU time in microseconds.

float avg_cpu_time

Average self CPU time in microseconds, including children.

float self_time_pct

The self CPU time as percentage of total time.

float cpu_time_pct

The self CPU time, including children, as percentage of total time.

string function_line

Function's definition source location.

Module DefaultCompilerEnvironment

Description

The CompilerEnvironment object that is used for loading C-modules and by predef::compile().

Note

predef::compile() is essentially an alias for the CompilerEnvironment()->compile() in this object.

See also

CompilerEnvironment, predef::compile()


Inherit CompilerEnvironment

inherit CompilerEnvironment : CompilerEnvironment

Module Error


Method mkerror

object mkerror(mixed error)

Description

Returns an Error object for any argument it receives. If the argument already is an Error object or is empty, it does nothing.

Class Error.Generic

Description

Class for exception objects for errors of unspecified type.


Method _is_type

bool res = is_type(Error.Generic())

Description

Claims that the error object is an array, for compatibility with old style error handling code.


Method _sprintf

string sprintf(string format, ... Error.Generic arg ... )


Method `[]

array|string res = Error.Generic()[ index ]

Description

Index operator.

Simulates an array

Array
string msg

Error message as returned by message.

array backtrace

Backtrace as returned by backtrace.

Note

The error message is always terminated with a newline.

See also

backtrace()


Method backtrace

array backtrace()

Description

Return the backtrace where the error occurred. Normally simply returns error_backtrace.

See also

predef::backtrace()


Method cast

(array)Error.Generic()

Description

Cast operator.

Note

The only supported type to cast to is "array", which generates an old-style error ({message(),    backtrace()}).


Method create

Error.Generic Error.Generic(string message, void|array(backtrace_frame|array(mixed)) backtrace)


Method describe

string describe()

Description

Return a readable error report that includes the backtrace.


Variable error_backtrace

array(backtrace_frame|array(mixed)) Error.Generic.error_backtrace

Description

The backtrace as returned by backtrace where the error occurred.

Code that catches and rethrows errors should ensure that this remains the same in the rethrown error.


Variable error_message

string Error.Generic.error_message

Description

The error message. It always ends with a newline ('\n') character and it might be more than one line.

Code that catches and rethrows errors may extend this with more error information.


Method message

string message()

Description

Return a readable message describing the error. Normally simply returns error_message.

If you override this function then you should ensure that error_message is included in the returned message, since there might be code that catches your error objects, extends error_message with more info, and rethrows the error.

Module Filesystem


Method `()

protected function(:void) `()(void|string path)

Description

FIXME: Document this function


Method get_filesystem

program get_filesystem(string what)

Description

FIXME: Document this function


Method parse_mode

int parse_mode(int old, int|string mode)

Description

FIXME: Document this function

Class Filesystem.Base

Description

Baseclass that can be extended to create new filesystems. Is used by the Tar and System filesystem classes.


Method apply

int apply()

Description

FIXME: Document this function


Method cd

Base cd(string|void directory)

Description

Change directory within the filesystem. Returns a new filesystem object with the given directory as cwd.


Method chmod

void chmod(string filename, int|string mode)

Description

Change mode of a file or directory.


Method chown

void chown(string filename, int|object owner, int|object group)

Description

Change ownership of the file or directory


Method chroot

Base chroot(void|string directory)

Description

Change the root of the filesystem.


Method cwd

string cwd()

Description

Returns the current working directory within the filesystem.


Method find

array find(void|function(Stat:int) mask, mixed ... extra)

Description

FIXME: Document this function


Method get_dir

array(string) get_dir(void|string directory, void|string|array glob)

Description

Returns an array of all files and directories within a given directory.

Parameter directory

Directory where the search should be made within the filesystem. CWD is assumed if none (or 0) is given.

Parameter glob

Return only files and dirs matching the glob (if given).

See also

[get_stats]


Method get_stats

array(Stat) get_stats(void|string directory, void|string|array glob)

Description

Returns stat-objects for the files and directories matching the given glob within the given directory.

See also

[get_dir]


Method mkdir

int mkdir(string directory, void|int|string mode)

Description

Create a new directory


Method open

Stdio.File open(string filename, string mode)

Description

Open a file within the filesystem

Returns

A Stdio.File object.


Method rm

int rm(string filename)

Description

Remove a file from the filesystem.


Method stat

Stat stat(string file, int|void lstat)

Description

Return a stat-object for a file or a directory within the filesystem.

Class Filesystem.Stat

Description

Describes the stat of a file


Method attach_statarray

void attach_statarray(array(int) a)

Description

Fills the stat-object with data from a Stdio.File.stat() call.


Method cd

object|zero cd()

Description

Change to the stated directory.

Returns

the directory if the stated object was a directory, 0 otherwise.


Variable isblk

bool Filesystem.Stat.isblk

Description
fifo

Is the file a FIFO?

chr

Is the file a character device?

dir

Is the file (?) a directory?

blk

Is the file a block device?

reg

Is the file a regular file?

lnk

Is the file a link to some other file or directory?

sock

Is the file a socket?

door

FIXME: Document this function.

Returns

1 if the file is of a specific type 0 if the file is not.

See also

[set_type]

Note

Read only


Variable ischr

bool Filesystem.Stat.ischr

Description
fifo

Is the file a FIFO?

chr

Is the file a character device?

dir

Is the file (?) a directory?

blk

Is the file a block device?

reg

Is the file a regular file?

lnk

Is the file a link to some other file or directory?

sock

Is the file a socket?

door

FIXME: Document this function.

Returns

1 if the file is of a specific type 0 if the file is not.

See also

[set_type]

Note

Read only


Variable isdir

bool Filesystem.Stat.isdir

Description
fifo

Is the file a FIFO?

chr

Is the file a character device?

dir

Is the file (?) a directory?

blk

Is the file a block device?

reg

Is the file a regular file?

lnk

Is the file a link to some other file or directory?

sock

Is the file a socket?

door

FIXME: Document this function.

Returns

1 if the file is of a specific type 0 if the file is not.

See also

[set_type]

Note

Read only


Variable isdoor

bool Filesystem.Stat.isdoor

Description
fifo

Is the file a FIFO?

chr

Is the file a character device?

dir

Is the file (?) a directory?

blk

Is the file a block device?

reg

Is the file a regular file?

lnk

Is the file a link to some other file or directory?

sock

Is the file a socket?

door

FIXME: Document this function.

Returns

1 if the file is of a specific type 0 if the file is not.

See also

[set_type]

Note

Read only


Variable isfifo

bool Filesystem.Stat.isfifo

Description
fifo

Is the file a FIFO?

chr

Is the file a character device?

dir

Is the file (?) a directory?

blk

Is the file a block device?

reg

Is the file a regular file?

lnk

Is the file a link to some other file or directory?

sock

Is the file a socket?

door

FIXME: Document this function.

Returns

1 if the file is of a specific type 0 if the file is not.

See also

[set_type]

Note

Read only


Variable islnk

bool Filesystem.Stat.islnk

Description
fifo

Is the file a FIFO?

chr

Is the file a character device?

dir

Is the file (?) a directory?

blk

Is the file a block device?

reg

Is the file a regular file?

lnk

Is the file a link to some other file or directory?

sock

Is the file a socket?

door

FIXME: Document this function.

Returns

1 if the file is of a specific type 0 if the file is not.

See also

[set_type]

Note

Read only


Variable isreg

bool Filesystem.Stat.isreg

Description
fifo

Is the file a FIFO?

chr

Is the file a character device?

dir

Is the file (?) a directory?

blk

Is the file a block device?

reg

Is the file a regular file?

lnk

Is the file a link to some other file or directory?

sock

Is the file a socket?

door

FIXME: Document this function.

Returns

1 if the file is of a specific type 0 if the file is not.

See also

[set_type]

Note

Read only


Variable issock

bool Filesystem.Stat.issock

Description
fifo

Is the file a FIFO?

chr

Is the file a character device?

dir

Is the file (?) a directory?

blk

Is the file a block device?

reg

Is the file a regular file?

lnk

Is the file a link to some other file or directory?

sock

Is the file a socket?

door

FIXME: Document this function.

Returns

1 if the file is of a specific type 0 if the file is not.

See also

[set_type]

Note

Read only


Method nice_date

string nice_date()

Description

Returns the date of the stated object as cleartext.


Method open

Stdio.File open(string mode)

Description

Open the stated file within the filesystem

Returns

a [Stdio.File] object

See also

[Stdio.File]


Method set_type

void set_type(string x)

Description

Set a type for the stat-object.

Note

This call doesnot change the filetype in the underlaying filesystem.

Parameter x

Type to set. Type is one of the following:

  • fifo
  • chr
  • dir
  • blk
  • reg
  • lnk
  • sock
  • door
See also

[isfifo], [ischr], [isdir], [isblk], [isreg], [islnk], [issock], [isdoor]

Class Filesystem.System

Description

Implements an abstraction of the normal filesystem.


Method create

Filesystem.System Filesystem.System(void|string directory, void|string root, void|int fast, void|Filesystem.Base parent)

Description

Instanciate a new object representing the filesystem.

Parameter directory

The directory (in the real filesystem) that should become the root of the filesystemobject.

Parameter root

Internal

Parameter fast

Internal

Parameter parent

Internal


Inherit Base

inherit Filesystem.Base : Base

Class Filesystem.Traversion

Description

Iterator object that traverses a directory tree and returns files as values and paths as indices. Example that uses the iterator to create a really simple sort of make:

Example

object i=Filesystem.Traversion("."); foreach(i; string dir; string file) { if(!has_suffix(file, ".c")) continue; file = dir+file; string ofile = file; ofile[-1]='o'; object s=file_stat(ofile); if(s && i->stat()->mtime<s->mtime) continue; // compile file }


Method create

Filesystem.Traversion Filesystem.Traversion(string path, void|bool symlink, void|bool ignore_errors, void|function(array:array) sort_fun)

Parameter path

The root path from which to traverse.

Parameter symlink

Don't traverse symlink directories.

Parameter ignore_errors

Ignore directories that can not be accessed.

Parameter sort_fun

Sort function to be applied to directory entries before traversing. Can also be a filter function.


Method progress

float progress(void|float share)

Description

Returns the current progress of the traversion as a value between 0.0 and 1.0. Note that this value isn't based on the number of files, but the directory structure.


Method stat

Stdio.Stat|zero stat()

Description

Returns the stat for the current index-value-pair.

Module Filesystem.Monitor

Class Filesystem.Monitor.basic

Description

Basic filesystem monitor.

This module is intended to be used for incremental scanning of a filesystem.

Supports FSEvents on MacOS X and Inotify on Linux to provide low overhead monitoring; other systems use a less efficient polling approach.

See also

Filesystem.Monitor.symlinks, System.FSEvents, System.Inotify


Method adjust_monitor

protected void adjust_monitor(Monitor m)

Description

Update the position in the monitor_queue for the monitor m to account for an updated next_poll value.


Method attr_changed

void attr_changed(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

File attribute changed callback.

Parameter path

Path of the file or directory which has changed attributes.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path, 1).

This function is called when a change has been detected for an attribute for a monitored file or directory.

Called by check() and check_monitor().

Note

If there is a data_changed() callback, it may supersede this callback if the file content also has changed.

Overload this to do something useful.


Variable backend

protected Pike.Backend Filesystem.Monitor.basic.backend

Description

Backend to use.

If 0 (zero) - use the default backend.


Method backend_check

protected void backend_check()

Description

Backend check callback function.

This function is intended to be called from a backend, and performs a check() followed by rescheduling itself via a call to set_nonblocking().

See also

check(), set_nonblocking()


Method canonic_path

protected string canonic_path(string path)

Description

Canonicalize a path.

Parameter path

Path to canonicalize.

Returns

The default implementation returns combine_path(path, "."), i.e. no trailing slashes.


Method check

int check(int|void max_wait, int|void max_cnt, mapping(string:int)|void ret_stats)

Description

Check for changes.

Parameter max_wait

Maximum time in seconds to wait for changes. -1 for infinite wait.

Parameter max_cnt

Maximum number of paths to check in this call. 0 (zero) for unlimited.

Parameter ret_stats

Optional mapping that will be filled with statistics (see below).

A suitable subset of the monitored files will be checked for changes.

Returns

The function returns when either a change has been detected or when max_wait has expired. The returned value indicates the number of seconds until the next call of check().

If ret_stats has been provided, it will be filled with the following entries:

"num_monitors" : int

The total number of active monitors when the scan completed.

"scanned_monitors" : int

The number of monitors that were scanned for updates during the call.

"updated_monitors" : int

The number of monitors that were updated during the call.

"idle_time" : int

The number of seconds that the call slept.

Note

Any callbacks will be called from the same thread as the one calling check().

See also

check_all(), monitor()


Method check_all

void check_all(mapping(string:int)|void ret_stats)

Description

Check all monitors for changes.

Parameter ret_stats

Optional mapping that will be filled with statistics (see below).

All monitored paths will be checked for changes.

Note

You typically don't want to call this function, but instead check().

Note

Any callbacks will be called from the same thread as the one calling check().

See also

check(), monitor()


Method check_monitor

protected bool check_monitor(Monitor m, MonitorFlags|void flags)

Description

Check a single Monitor for changes.

Parameter m

Monitor to check.

Parameter flags
0

Don't recurse.

1

Check all monitors for the entire subtree rooted in m.

This function is called by check() for the Monitors it considers need checking. If it detects any changes an appropriate callback will be called.

Returns

Returns 1 if a change was detected and 0 (zero) otherwise.

Note

Any callbacks will be called from the same thread as the one calling check_monitor().

Note

The return value can not be trusted to return 1 for all detected changes in recursive mode.

See also

check(), data_changed(), attr_changed(), file_created(), file_deleted(), stable_data_change()


Method clear

void clear()

Description

Clear the set of monitored files and directories.

Note

Due to circular datastructures, it's recomended to call this function prior to discarding the object.


Variable co_id

protected mixed Filesystem.Monitor.basic.co_id

Description

Call-out identifier for backend_check() if in nonblocking mode.

See also

set_nonblocking(), set_blocking()


Method create

Filesystem.Monitor.basic Filesystem.Monitor.basic(int|void max_dir_check_interval, int|void file_interval_factor, int|void stable_time)

Description

Create a new monitor.

Parameter max_dir_check_interval

Override of default_max_dir_check_interval.

Parameter file_interval_factor

Override of default_file_interval_factor.

Parameter stable_time

Override of default_stable_time.


Method data_changed

void data_changed(string path)

Description

File content changed callback.

Parameter path

Path of the file which has had content changed.

This function is called when a change has been detected for a monitored file.

Called by check() and check_monitor().

Overload this to do something useful.


Constant default_file_interval_factor

protected constant int Filesystem.Monitor.basic.default_file_interval_factor

Description

The default factor to multiply default_max_dir_check_interval with to get the maximum number of seconds between checks of files.

The value can be changed by calling create().

The value can be overridden for individual files or directories by calling monitor().

Overload this constant to change the default.


Constant default_max_dir_check_interval

protected constant int Filesystem.Monitor.basic.default_max_dir_check_interval

Description

The default maximum number of seconds between checks of directories in seconds.

This value is multiplied with default_file_interval_factor to get the corresponding default maximum number of seconds for files.

The value can be changed by calling create().

The value can be overridden for individual files or directories by calling monitor().

Overload this constant to change the default.


Constant default_stable_time

protected constant int Filesystem.Monitor.basic.default_stable_time

Description

The default minimum number of seconds without changes for a change to be regarded as stable (see stable_data_change().


Method file_created

void file_created(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

File creation callback.

Parameter path

Path of the new file or directory.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path, 1).

This function is called when either a monitored path has started existing, or when a new file or directory has been added to a monitored directory.

Called by check() and check_monitor().

Overload this to do something useful.

Note

This callback has similar semantics to file_exists(), but is called at run time.

See also

file_exists(), file_deleted(), stable_data_change()


Method file_deleted

void file_deleted(string path)

Description

File deletion callback.

Parameter path

Path of the new file or directory that has been deleted.

This function is called when either a monitored path has stopped to exist, or when a file or directory has been deleted from a monitored directory.

Called by check() and check_monitor().

Overload this to do something useful.

See also

file_created(), file_exists(), stable_data_change()


Method file_exists

void file_exists(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

File existance callback.

Parameter path

Path of the file or directory.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path, 1).

This function is called during initialization for all monitored paths, and subpaths for monitored directories. It represents the initial state for the monitor.

Note

For directories, file_exists() will be called for the subpaths before the call for the directory itself. This can be used to detect when the initialization for a directory is finished.

Called by check() and check_monitor() the first time a monitored path is checked (and only if it exists).

Overload this to do something useful.

Note

This callback has similar semantics to file_created(), but is called at initialization time.

See also

file_created(), file_deleted(), stable_data_change()


Method inotify_event

protected void inotify_event(int wd, int event, int cookie, string(8bit) path)

Description

Event callback for Inotify.


Method is_monitored

bool is_monitored(string path)

Description

Check whether a path is monitored or not.

Parameter path

Path to check.

Returns

Returns 1 if there is a monitor on path, and 0 (zero) otherwise.

See also

monitor(), release()


Method low_eventstream_callback

protected void low_eventstream_callback(string path, int flags, int event_id)

Description

This function is called when the FSEvents EventStream detects a change in one of the monitored directories.


Method monitor

Monitor|void monitor(string path, MonitorFlags|void flags, int(0..)|void max_dir_check_interval, int(0..)|void file_interval_factor, int(0..)|void stable_time)

Description

Register a path for monitoring.

Parameter path

Path to monitor.

Parameter flags
0

Don't recurse.

1

Monitor the entire subtree, and any directories or files that may appear later.

3

Monitor the entire subtree, and any directories or files that may appear later. Remove the monitor automatically when path is deleted.

Parameter max_dir_check_interval

Override of default_max_dir_check_interval for this path or subtree.

Parameter file_interval_factor

Override of default_file_interval_factor for this path or subtree.

Parameter stable_time

Override of default_stable_time for this path or subtree.

See also

release()


Method monitor_factory

protected DefaultMonitor monitor_factory(string path, MonitorFlags|void flags, int(0..)|void max_dir_check_interval, int(0..)|void file_interval_factor, int(0..)|void stable_time)

Description

Create a new Monitor for a path.

This function is called by monitor() to create a new Monitor object.

The default implementation just calls DefaultMonitor with the same arguments.

See also

monitor(), DefaultMonitor


Variable monitor_mutex

protected Thread.Mutex Filesystem.Monitor.basic.monitor_mutex

Description

Mutex controlling access to monitor_queue.


Variable monitor_queue

protected ADT.Heap Filesystem.Monitor.basic.monitor_queue

Description

Heap containing active Monitors that need polling.

The heap is sorted on Monitor()->next_poll.


Variable monitors

protected mapping(string:Monitor) Filesystem.Monitor.basic.monitors

Description

Mapping from monitored path to corresponding Monitor.

The paths are normalized to canonic_path(path),

Note

All filesystems are handled as if case-sensitive. This should not be a problem for case-insensitive filesystems as long as case is maintained.


Method release

void release(string path, MonitorFlags|void flags)

Description

Release a path from monitoring.

Parameter path

Path to stop monitoring.

Parameter flags
0

Don't recurse.

1

Release the entire subtree.

3

Release the entire subtree, but only those paths that were added automatically by a recursive monitor.

See also

monitor()


Method release_monitor

protected void release_monitor(Monitor m)

Description

Release a single Monitor from monitoring.

See also

release()


Method report

protected void report(SeverityLevel level, string(7bit) fun, sprintf_format format, sprintf_args ... args)

Description

Event tracing callback.

Parameter level

Severity level of the event.

Parameter fun

Name of the function that called report().

Parameter format

sprintf() formatting string describing the event.

Parameter args

Optional extra arguments for the format string.

This function is called in various places to provide granular tracing of the monitor state.

The default implementation calls werror() with format and args if level is ERROR or higher, or if FILESYSTEM_MONITOR_DEBUG has been defined.


Method reschedule_backend_check

protected void reschedule_backend_check(int|void suggested_t)

Description

Reschedule beckend check.

Parameter suggested_t

Suggested time in seconds until next call of check().

Register suitable callbacks with the backend to automatically call check().

check() and thus all the callbacks will be called from the backend thread.


Method set_backend

void set_backend(Pike.Backend|void backend)

Description

Change backend.

Parameter backend

Backend to use. 0 (zero) for the default backend.


Method set_blocking

void set_blocking()

Description

Turn off nonblocking mode.

See also

set_nonblocking()


Method set_file_interval_factor

void set_file_interval_factor(int file_interval_factor)

Description

Set the file_interval_factor.


Method set_max_dir_check_interval

void set_max_dir_check_interval(int max_dir_check_interval)

Description

Set the max_dir_check_interval.


Method set_nonblocking

void set_nonblocking(int|void suggested_t)

Description

Turn on nonblocking mode.

Parameter suggested_t

Suggested time in seconds until next call of check().

Register suitable callbacks with the backend to automatically call check().

check() and thus all the callbacks will be called from the backend thread.

Note

If nonblocking mode is already active, this function will be a noop.

See also

set_blocking(), check().


Method set_stable_time

void set_stable_time(int stable_time)

Description

Set the stable_time.


Method stable_data_change

void stable_data_change(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

Stable change callback.

Parameter path

Path of the file or directory that has stopped changing.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path, 1).

This function is called when previous changes to path are considered "stable".

"Stable" in this case means that there have been no detected changes for at lease stable_time seconds.

Called by check() and check_monitor().

Overload this to do something useful.

Note

This callback being called does not mean that the contents or inode has changed, just that they don't seem to change any more. In particular it is called for paths found during initialization after stable_time seconds have passed.

See also

file_created(), file_exists(), file_deleted()

Enum Filesystem.Monitor.basic.MonitorFlags

Description

Flags for Monitors.


Constant MF_RECURSE
Constant MF_AUTO
Constant MF_INITED
Constant MF_HARD

constant Filesystem.Monitor.basic.MF_RECURSE
constant Filesystem.Monitor.basic.MF_AUTO
constant Filesystem.Monitor.basic.MF_INITED
constant Filesystem.Monitor.basic.MF_HARD

Class Filesystem.Monitor.basic.DefaultMonitor

Description

This symbol evaluates to the Monitor class used by the default implementation of monitor_factory().

It is currently one of the values Monitor, EventStreamMonitor or InotifyMonitor.

See also

monitor_factory()


Inherit Monitor

inherit Monitor : Monitor

Class Filesystem.Monitor.basic.EventStreamMonitor

Description

FSEvents EventStream-accelerated Monitor.


Inherit Monitor

inherit Monitor : Monitor

Class Filesystem.Monitor.basic.InotifyMonitor

Description

Inotify-accelerated Monitor.


Inherit Monitor

inherit Monitor : Monitor

Class Filesystem.Monitor.basic.Monitor

Description

Monitoring information for a single filesystem path.

See also

monitor()


Method attr_changed

protected void attr_changed(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

File attribute or content changed callback.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path, 1).

This function is called when a change has been detected for an attribute for a monitored file or directory.

Called by check() and check_monitor().

The default implementation calls global::attr_changed() or global::data_changed() depending on the state.

Note

If there is a data_changed() callback, it may supersede this callback if the file content also has changed.


Method bump

void bump(MonitorFlags|void flags, int|void seconds)

Description

Bump the monitor to an earlier scan time.

Parameter flags
0

Don't recurse.

1

Check all monitors for the entire subtree.

Parameter seconds

Number of seconds from now to run next scan. Defaults to half of the remaining interval.


Method call_callback

protected void call_callback(function(string, Stdio.Stat|void:void) cb, string path, Stdio.Stat|void st)

Description

Call a notification callback.

Parameter cb

Callback to call or UNDEFINED for no operation.

Parameter path

Path to notify on.

Parameter st

Stat for the path.


Method check

bool check(MonitorFlags|void flags)

Description

Check for changes.

Parameter flags
0

Don't recurse.

1

Check all monitors for the entire subtree rooted in m.

This function is called by check() for the Monitors it considers need checking. If it detects any changes an appropriate callback will be called.

Returns

Returns 1 if a change was detected and 0 (zero) otherwise.

Note

Any callbacks will be called from the same thread as the one calling check_monitor().

Note

The return value can not be trusted to return 1 for all detected changes in recursive mode.

See also

check(), data_changed(), attr_changed(), file_created(), file_deleted(), stable_data_change()


Method check_for_release

void check_for_release(int mask, int flags)

Description

Check if this monitor should be removed automatically.


Method create

Filesystem.Monitor.basic.Monitor Filesystem.Monitor.basic.Monitor(string path, MonitorFlags flags, int max_dir_check_interval, int file_interval_factor, int stable_time)


Method file_created

protected void file_created(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

File creation callback.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path, 1).

This function is called when either a monitored path has started existing, or when a new file or directory has been added to a monitored directory.

Called by check() and check_monitor().

The default implementation registers the path, and calls global::file_deleted().

Note

This callback has similar semantics to file_exists(), but is called at run time.

See also

file_exists(), file_deleted(), stable_data_change()


Method file_deleted

protected void file_deleted(string path, Stdio.Stat|void old_st)

Description

File deletion callback.

Parameter path

Path of the new file or directory that has been deleted.

Parameter old_st

Stat for the file prior to deletion (if known). Note that this argument is not passed along to top level function.

This function is called when either a monitored path has stopped to exist, or when a file or directory has been deleted from a monitored directory.

Called by check() and check_monitor().

The default implementation unregisters the path, and calls global::file_deleted().

See also

file_created(), file_exists(), stable_data_change()


Method file_exists

protected void file_exists(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

File existance callback.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path, 1).

This function is called during initialization for all monitored paths, and subpaths for monitored directories. It represents the initial state for the monitor.

Note

For directories, file_created() will be called for the subpaths before the call for the directory itself. This can be used to detect when the initialization for a directory is finished.

Called by check() and check_monitor() the first time a monitored path is checked (and only if it exists).

The default implementation registers the path, and calls global::file_exists().

Note

This callback has similar semantics to file_created(), but is called at initialization time.

See also

file_created(), file_deleted(), stable_data_change()


Variable path
Variable flags
Variable max_dir_check_interval
Variable file_interval_factor
Variable stable_time

string Filesystem.Monitor.basic.Monitor.path
MonitorFlags Filesystem.Monitor.basic.Monitor.flags
int Filesystem.Monitor.basic.Monitor.max_dir_check_interval
int Filesystem.Monitor.basic.Monitor.file_interval_factor
int Filesystem.Monitor.basic.Monitor.stable_time


Inherit Element

inherit ADT.Heap.Element : Element


Method monitor

protected void monitor(string path, int flags, int max_dir_interval, int file_interval_factor, int stable_time)

Description

Called to create a sub monitor.


Method parent

this_program parent()

Description

Returns the parent monitor, or UNDEFINED if no such monitor exists.


Method register_path

protected void register_path(int|void initial)

Description

Register the Monitor with the monitoring system.

Parameter initial

Indicates that the Monitor is newly created.


Method report

protected void report(SeverityLevel level, string(7bit) fun, sprintf_format format, sprintf_args ... args)

Description

Event tracing callback.

Parameter level

Severity level of the event.

Parameter fun

Name of the function that called report().

Parameter format

sprintf() formatting string describing the event.

Parameter args

Optional extra arguments for the format string.

This function is called in various places to provide granular tracing of the monitor state.

The default implementation just calls global::report() with the same arguments.


Method stable_data_change

protected void stable_data_change(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

Stable change callback.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path, 1).

This function is called when previous changes to path are considered "stable".

"Stable" in this case means that there have been no detected changes for at lease stable_time seconds.

Called by check() and check_monitor().

The default implementation calls global::stable_data_change().

Note

This callback being called does not mean that the contents or inode has changed, just that they don't seem to change any more. In particular it is called for paths found during initialization after stable_time seconds have passed.

See also

file_created(), file_exists(), file_deleted()


Method status_change

protected bool status_change(Stdio.Stat old_st, Stdio.Stat st, int orig_flags, int flags)

Description

Called when the status has changed for an existing file.


Method submonitor_released

void submonitor_released(this_program submon)

Description

To be called when a (direct) submonitor is released.


Method unregister_path

protected void unregister_path(int|void dying)

Description

Unregister the Monitor from the monitoring system.

Parameter dying

Indicates that the Monitor is being destructed. It is the destruction cause value offset by one.


Method update

protected void update(Stdio.Stat st)

Description

Calculate and set a suitable time for the next poll of this monitor.

Parameter st

New stat for the monitor.

This function is called by check() to schedule the next check.

Class Filesystem.Monitor.debug

Description

Debugging filesystem monitor.

This module behaves as symlinks, but has default implementations of all callbacks that call report(), as well as an implementation of [report()] that logs everything to Stdio.stderr.

See also

Filesystem.Monitor.basic, Filesystem.Monitor.symlinks


Method get_monitors

mapping(string:Monitor) get_monitors()

Description

Return the set of active monitors.


Inherit "symlinks.pike"

inherit "symlinks.pike" : "symlinks.pike"

Class Filesystem.Monitor.symlinks

Description

Filesystem monitor with support for symbolic links.

This module extends Filesystem.Monitor.basic with support for symbolic links.

Note

For operating systems where symbolic links aren't supported, this module will behave exactly like Filesystem.Monitor.basic.

See also

Filesystem.Monitor.basic


Method allocate_symlink

protected int allocate_symlink(string sym)

Description

Allocates a symlink id for the link sym.


Method attr_changed

void attr_changed(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

File attribute changed callback.

Parameter path

Path of the file or directory which has changed attributes.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path).

This function is called when a change has been detected for an attribute for a monitored file or directory.

Called by check() and check_monitor().

Note

If there is a data_changed() callback, it may supersede this callback if the file content also has changed.

Note

It differs from the Filesystem.Monitor.basic version in that symbolic links have the st of their targets.

Overload this to do something useful.


Variable available_ids

protected int Filesystem.Monitor.symlinks.available_ids

Description

Bitmask of all unallocated symlink ids.


Method file_created

void file_created(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

File creation callback.

Parameter path

Path of the new file or directory.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path).

This function is called when either a monitored path has started existing, or when a new file or directory has been added to a monitored directory.

Note

It differs from the Filesystem.Monitor.basic version in that symbolic links have the st of their targets.

Called by check() and check_monitor().

Overload this to do something useful.


Method file_exists

void file_exists(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

File existance callback.

Parameter path

Path of the file or directory.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path).

This function is called during initialization for all monitored paths, and subpaths for monitored directories. It represents the initial state for the monitor.

Note

For directories, file_created() will be called for the subpaths before the call for the directory itself. This can be used to detect when the initialization for a directory is finished.

Note

It differs from the Filesystem.Monitor.basic version in that symbolic links have the st of their targets.

Called by check() and check_monitor() the first time a monitored path is checked (and only if it exists).

Overload this to do something useful.


Inherit basic

inherit Filesystem.Monitor.basic : basic


Method stable_data_change

void stable_data_change(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

Stable change callback.

Parameter path

Path of the file or directory that has stopped changing.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path).

This function is called when previous changes to path are considered "stable".

"Stable" in this case means that there have been no detected changes for at lease stable_time seconds.

Note

It differs from the Filesystem.Monitor.basic version in that symbolic links have the st of their targets.

Called by check() and check_monitor().

Overload this to do something useful.


Variable symlink_ids

protected mapping(string:int) Filesystem.Monitor.symlinks.symlink_ids

Description

Mapping from symlink name to symlink id.


Variable symlink_targets

protected mapping(string:string) Filesystem.Monitor.symlinks.symlink_targets

Description

Mapping from symlink name to symlink target.

Class Filesystem.Monitor.symlinks.DefaultMonitor

Description

Monitoring information for a single filesystem path.

With support for expansion of symbolic links.

See also

monitor()


Method attr_changed

protected void attr_changed(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

File attribute or content changed callback.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path, 1).

This function is called when a change has been detected for an attribute for a monitored file or directory.

Called by check() and check_monitor().

Note

If there is a data_changed() callback, it may supersede this callback if the file content also has changed.


Method call_callback

protected void call_callback(function(string, __unknown__ ... :void) cb, string path, Stdio.Stat|void st)

Description

Call a notification callback and handle symlink expansion.

Parameter cb

Callback to call or UNDEFINED for no operation.

Parameter extras

Extra arguments after the path argument to cb.


Method check_for_release

void check_for_release(int mask, int flags)

Description

Check if this monitor should be removed automatically.


Method check_symlink

protected void check_symlink(string path, Stdio.Stat|zero st, int|void inhibit_notify)

Description

Check whether a symlink has changed.


Method file_created

protected void file_created(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

File creation callback.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path, 1).

This function is called when either a monitored path has started existing, or when a new file or directory has been added to a monitored directory.

Called by check() and check_monitor().


Method file_deleted

protected void file_deleted(string path, Stdio.Stat old_st)

Description

File deletion callback.

Parameter path

Path of the new file or directory that has been deleted.

This function is called when either a monitored path has stopped to exist, or when a file or directory has been deleted from a monitored directory.

Called by check() and check_monitor().


Method file_exists

protected void file_exists(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

File existance callback.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path, 1).

This function is called during initialization for all monitored paths, and subpaths for monitored directories. It represents the initial state for the monitor.

Note

For directories, file_created() will be called for the subpaths before the call for the directory itself. This can be used to detect when the initialization for a directory is finished.

Called by check() and check_monitor() the first time a monitored path is checked (and only if it exists).


Inherit DefaultMonitor

inherit basic::DefaultMonitor : DefaultMonitor

Description

Based on Filesystem.Monitor.basic.DefaultMonitor.


Method low_call_callback

void low_call_callback(function(string, __unknown__ ... :void) cb, mapping(string:int) state, mapping(string:string) symlink_targets, string path, Stdio.Stat|void st, string|void symlink)

Description

Call a notification callback and handle symlink expansion.

Parameter cb

Callback to call or UNDEFINED for no operation.

Parameter state

State mapping to avoid multiple notification and infinite loops. Call with an empty mapping.

Parameter symlinks

Symlinks that have not been expanded yet.

Parameter path

Path to notify on.

Parameter extras

Extra arguments to cb.

Parameter symlink

Symbolic link that must have been followed for the callback to be called.


Method monitor

protected void monitor(string path, int flags, int max_dir_interval, int file_interval_factor, int stable_time)

Description

Called to create a sub monitor.


Method stable_data_change

protected void stable_data_change(string path, Stdio.Stat st)

Description

Stable change callback.

Parameter st

Status information for path as obtained by file_stat(path, 1).

This function is called when previous changes to path are considered "stable".

"Stable" in this case means that there have been no detected changes for at lease stable_time seconds.

Called by check() and check_monitor().


Method status_change

protected bool status_change(Stdio.Stat old_st, Stdio.Stat st, int orig_flags, int flags)

Description

Called when the status has changed for an existing file.


Variable symlinks

int Filesystem.Monitor.symlinks.DefaultMonitor.symlinks

Description

Mask of symlink ids that can reach this monitor.


Method zap_symlink

protected void zap_symlink(string path)

Description

Called when the symlink path is no more.

Module Filesystem.Tar

Description

Filesystem which can be used to mount a Tar file.

Two kinds of extended tar file records are supported:

"ustar\0\60\60"

POSIX ustar (Version 0?).

"ustar \0"

GNU tar (POSIX draft)

Note

For a quick start, you probably want to use `()().

See also

`()()


Constant EXTRACT_CHOWN

constant int Filesystem.Tar.EXTRACT_CHOWN

Description

Set owning user and group from the tar records.


Constant EXTRACT_ERR_ON_UNKNOWN

constant int Filesystem.Tar.EXTRACT_ERR_ON_UNKNOWN

Description

Throw an error if an entry of an unsupported type is encountered. This is ignored otherwise.


Constant EXTRACT_SKIP_EXT_MODE

constant int Filesystem.Tar.EXTRACT_SKIP_EXT_MODE

Description

Don't set set-user-ID, set-group-ID, or sticky bits from the tar records.


Constant EXTRACT_SKIP_MODE

constant int Filesystem.Tar.EXTRACT_SKIP_MODE

Description

Don't set any permission bits from the tar records.


Constant EXTRACT_SKIP_MTIME

constant int Filesystem.Tar.EXTRACT_SKIP_MTIME

Description

Don't set mtime from the tar records.

Class Filesystem.Tar._Tar

Description

Low-level Tar Filesystem.


Method extract

void extract(string src_dir, string dest_dir, void|string|function(string, Filesystem.Stat:int|string) filter, void|int flags)

Description

Extracts files from the tar file in sequential order.

Parameter src_dir

The root directory in the tar file system to extract.

Parameter dest_dir

The root directory in the real file system that will receive the contents of src_dir. It is assumed to exist and be writable.

Parameter filter

A filter for the entries under src_dir to extract. If it's a string then it's taken as a glob pattern which is matched against the path below src_dir. That path always begins with a /. For directory entries it ends with a / too, otherwise not.

If it's a function then it's called for every entry under src_dir, and those where it returns nonzero are extracted. The function receives the path part below src_dir as the first argument, which is the same as in the glob case above, and the stat struct as the second. If the function returns a string, it's taken as the path below dest_dir where this entry should be extracted (any missing directories are created automatically).

If filter is zero, then everything below src_dir is extracted.

Parameter flags

Bitfield of flags to control the extraction:

Filesystem.Tar.EXTRACT_SKIP_MODE

Don't set any permission bits from the tar records.

Filesystem.Tar.EXTRACT_SKIP_EXT_MODE

Don't set set-user-ID, set-group-ID, or sticky bits from the tar records.

Filesystem.Tar.EXTRACT_SKIP_MTIME

Don't set mtime from the tar records.

Filesystem.Tar.EXTRACT_CHOWN

Set owning user and group from the tar records.

Filesystem.Tar.EXTRACT_ERR_ON_UNKNOWN

Throw an error if an entry of an unsupported type is encountered. This is ignored otherwise.

Files and directories are supported on all platforms, and symlinks are supported whereever symlink exists. Other record types are currently not supported.

Throws

I/O errors are thrown.

Class Filesystem.Tar._TarFS


Method chmod

void chmod(string filename, int|string mode)

FIXME

Not implemented yet.


Method chown

void chown(string filename, int|object owner, int|object group)

FIXME

Not implemented yet.


Method create

Filesystem.Tar._TarFS Filesystem.Tar._TarFS(_Tar _tar, string _wd, string _root, Filesystem.Base _parent)


Inherit System

inherit Filesystem.System : System


Method rm

int rm(string filename)

FIXME

Not implemented yet.

Class Filesystem.Tar.`()


Method create

Filesystem.Tar.`() Filesystem.Tar.`()(string filename, void|Filesystem.Base parent, void|object file)

Parameter filename

The tar file to mount.

Parameter parent

The parent filesystem. If none is given, the normal system filesystem is assumed. This allows mounting a TAR-file within a tarfile.

Parameter file

If specified, this should be an open file descriptor. This object could e.g. be a Stdio.File, Gz.File or Bz2.File object.


Inherit _TarFS

inherit _TarFS : _TarFS

Module Filesystem.Zip


Method create

void Filesystem.Zipcreate(string filename, void|Filesystem.Base parent, void|object file)

Description

Filesystem which can be used to mount a ZIP file.

Parameter filename

The tar file to mount.

Parameter parent

The parent filesystem. If non is given, the normal system filesystem is assumed. This allows mounting a ZIP-file within a zipfile.

Parameter file

If specified, this should be an open file descriptor. This object could e.g. be a Stdio.File or similar object.

Class Filesystem.Zip.Decrypt

Description

traditional Zip encryption is CRC32 based, and rather insecure. support here exists to ease transition and to work with legacy files.


Method decrypt

string decrypt(string x)

Description

decrypt a string

Parameter x

encrypted string to decrypt

Class Filesystem.Zip._Zip

Description

A class for reading and writing ZIP files.

Note that this class does not support the full ZIP format specification, but does support the most common features.

Storing, Deflating and Bzip2 (if the Bz2 module is available) are supported storage methods.

This class is able to extract data from traditional ZIP password encrypted archives.

Notably, advanced PKware encryption (beyond reading traditional password protected archives) and multi-part archives are not currently supported.


Method add_dir

void add_dir(string path, int recurse, string|void archiveroot)

Description

adds a directory to an archive


Method add_file

void add_file(string filename, string|Stdio.File|zero data, int|object|void stamp, int|void no_compress)

Description

add a file to an archive.


Method create

Filesystem.Zip._Zip Filesystem.Zip._Zip(object|void fd, string|void filename, object|void parent)


Method date_dos2unix

int date_dos2unix(int time, int date)

Description

Convert MS-DOS time/date pair to a linear UNIX date.


Method date_unix2dos

array date_unix2dos(int unix_date)

Description

Convert linear UNIX date to a MS-DOS time/date pair.

Returns

an array containing ({time, date})


Method generate

string generate()

Description

generate the zip archive


Method is_zip64

int is_zip64()

Description

is this archive using zip64 extensions?


Method set_compression_value

void set_compression_value(int(0..9) v)

Description

sets the compression value (0 to 9)


Method set_password

void set_password(string pw)

Description

sets the password to be used for files encrypted using traditional PKZip encryption.


Method set_zip64

void set_zip64(int flag)

Description

enable zip64 extensions (large files) for this archive

Note

This setting may be used to force zip64 for files that do not otherwise require its use. If a file whose properties requires the use of zip65 is added to an archive, zip64 extensions will be enabled automatically.


Method unzip

void unzip(string todir)

Class Filesystem.Zip._ZipFS


Inherit System

inherit Filesystem.System : System


Method set_password

void set_password(string pw)

Module Fuse

Description

Fuse - Filesystem in USErspace

FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace) provides a simple interface for userspace programs to export a virtual filesystem to the Linux kernel. FUSE also aims to provide a secure method for non privileged users to create and mount their own filesystem implementations.

See http://sourceforge.net/projects/fuse/ for more information

This module maps the Fuse library more or less directly to pike.

In order to create a filesystem, create a subclass of the Operations class, clone it and pass it to the run method.

You do not need to implemnent all functions, but at least getattr, readdir and read are needed to make a useable filesystem.

A tip: ERRNO constants are available in the System module, and if one is missing /usr/include/asm[-generic]/errno.h can be included in pike programs on Linux.


Inherit "___Fuse"

inherit "___Fuse" : "___Fuse"


Method run

void run(Operations handler, array(string) args)

Description

Start fuse. Args is as in argv in main(). This function will not return.

The first argument (argv[0], program name) is used as the filesystem name. The first non-flag argument after argv[0] is used as the mountpoint. Otherwise these arguments are supported:

     -d                  enable debug output (implies -f)
     -f                  foreground operation
     -s                  disable multithreaded operation
     -r                  mount read only (equivalent to '-o ro')
     -o opt,[opt...]     mount options
     -h                  print help
 

Mount options:

     rootmode=M             permissions of the '/' directory in the filesystem (octal)
     user_id=N              user of '/' (numeric)
     group_id=N             group of '/' (numeric)
     default_permissions    enable permission checking

  By default FUSE doesn't check file access permissions, the
  filesystem is free to implement it's access policy or leave it to
  the underlying file access mechanism (e.g. in case of network
  filesystems).  This option enables permission checking,
  restricting access based on file mode.  It is usually useful
  together with the 'allow_other' mount option.

     allow_other            allow access to other users

 This option overrides the security measure restricting file access
 to the user mounting the filesystem.  This option is by default
 only allowed to root, but this restriction can be removed with a
 (userspace) configuration option (in fuse.ini).

     large_read             issue large read requests (2.4 only)
     max_read=N             set maximum size of read requests (default 128K)
     hard_remove            immediate removal (don't hide files)
     debug                  enable debug output
     fsname=NAME            set filesystem name in mtab (overrides argv[0])
 

Class Fuse.Operations

Description

This is the interface you have to implement to write a FUSE filesystem If something goes wrong in your callback, always return errno. Unless the function returns a specific value (Stat, string or similar), return 0 if all is well.

You do not have to implement all functions. Unimplemented functions have a default implementation that returns -ENOIMPL.


Constant DT_BLK

final constant int Fuse.Operations.DT_BLK

Description

Block special directory entry


Constant DT_CHR

final constant int Fuse.Operations.DT_CHR

Description

Character special directory entry


Constant DT_DIR

final constant int Fuse.Operations.DT_DIR

Description

Directory directory entry


Constant DT_FIFO

final constant int Fuse.Operations.DT_FIFO

Description

FIFO directory entry


Constant DT_LNK

final constant int Fuse.Operations.DT_LNK

Description

Symlink directory entry


Constant DT_REG

final constant int Fuse.Operations.DT_REG

Description

Normal file directory entry


Constant DT_SOCK

final constant int Fuse.Operations.DT_SOCK

Description

Socket directory entry


Constant DT_UNKNOWN

final constant int Fuse.Operations.DT_UNKNOWN

Description

Unkown directory entry type


Constant F_GETLK
Constant F_SETLK
Constant F_SETLKW
Constant F_RDLCK
Constant F_WRLCK
Constant F_UNLCK

final constant Fuse.Operations.F_GETLK
final constant Fuse.Operations.F_SETLK
final constant Fuse.Operations.F_SETLKW
final constant Fuse.Operations.F_RDLCK
final constant Fuse.Operations.F_WRLCK
final constant Fuse.Operations.F_UNLCK

Description

lock() mode operations.


Constant O_ACCMODE

final constant int Fuse.Operations.O_ACCMODE

Description

Mask for read/write/rdwr


Constant O_APPEND

final constant int Fuse.Operations.O_APPEND

Description

Open for append


Constant O_RDONLY

final constant int Fuse.Operations.O_RDONLY

Description

Open read only


Constant O_RDWR

final constant int Fuse.Operations.O_RDWR

Description

Open read/write only


Constant O_WRONLY

final constant int Fuse.Operations.O_WRONLY

Description

Open write only


Method access

int access(string path, int mode)

Description

Return if the user is allowed to access the path. If the 'default_permissions' mount option is given, this method is not called.


Method chmod

int chmod(string path, int mode)

Description

Change the permission of a file or directory

Returns

errno or 0


Method chown

int chown(string path, int uid, int gid)

Description

Change the owner of a file or directory

Returns

errno or 0


Method creat

int creat(string path, int mode, int flag)

Description

Create and open or just open the given path


Method flush

int flush(string path, int flags)

Description

Write unwritten data.


Method fsync

int fsync(string path, int datasync)

Description

Flush data and user-data to disk. Not required. If the datasync parameter is non-zero, then only the user data should be flushed, not the meta data.


Method getattr

Stdio.Stat|int(1..) getattr(string path)

Description

Stat a file.

Note

This function is required.

Returns

A Stdio.Stat object or an errno.


Method getxattr

string getxattr(string path, string name)

Description

Get the extended attribute name on path


Method link

int link(string source, string destination)

Description

Create a hard link from source to destination.

Returns

errno or 0


Method listxattr

array(string)|int listxattr(string path)

Description

Return a list of all available extended attributes on path


Method lock

mapping(string:int)|int lock(string path, int mode, mapping(string:int) how)

Description

Lock, unlock or test for the existence of record locks (POSIX file locking). The owner of the lock is identified by how->owner

If you only need local file-locking on the computer the filesystem is mounted on you do not need to implement this interface. This is only needed for network filesystems that want locking to work over the network.

The operation mode depends on the mode argument.

F_SETLK

Acquire a lock (when how->type is F_RDLCK or F_WRLCK) or release a lock (when how->type is F_UNLCK) on the bytes specified by the how->whence, how->start, and how->len fields of lock. If a conflicting lock is held by another process, you should return EACCES or EAGAIN.

F_SETLKW

Identical to SETLK, but if a lock is held on the file, wait for it to be released before returning. You are allowed to return EINTR, to signal that the waiting has been interrupted and must be restarted.

F_GETLK

Identical to SETLK, but do not actually aquire the lock if it can be aquired. If one or more incompatible locks would prevent this lock being placed, then fcntl() returns details about one of these locks in the type, whence, start, and len fields of how and set pid to be the PID of the process holding that lock. Then return the mapping.


Method mkdir

int mkdir(string path, int mode)

Description

Create a directory.

Returns

errno or 0


Method mknod

int mknod(string path, int mode, int rdev)

Description

Create a node (file, device special, or named pipe). See man 2 mknod

Returns

errno or 0


Method open

int open(string path, int mode)

Description

Open path. mode is as for the system call open. (mode & O_ACCMODE) is one of O_RDONLY, O_WRONLY and O_RDWR. The mode can also contain other flags, most notably O_APPEND.

Note

You do not really have to implement this function. It's useful to start prefetch and to cache open files, and check that the user has permission to read/write the file.

Returns

errno or 0


Method read

string|int(1..) read(string path, int len, int offset)

Description

Read data from a file. You have to return at most len bytes, wunless an error occurs, or there is less than len bytes of data still left to read.

Returns

errno or the data


Method readdir

int readdir(string path, function(string:void) callback)

Description

Get directory contents.

Call the callback once per file in the directory with the filename as the argument.

Note

This function is required.

Returns

errno or 0


Method readlink

string|int(1..) readlink(string path)

Description

Read a symlink.

Returns

The symlink contents or errno


Method release

int release(string path)

Description

The inverse of open.

Note

The file might very well be openend multiple times. Keep reference counts.


Method removexattr

int removexattr(string path, string name)

Description

Remove the extended attribute name from path


Method rename

int rename(string source, string destination)

Description

Rename source to destination.

Returns

errno or 0


Method rmdir

int rmdir(string path)

Description

Remove a directory

Returns

errno or 0


Method setxattr

int setxattr(string path, string name, string value, int flags)

Description

Set the extended attrbiute name on path to value


Method statfs

mapping(string:int) statfs(string path)

Description

Stat a filesystem. Mapping as from filesystem_stat

Note

required for 'df' support, without this function there is an error each time 'df' is run.


Method symlink

int symlink(string source, string destination)

Description

Create a symlink from source to destination.

Returns

errno or 0


Method truncate

int truncate(string path, int new_length)

Description

Shrink or enlarge a file

Returns

errno or 0


Method unlink

int unlink(string path)

Description

Remove a file

Returns

errno or 0


Method utime

int utime(string path, int atime, int mtime)

Description

Set access and modification time. The arguments are the number of seconds since jan 1 1970 00:00.

This function is deprecated, utimens is the recommended method.

Returns

errno or 0


Method utimens

int utimens(string path, int atime, int mtime)

Description

Set access and modification time, with nanosecond resolution. The arguments are the number of nanoseconds since jan 1 1970 00:00.

Returns

errno or 0


Method write

int write(string path, string data, int offset)

Description

Write data to the file. Should write all data.

Returns

errno or amount written (bytes)

Module Geography

Class Geography.Position

Description

This class contains a geographical position, ie a point on the earths surface. The resulting position object implements comparision methods (__hash, `==, `< and `>) so that you can compare and sort positions as well as using them as index in mappings. Comparision is made primary on latidue and secondly on longitude. It does not currently take the ellipsoid into account.

It is possible to cast a position into an array, which will yield ({ float latitude, float longitude }), as well as into a string.


Method ECEF

array(float) ECEF()

Description

Returns the current position as Earth Centered Earth Fixed Cartesian Coordinates.

Returns

({ X, Y, Z })


Method GEOREF

string GEOREF()

Description

Gives the full GEOREF position for the current position, e.g. "LDJA0511".


Method RT38

array(float) RT38()


Method UTM

string UTM(int precision)

Description

Returns the current UTM coordinates position. An example output is "32T 442063.562 5247479.500" where the parts are zone number + zone designator, easting and northing.


Method UTM_offset

array(float) UTM_offset()

Description

Returns the offset within the present UTM cell. The result will be returned in an array of floats, containing easting and northing.


Method UTM_zone_designator

string UTM_zone_designator()

Description

Returns the UTM letter designator for the current latitude. Returns "Z" if latitude is outside the UTM limits of 84N to 80S.


Method UTM_zone_number

int UTM_zone_number()

Description

Returns the UTM zone number for the current longitude, with correction for the Svalbard deviations.


Method __hash

int hash_value( Geography.Position arg )


Method _sprintf

string sprintf(string format, ... Geography.Position arg ... )


Method `<

int res = Geography.Position() < pos


Method `==

int res = Geography.Position() == pos


Method `>

int res = Geography.Position() > pos


Variable alt

float Geography.Position.alt

Description

Altitud of the position, in meters. Positive numbers is up. Zero is the shell of the current ellipsoid.


Method approx_height

float approx_height()

Description

Returns a very crude approximation of where the ground level is at the current position, compared against the ellipsoid shell. WGS-84 is assumed, but the approximation is so bad that it doesn't matter which of the standard ellipsoids is used.


Method create

Geography.Position Geography.Position(int|float lat, int|float long, void|int|float alt)
Geography.Position Geography.Position(string lat, string long)
Geography.Position Geography.Position(string position)
Geography.Position Geography.Position()

Description

Constructor for this class. If fed with strings, it will perform a dwim scan on the strings. If they fails to be understood, there will be an exception.


Method eccentricity_squared

float eccentricity_squared()

Description

Returns the first eccentricity squared for the selected earth approximation ellipsoid.


Constant ellipsoids

constant Geography.Position.ellipsoids

Description

A mapping with reference ellipsoids, which can be fed to the UTM converter. The mapping maps the name of the ellipsoid to an array where the first element is a float describing the equatorial radius and the second element is a float describing the polar radius.


Variable equatorial_radius

float Geography.Position.equatorial_radius

Description

The equatorial radius is how many meters the earth radius is at the equator (east-west direction).


Method euclidian_distance

float euclidian_distance(this_program p)

Description

Calculate the euclidian distance between two Geography.Position. Result is in meter. This uses the ECEF function.


Method flattening

float flattening()

Description

Returns the flattening factor for the selected earth approximation ellipsoid.


Variable lat

float Geography.Position.lat

Description

Latitude (N--S) of the position, in degrees. Positive number is north, negative number is south.


Method latitude
Method longitude

string latitude(void|int n)
string longitude(void|int n)

Description

Returns the nicely formatted latitude or longitude.

0

"17°42.19'N" / "42°22.2'W"

1

"17.703°N" / "42.37°W"

2

"17°42.18'N" / "42°22.2'W"

3

"17°42'10.4"N" / "42°22'12"W"

-1

"17.703" / "-42.37"


Variable long

float Geography.Position.long

Description

Longitude (W--E) of the position, in degrees. Positive number is east, negative number is west.


Variable polar_radius

float Geography.Position.polar_radius

Description

The polar radius is how many meters the earth radius is at the poles (north-south direction).


Method set_ellipsoid

bool set_ellipsoid(string name)
bool set_ellipsoid(float equatorial_radius, float polar_radius)

Description

Sets the equatorial and polar radius to the provided values. A name can also be provided, in which case the radius will be looked up in the ellipsoid mapping. The function returns 1 upon success, 0 on failure.

"Airy 1830"
"ATS77"
"Australian National"
"Bessel 1841"
"Bessel 1841 Namibia"
"Clarke 1866"
"Clarke 1880"
"Everest"
"Everest 1830"
"Everest 1848"
"Everest 1856"
"Everest 1869"
"Everest Pakistan"
"Fisher 1960"
"Fisher 1968"
"G R S 1967"
"G R S 1975"
"G R S 1980"
"Helmert 1906"
"Hough 1956"
"Indonesian 1974"
"Krassovsky 1940"
"Mercury"
"Modified Airy"
"Modified Fisher 1960"
"New International 1967"
"SGS 85"
"South American 1969"
"Sphere"
"WGS 60"
"WGS 66"
"WGS 72"
"WGS 84"
Note

The longitude and lattitude are not converted to the new ellipsoid.


Method set_from_RT38

void set_from_RT38(int|float|string x_n, int|float|string y_e)

Description

Sets the longitude and lattitude from the given RT38 coordinates.


Method set_from_UTM

void set_from_UTM(int zone_number, string zone_designator, float UTME, float UTMN)

Description

Sets the longitude and lattitude from the given UTM coordinates.


Method standard_grid

string standard_grid()

Description

Returns the standard map grid system for the current position. Can either be "UPS" or "UTM".

Class Geography.PositionRT38

Description

Create a Position object from a RT38 coordinate


Inherit Position

inherit .Position : Position

Module Geography.Countries


Method `[]
Method `->

mixed `[](string what)
mixed `->(string what)

Description

Convenience functions for getting a country the name-space way; it looks up whatever it is in the name- and domain-space and returns that country if possible:

> Geography.Countries.se;
Result: Country(Sweden)
> Geography.Countries.djibouti;
Result: Country(Djibouti)
> Geography.Countries.com;
Result: Country(United States)
> Geography.Countries.wallis_and_futuna_islands->iso2;
Result: "WF"

Method continents

mapping(string:array(Country)) continents()

Description

Gives back a mapping from continent name to an array of the countries on that continent.

The continents are:

    	  "Europe"
    	  "Africa"
    	  "Asia"
    	  "North America"
    	  "South America"
    	  "Oceania"
	  "Antarctica"
	

Note

Some countries are considered to be on more than one continent.


Variable countries

array(Country) Geography.Countries.countries

Description

All known countries.


Method from_domain

Country from_domain(string domain)

Description

Look up a country from a domain name. Returns zero if the domain doesn't map to a country. Note that there are some valid domains that don't:

INT

International

MIL

US Military

NET

Network

ORG

Non-Profit Organization

ARPA

Old style Arpanet

NATO

Nato field

And that US has five domains, Great Britain and france two: <dl compact> <dt>EDU <dd>US Educational <dt>MIL <dd>US Military <dt>GOV <dd>US Government <dt>UM <dd>US Minor Outlying Islands <dt>US <dd>US <dt>GB <dd>Great Britain (UK) <dt>UK <dd>United Kingdom <dt>FR <dd>France <dt>FX <dd>France, Metropolitan <dt>There's also three domains that for convinience maps to US: <dt>NET <dd>Network <dt>ORG <dd>Organization <dt>COM <dd>Commercial </dl>


Method from_domain

Country from_domain(string name)

Description

Look up a country from its name or aka. The search is case-insensitive but regards whitespace and interpunctation.

Class Geography.Countries.Country

Description

Country


Variable name
Variable aka

string Geography.Countries.Country.name
array(string) Geography.Countries.Country.aka

Description

Country name and also-known-as, if any


Method cast

(string)Geography.Countries.Country()

Description

It is possible to cast a country to a string, which will be the same as performing country->name;.


Method continent

string continent()

Description

Returns the continent of the country.

Note

Some countries are geographically in more then one continent; any of the continents might be returned then, but probably the continent in which the capital is resident - Europe for Russia, for instance.


Variable fips10

string|zero Geography.Countries.Country.fips10

Description

FIPS 10-character code; "Federal Information Processing Standards 10-4" etc, previously used by some goverments in the US.

Note

This character code is slightly different from iso2, and should only be used for compatibility with old code.

Deprecated

Replaced by iso2.

FIPS 10-4 was withdrawn by NIST 2008-09-02.


Variable former

int Geography.Countries.Country.former

Description

Flag that is set if this country doesn't exist anymore. (eg USSR.)


Variable iso2

string|zero Geography.Countries.Country.iso2

Description

ISO-3166-1 2-character code aka domain name.

Note

May be zero in some obscure cases where the ISO-3166-1 grouping differs from the FIPS-10 grouping.

Module Geography.GeoIP


Method parse_77

void parse_77(string line, object tree)

Description

Parsing function for geoip databases in the format used my http://software77.net/.


Method parse_maxmind

void parse_maxmind(string line, object tree)

Description

Parsing function for geoip databases in the format used my http://www.maxmind.com/.

Class Geography.GeoIP.IP

Description

Base class for GeoIP lookups. Use Geography.GeoIP.IPv4.


Method from_ip

mixed from_ip(string ip)

Description

Returns the geographical location of the given ip address ip. When this object has been created using one of the standard parsing functions the locations are instances of Geography.Countries.Country.

Class Geography.GeoIP.IPv4

Description

Class for GeoIP lookups of ipv4 addresses. Uses ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree objects internally to map IPv4 addresses to a geographical region.


Method create

Geography.GeoIP.IPv4 Geography.GeoIP.IPv4(string file_name, function(string, ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree:void) fun)
Geography.GeoIP.IPv4 Geography.GeoIP.IPv4(ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree tree)

Description

Objects of this class can either be created from a file file_name with an optional parsing function fun. When fun is omitted, it defaults to Geography.GeoIP.parse_maxmind. fun will be called for each line in file_name and the critbit tree to add the entry to.

Alternatively, an instance of ADT.CritBit.IPv4Tree can be passed. tree is expected to map the first address of each range to its geographical location.


Inherit IP

inherit IP : IP

Module Getopt

Description

Getopt is a group of functions which can be used to find command line options.

Command line options come in two flavors: long and short. The short ones consists of a dash followed by a character (-t), the long ones consist of two dashes followed by a string of text (--test). The short options can also be combined, which means that you can write -tda instead of -t -d -a.

Options can also require arguments, in which case they cannot be combined. To write an option with an argument you write -t argument or -targument or --test=argument.


Constant HAS_ARG

constant int Getopt.HAS_ARG

Description

Used with find_all_options() to indicate that an option requires an argument.

See also

find_all_options()


Constant MAY_HAVE_ARG

constant int Getopt.MAY_HAVE_ARG

Description

Used with find_all_options() to indicate that an option takes an optional argument.

See also

find_all_options()


Constant NO_ARG

constant int Getopt.NO_ARG

Description

Used with find_all_options() to indicate that an option does not take an argument.

See also

find_all_options()


Method find_all_options

array(array) find_all_options(array(string|zero) argv, array(array(array(string)|string|int)) options, void|int(-1..1) posix_me_harder, void|int throw_errors)

Description

This function does the job of several calls to find_option(). The main advantage of this is that it allows it to handle the POSIX_ME_HARDER environment variable better. When either the argument posix_me_harder or the environment variable POSIX_ME_HARDER is true, no arguments will be parsed after the first non-option on the command line.

Parameter argv

The should be the array of strings that was sent as the second argument to your main() function.

Parameter options

Each element in the array options should be an array on the following form:

Array
string name

Name is a tag used to identify the option in the output.

int type

Type is one of Getopt.HAS_ARG, Getopt.NO_ARG and Getopt.MAY_HAVE_ARG and it affects how the error handling and parsing works. You should use HAS_ARG for options that require a path, a number or similar. NO_ARG should be used for options that do not need an argument, such as --version. MAY_HAVE_ARG should be used for options that may or may not need an argument.

string|array(string) aliases

This is a string or an array of string of options that will be looked for. Short and long options can be mixed, and short options can be combined into one string. Note that you must include the dashes so that find_all_options() can distinguish between long and short options. Example: ({"-tT","--test"}) This would make find_all_options look for -t, -T and --test.

void|string|array(string) env_var

This is a string or an array of strings containing names of environment variables that can be used instead of the command line option.

void|mixed default

This is the default value a MAY_HAVE_ARG option will have in the output if it was set but not assigned any value.

Only the first three elements need to be included.

Parameter posix_me_harder

Don't scan for arguments after the first non-option.

Parameter throw_errors

If throw_errors has been specified find_all_options() will throw errors on failure. If it has been left out, or is 0 (zero), it will instead print an error message on Stdio.stderr and exit the program with result code 1 on failure.

Returns

The good news is that the output from this function is a lot simpler. find_all_options() returns an array where each element is an array on this form:

Array
string name

Option identifier name from the input.

mixed value

Value given. If no value was specified, and no default has been specified, the value will be 1.

Note

find_all_options() modifies argv.

Index 0 (zero) of argv is not scanned for options, since it is reserved for the program name.

See also

Getopt.get_args(), Getopt.find_option()


Method find_option

void|string|bool find_option(array(string|zero) argv, array(string)|string shortform, array(string)|string|void longform, array(string)|string|void envvars, string|bool|void def, int|void throw_errors)

Description

This is a generic function to parse command line options of the type -f, --foo or --foo=bar.

Parameter argv

The first argument should be the array of strings that was sent as the second argument to your main() function.

Parameter shortform

The second is a string with the short form of your option. The short form must be only one character long. It can also be an array of strings, in which case any of the options in the array will be accepted.

Parameter longform

This is an alternative and maybe more readable way to give the same option. If you give "foo" as longform your program will accept --foo as argument. This argument can also be an array of strings, in which case any of the options in the array will be accepted.

Parameter envvars

This argument specifies an environment variable that can be used to specify the same option, to make it easier to customize program usage. It can also be an array of strings, in which case any of the mentioned variables in the array may be used.

Parameter def

This argument has two functions: It specifies if the option takes an argument or not, and it informs find_option() what to return if the option is not present.

The value may be one of:

int(0..0)|zero

The option does not require a value.

int(1..1)|string

The option requires a value, and def will be returned if the option is not present. If the option is present, but does not have an argument find_option() will fail.

Note that a set option will always return a string, so setting def to 1 can be used to detect whether the option is present or not.

Parameter throw_errors

If throw_errors has been specified find_option() will throw errors on failure. If it has been left out, or is 0 (zero), it will instead print an error message on Stdio.stderr and exit the program with result code 1 on failure.

Returns

Returns the value the option has been set to if any.

If the option is present, but has not been set to anything 1 will be returned.

Otherwise if any of the environment variables specified in envvars has been set, that value will be returned.

If all else fails, def will be returned.

Throws

If an option that requires an argument lacks an argument and throw_errors is set an error will be thrown.

Note

find_option() modifies argv. Parsed options will be removed from argv. Elements of argv that have been removed entirely will be replaced with zeroes.

This function reads options even if they are written after the first non-option on the line.

Index 0 (zero) of argv is not scanned for options, since it is reserved for the program name.

Only the first ocurrance of an option will be parsed. To parse multiple ocurrances, call find_option() multiple times.

See also

Getopt.get_args()


Method get_args

array(string) get_args(array(string|zero) argv, void|int(-1..1) posix_me_harder, void|int throw_errors)

Description

This function returns the remaining command line arguments after you have run find_option() or find_all_options() to find all the options in the argument list. If there are any options left not handled by find_option() or find_all_options() this function will fail.

If throw_errors has been specified get_args() will throw errors on failure. If it has been left out, or is 0 (zero), it will instead print an error message on Stdio.stderr and exit the program with result code 1 on failure.

Returns

On success a new argv array without the parsed options is returned.

See also

Getopt.find_option(), Getopt.find_all_options()

Module Git

Description

This is a module for interacting with the Git distributed version control system.


Constant MODE_DIR

constant int Git.MODE_DIR

Description

A subdirectory.


Constant MODE_EXE

constant int Git.MODE_EXE

Description

A normal, but executable file.


Constant MODE_FILE

constant int Git.MODE_FILE

Description

A normal (non-executable) file.


Constant MODE_GITLINK

constant int Git.MODE_GITLINK

Description

A gitlink (aka submodule reference).


Constant MODE_SYMLINK

constant int Git.MODE_SYMLINK

Description

A symbolic link.


Constant NULL_SHA1

constant string Git.NULL_SHA1

Description

The NULL SHA1.


Method git

string git(string git_dir, string command, string ... args)

Description

Run a git command, and get the output.

Parameter git_dir

Directory containing the Git repository. May be UNDEFINED to specify the Git repository for the current directory.

Parameter command

Git subcommand to execute.

Parameter args

Arguemnts for command.

Returns

Returns the output on stdout from running the command on success, and throws an error on failure.

See also

try_git(), low_git()


Variable git_binary

string Git.git_binary

Description

The git binary to use.

Defaults to "git", but may be overridden to select a different binary.


Method hash_blob

string hash_blob(string data)

Description

Hash algorithm for blobs that is compatible with git.


Method low_git

Process.Process low_git(mapping(string:mixed) options, string git_dir, string command, string ... args)

Description

Start a git process.

Parameter options

Options for Process.Process().

Parameter git_dir

Directory containing the Git repository. May be UNDEFINED to specify the Git repository for the current directory.

Parameter command

Git subcommand to execute.

Parameter args

Arguemnts for command.

Returns

Returns the corresponding Process.Process object.

See also

git(), try_git()


Method try_git

string|zero try_git(string git_dir, string command, string ... args)

Description

Attempt to run a git command and get its output.

Parameter git_dir

Directory containing the Git repository. May be UNDEFINED to specify the Git repository for the current directory.

Parameter command

Git subcommand to execute.

Parameter args

Arguemnts for command.

Returns

Returns the output on stdout from running the command on success, and 0 (zero) on failure.

Note

This is a convenience function, and there is no way to get the specific cause for failures other than rerunning the command with e.g. git().

See also

git(), low_git()

Class Git.Export

Description

Framework for creating a command-stream suitable for git-fast-import.


Method blob

void blob(string blob, string|void marker)

Description

Upload data.

Parameter blob

Data to upload.

Parameter marker

Optional export marker for referring to the data.


Method cat_blob

void cat_blob(string dataref)

Description

Output a blob on the cat-blob-fd.

Parameter dataref

Reference to the blob to output.


Method checkpoint

void checkpoint()

Description

Flush state to disk.


Method command

void command(sprintf_format cmd, sprintf_args ... args)

Description

Send a raw command.


Method commit

void commit(string ref, string|void commit_marker, string|void author_info, string committer_info, string message, string|void ... parents)

Description

Create a new commit on a branch.

Parameter ref

Reference to add the commit to. Typically "refs/heads/" followed by a branchname, or "refs/notes/commits".

Parameter commit_marker

Optional export marker for referring to the new commit.

Parameter author_info

Optional author information. Defaults to committer_info.

Parameter committer_info

Name, email and timestamp for the committer. See format_author() for details.

Parameter message

Commit message.

Parameter parents

The ordered set of parents for the commit. Defaults to the current HEAD for ref, if it exists, and to the empty set otherwise.

The set of files for the commit defaults to the set for the first of the parents, and can be modified with filemodify, filedelete, filecopy, filerename, filedeleteall and notemodify.


Method create

Git.Export Git.Export()
Git.Export Git.Export(Stdio.File fd)
Git.Export Git.Export(string git_dir)

Description

Create a new fast-import command-stream.

Parameter fd

File to write the command-stream to.

Parameter git_dir

Git directory to modify. If the directory doesn't exist, it will be created empty. A git-fast-import session will be started for the directory to receive the command-stream.

If neither fd nor git_dir has been specified, the command stream will be output to Stdio.stdout.

Parameter verbosity

The amount of verbosity on Stdio.stderr for various commands.


Method done

int done()

Description

End the command-stream and wait for completion.


Method export

void export(string file_name, string|void git_name)

Description

Convenience funtion for exporting a filesystem file or directory (recursively) to git.

Parameter file_name

Name of the file on disc.

Parameter git_name

Name of the file in git. Defaults to file_name.


Method feature

void feature(string feature, string|void arg)

Description

Require that the backend for the stream supports a certian feature.

Parameter feature

Feature to require support for. Typically one of:

"date-format"

Same as the corresponding command-line option.

"export-marks"
"relative-marks"
"no-relative-marks"
"force"
"import-marks"
"import-marks-if-exists"
"cat-blob"

Require the cat_blob and ls commands to be supported.

"ls"
"notes"

Require that the backend supports the notemodify subcommand.

"done"

Require the stream to terminate with a done command.


Method filecopy

void filecopy(string from, string to)

Description

Copy a file or directory.


Method filedelete

void filedelete(string path)

Description

Delete a file.


Method filedeleteall

void filedeleteall()

Description

Delete all files.

Used to start a commit from a clean slate.


Method filemodify

void filemodify(int mode, string path, string|void dataref)

Description

Create or modify a file.

Parameter mode

Mode for the file. See the MODE_* constants.

Parameter path

Path to the file relative to the repository root.

Parameter dataref

Reference to the data for the file. One of:

string

A mark reference set by a prior blob command or a full 40-byte SHA-1 of an existing Git blob.

zero

Left out, UNDEFINED or "inline" in which case the filemodify command must be followed by a data command.


Method filerename

void filerename(string from, string to)

Description

Rename a file or directory.


Method ls

void ls(string path, string|void dataref)

Description

Output a file to the cat-blob-fd.

Parameter path

Path to the file to output.

Parameter dataref

Marker, tag, commit or tree for the root. Defaults to the commit in progress.


Method notemodify

void notemodify(string commit, string|void dataref)

Description

Annotate a commit.

Parameter commit

Commit to annotate.

Parameter dataref

Reference to the data for the annotation. One of:

string

A mark reference set by a prior blob command or a full 40-byte SHA-1 of an existing Git blob.

zero

Left out, UNDEFINED or "inline" in which case the notemodify command must be followed by a data command.

Note that this command is typically only used when a commit on a ref under "refs/notes/" is active.


Method option

void option(string option)

Description

Set backend options.


Method progress

void progress(string message)

Description

Output a progress message.

Parameter message

Message to output.

Note

Note that each line of the message will be prefixed with "progress ".


Method reset

void reset(string ref, string|void committish)

Description

Move a reference.

Parameter ref

Reference to move.

Parameter committish

Commit to reference.

This command can also be used to make light-weight tags.

See also

tag


Method tag

void tag(string name, string committish, string tagger_info, string message)

Description

Create an annotated tag referring to a specific commit.

Parameter name

Tag name. Note that it is automatically prefixed with "refs/tags/".

Parameter committish

Commit to tag.

Parameter tagger_info

Name, email and timestamp for the tagger. See format_author() for details.

Parameter message

Message for the tag.

See also

reset

Module Gmp

Description

GMP is a free library for arbitrary precision arithmetic, operating on signed integers, rational numbers, and floating point numbers. There is no practical limit to the precision except the ones implied by the available memory in the machine GMP runs on. http://www.swox.com/gmp/


Method fac

Gmp.mpz fac(int x)

Description

Returns the factorial of x (x!).


Constant version

constant Gmp.version

Description

The version of the current GMP library, e.g. "6.1.0".

Class Gmp.bignum

Description

This program is used by the internal auto-bignum conversion. It can be used to explicitly type integers that are too big to be INT_TYPE. Best is however to not use this program unless you really know what you are doing.

Due to the auto-bignum conversion, all integers can be treated as Gmp.mpz objects insofar as that they can be indexed with the functions in the Gmp.mpz class. For instance, to calculate the greatest common divisor between 51 and 85, you can do 51->gcd(85). In other words, all the functions in Gmp.mpz are also available here.

Class Gmp.mpf

Description

GMP floating point number.

The mantissa of each float has a user-selectable precision, limited only by available memory. Each variable has its own precision, and that can be increased or decreased at any time.

The exponent of each float is a fixed precision, one machine word on most systems. In the current implementation the exponent is a count of limbs, so for example on a 32-bit system this means a range of roughly 2^-68719476768 to 2^68719476736, or on a 64-bit system this will be greater.

Each variable keeps a size for the mantissa data actually in use. This means that if a float is exactly represented in only a few bits then only those bits will be used in a calculation, even if the selected precision is high.

All calculations are performed to the precision of the destination variable. Each function is defined to calculate with "infinite precision" followed by a truncation to the destination precision, but of course the work done is only what's needed to determine a result under that definition.

The precision selected for a variable is a minimum value, GMP may increase it a little to facilitate efficient calculation. Currently this means rounding up to a whole limb, and then sometimes having a further partial limb, depending on the high limb of the mantissa. But applications shouldn't be concerned by such details.

The mantissa in stored in binary, as might be imagined from the fact precisions are expressed in bits. One consequence of this is that decimal fractions like 0.1 cannot be represented exactly. The same is true of plain IEEE double floats. This makes both highly unsuitable for calculations involving money or other values that should be exact decimal fractions. (Suitably scaled integers, or perhaps rationals, are better choices.)

mpf functions and variables have no special notion of infinity or not-a-number, and applications must take care not to overflow the exponent or results will be unpredictable. This might change in a future release.

Note that the mpf functions are not intended as a smooth extension to IEEE P754 arithmetic. In particular results obtained on one computer often differ from the results on a computer with a different word size.

Note

This class will use mpfr if available, in which case the precision will be exact and IEEE rules will be followed.


Method __hash

int hash_value( Gmp.mpf arg )


Method _is_type

bool res = is_type(Gmp.mpf())

Description

The Gmp.mpf object will claim to be a "float".

FIXME

Perhaps it should also return true for "object"?


Method _sprintf

string sprintf(string format, ... Gmp.mpf arg ... )


Method `!

bool res = !Gmp.mpf()


Method `*

Gmp.mpf res = Gmp.mpf() * a


Method `+

Gmp.mpf res = Gmp.mpf() + a


Method `+=

Gmp.mpf() += a


Method `-

Gmp.mpf res = Gmp.mpf() - a


Method `/

Gmp.mpf res = Gmp.mpf() / a


Method `<

bool res = Gmp.mpf() < q


Method `==

bool res = Gmp.mpf() == q


Method `>

bool res = Gmp.mpf() > q


Method ``*

Gmp.mpf res = a * Gmp.mpf()


Method ``+

Gmp.mpf res = a + Gmp.mpf()


Method ``-

Gmp.mpf res = sv - Gmp.mpf()


Method ``/

Gmp.mpf res = sv / Gmp.mpf()


Method `~

Gmp.mpf res = ~Gmp.mpf()


Method cast

(string)Gmp.mpf()
(int)Gmp.mpf()
(float)Gmp.mpf()


Variable catalan

mpf Gmp.mpf.catalan


Method ceil

mpf ceil()


Method create

Gmp.mpf Gmp.mpf(void|int|string|float|object x, void|int(0..) precision)
Gmp.mpf Gmp.mpf(string x, int(0..) precision, int(2..36) base)


Variable euler

mpf Gmp.mpf.euler


Method exp

mpf exp()


Method exp10

mpf exp10()


Method exp2

mpf exp2()


Method floor

mpf floor()


Method frac

mpf frac()


Method get_float

float get_float()

Description

Returns the value of the object as a float.


Method get_int

int|object get_int()


Method get_precision

int(0..) get_precision()

Description

Returns the current precision, in bits.


Method get_string

string get_string()


Variable ln2

mpf Gmp.mpf.ln2


Method log

mpf log()


Method log10

mpf log10()


Method log2

mpf log2()


Variable pi

mpf Gmp.mpf.pi


Method pow

mpf res = pow([Gmp.mpf]a, b) or
mpf pow(int|float|Gmp.mpz|Gmp.mpf exp)


Method rint

mpf rint()


Method round

mpf round()


Method set_precision

Gmp.mpf set_precision(int(0..) prec)

Description

Sets the precision of the current object to be at least prec bits. The precision is limited to 128Kb. The current object will be returned.


Method sgn

int sgn()


Method sqr

mpf sqr()


Method sqrt

mpf res = sqrt([Gmp.mpf]a) or
mpf sqrt()


Method trunc

mpf trunc()

Class Gmp.mpq

Description

Rational number stored in canonical form. The canonical from means that the denominator and the numerator have no common factors, and that the denominator is positive. Zero has the unique representation 0/1. All functions canonicalize their result.


Method __hash

int hash_value( Gmp.mpq arg )


Method _is_type

bool res = is_type(Gmp.mpq())


Method _sprintf

string sprintf(string format, ... Gmp.mpq arg ... )


Method `!

bool res = !Gmp.mpq()


Method `%

Gmp.mpq res = Gmp.mpq() % a

Description

a%b =  a -  floor(a/b)*b 


Method `*

Gmp.mpq res = Gmp.mpq() * a


Method `+

Gmp.mpq res = Gmp.mpq() + a


Method `+=

Gmp.mpq() += a


Method `-

Gmp.mpq res = Gmp.mpq() - a


Method `/

Gmp.mpq res = Gmp.mpq() / a


Method `<

bool res = Gmp.mpq() < q


Method `==

bool res = Gmp.mpq() == q


Method `>

bool res = Gmp.mpq() > q


Method ``%

Gmp.mpq res = a % Gmp.mpq()


Method ``*

Gmp.mpq res = a * Gmp.mpq()


Method ``+

Gmp.mpq res = a + Gmp.mpq()


Method ``-

Gmp.mpq res = sv - Gmp.mpq()


Method ``/

Gmp.mpq res = sv / Gmp.mpq()


Method `~

Gmp.mpq res = ~Gmp.mpq()

Description

Defined as -1-x.


Method cast

(int)Gmp.mpq()
(string)Gmp.mpq()
(float)Gmp.mpq()

Description

Casting to a string returns the number in the decimal fraction format, where both decimal point and quotient is included only if required. I.e. it is the same as calling get_string with 1 as argument.


Method create

Gmp.mpq Gmp.mpq(void|string|int|float|Gmp.mpz|Gmp.mpq x)
Gmp.mpq Gmp.mpq(int|Gmp.mpz numerator, int|Gmp.mpz denominator)
Gmp.mpq Gmp.mpq(string x, int base)


Method den

int den()

Description

Returns the denominator. It is always positive.


Method get_float

float get_float()


Method get_int

int get_int()


Method get_string

string get_string(void|int decimal_fraction)

Description

If decimal_fraction is zero or left out, the number is returned as a string on the form "numerator/denominator", where both parts are decimal integers. The numerator may be negative, but the denominator is always positive.

If decimal_fraction is set, then the number is returned as a (possibly negative) decimal fraction, i.e. a decimal number with a decimal point somewhere inside. There is always at least one digit before and after the decimal point.

If the number can be accurately described that way, i.e. without an infinite number of decimals, then no denominator is included. Otherwise the remaining denominator is added to the decimal fraction after a "/". For example, 4711/100 is returned as "47.11", 4711/200 as "23.555", and 4711/300 as "47.11/3".

If decimal_fraction is 1 then the decimal fraction contains a '.' only if there are decimals in it. If it is 2 or higher then the decimal fraction always contains a '.' with at least one digit before and after it.

Note

In any case, there are no unnecessary padding zeroes at the beginning or end of any decimal number.


Method invert

Gmp.mpq invert()


Method num

int num()

Description

Returns the numerator.


Method sgn

int(-1..1) sgn()

Class Gmp.mpz

Description

Gmp.mpz implements very large integers. In fact, the only limitation on these integers is the available memory. The mpz object implements all the normal integer operations.

Note that the auto-bignum feature also makes these operations available "in" normal integers. For instance, to calculate the greatest common divisor between 51 and 85, you can do 51->gcd(85).


Method __hash

int hash_value( Gmp.mpz arg )

Description

Calculate a hash of the value.

Note

Prior to Pike 7.8.359 this function returned the low 32-bits as an unsigned integer. This could in some common cases lead to very unbalanced mappings.

See also

hash_value()


Method _decode

Gmp.mpz decode_value(string(8bit) data)


Method _encode

string(8bit) encode_value(Gmp.mpz data)


Method _random

Gmp.mpz random( Gmp.mpz arg )


Method _sprintf

string sprintf(string format, ... Gmp.mpz arg ... )


Method `!

bool res = !Gmp.mpz()


Method `%

Gmp.mpz res = Gmp.mpz() % x


Method `&

Gmp.mpz res = Gmp.mpz() & x


Method `*

Gmp.mpz res = Gmp.mpz() * x


Method `+

Gmp.mpz res = Gmp.mpz() + x


Method `-

Gmp.mpz res = Gmp.mpz() - x


Method `/

Gmp.mpz res = Gmp.mpz() / x


Method `<

bool res = Gmp.mpz() < with


Method `<<

Gmp.mpz res = Gmp.mpz() << x


Method `==

bool res = Gmp.mpz() == with


Method `>

bool res = Gmp.mpz() > with


Method `>>

Gmp.mpz res = Gmp.mpz() >> x


Method `^

Gmp.mpz res = Gmp.mpz() ^ x


Method ``%

Gmp.mpz res = x % Gmp.mpz()


Method ``*

Gmp.mpz res = x * Gmp.mpz()


Method ``**

Gmp.mpz|Gmp.mpq res = x ** Gmp.mpz()

Description

Return x raised to the value of this object. The case when zero is raised to zero yields one. When this object has a negative value and x is not a float, a Gmp.mpq object will be returned.

See also

pow


Method ``+

Gmp.mpz res = x + Gmp.mpz()


Method ``-

Gmp.mpz res = x - Gmp.mpz()


Method ``/

Gmp.mpz res = x / Gmp.mpz()


Method ``<<

Gmp.mpz res = x << Gmp.mpz()


Method ``>>

Gmp.mpz res = x >> Gmp.mpz()


Method `|

Gmp.mpz res = Gmp.mpz() | x


Method `~

Gmp.mpz res = ~Gmp.mpz()


Method bin

Gmp.mpz bin(int k)

Description

Return the binomial coefficient n over k, where n is the value of this mpz object. Negative values of n are supported using the identity

(-n)->bin(k) == (-1)->pow(k) * (n+k-1)->bin(k)

(See Knuth volume 1, section 1.2.6 part G.)

Throws

The k value can't be arbitrarily large. An error is thrown if it's too large.


Method cast

(string)Gmp.mpz()
(int)Gmp.mpz()
(float)Gmp.mpz()

Description

Cast this mpz object to another type. Allowed types are string, int and float.


Method create

Gmp.mpz Gmp.mpz()
Gmp.mpz Gmp.mpz(string|int|float|object value)
Gmp.mpz Gmp.mpz(string value, int(2..62)|int(256..256)|int(-256..-256) base)

Description

Create and initialize a Gmp.mpz object.

Parameter value

Initial value. If no value is specified, the object will be initialized to zero.

Parameter base

Base the value is specified in. The default base is base 10. The base can be either a value in the range [2..36] (inclusive), in which case the numbers are taken from the ASCII range 0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ (case-insensitive), in the range [37..62] (inclusive), in which case the ASCII range will be case sensitive, or either of the values 256 or -256, in which case value is taken to be the unsigned binary representation in network byte order or reversed byte order respectively.

Values in base [2..62] can be prefixed with "+" or "-". If no base is given, values prefixed with "0b" or "0B" will be interpreted as binary. Values prefixed with "0x" or "0X" will be interpreted as hexadecimal. Values prefixed with "0" will be interpreted as octal.

Note

Leading zeroes in value are not significant when a base is explicitly given. In particular leading NUL characters are not preserved in the base 256 modes.

Before GMP 5.0 only bases 2-36 and 256 were supported.


Method digits

string digits(void|int(2..62)|int(256..256)|int(-256..-256) base)

Description

Convert this mpz object to a string. If a base is given the number will be represented in that base. Valid bases are 2-62 and 256 and -256. The default base is 10.

Note

The bases 37 to 62 are not available when compiled with GMP earlier than version 5.

See also

cast


Method encode_json

string encode_json()


Method fac

Gmp.mpz fac()

Description

Return the factorial of this mpz object.

Throws

Since factorials grow very quickly, only small integers are supported. An error is thrown if the value in this mpz object is too large.


Method gcd

Gmp.mpz gcd(object|int|float|string ... args)

Description

Return the greatest common divisor between this mpz object and all the arguments.


Method gcdext

array(Gmp.mpz) gcdext(int|float|Gmp.mpz x)

Description

Compute the greatest common divisor between this mpz object and x. An array ({g,s,t}) is returned where g is the greatest common divisor, and s and t are the coefficients that satisfies

this * s + x * t = g
See also

gcdext2, gcd


Method gcdext2

array(Gmp.mpz) gcdext2(int|float|Gmp.mpz x)

Description

Compute the greatest common divisor between this mpz object and x. An array ({g,s}) is returned where g is the greatest common divisor, and s is a coefficient that satisfies

this * s + x * t = g

where t is some integer value.

See also

gcdext, gcd


Method hamdist

int hamdist(int x)

Description

Calculates the hamming distance between this number and x.


Method invert

Gmp.mpz invert(int|float|Gmp.mpz x)

Description

Return the inverse of this mpz value modulo x. The returned value satisfies 0 <= result < x.

Throws

An error is thrown if no inverse exists.


Method next_prime

Gmp.mpz next_prime()

Description

Returns the next higher prime for positive numbers and the next lower for negative.

The prime number testing is using Donald Knuth's probabilistic primality test. The chance for a false positive is pow(0.25,25).


Method popcount

int popcount()

Description

For values >= 0, returns the population count (the number of set bits). For negative values (who have an infinite number of leading ones in a binary representation), -1 is returned.


Method pow

Gmp.mpz res = pow([Gmp.mpz]a, b) or
Gmp.mpz pow(int|float|Gmp.mpz x)

Description

Return this mpz object raised to x. The case when zero is raised to zero yields one.

See also

powm


Method powm

Gmp.mpz powm(int|string|float|Gmp.mpz exp, int|string|float|Gmp.mpz mod)

Description

Return ( this->pow(exp) ) % mod.

See also

pow


Method probably_prime_p

int(0..2) probably_prime_p(void|int count)

Description

Return 2 if this mpz object is a prime, 1 if it probably is a prime, and 0 if it definitely is not a prime. Testing values below 1000000 will only return 2 or 0.

Parameter count

The prime number testing is using Donald Knuth's probabilistic primality test. The chance for a false positive is pow(0.25,count). Default value is 25 and resonable values are between 15 and 50.


Method sgn

int sgn()

Description

Return the sign of the integer, i.e. 1 for positive numbers and -1 for negative numbers.


Method size

int(0..) size(void|int base)

Description

Return how long this mpz would be represented in the specified base. The default base is 2.


Method small_factor

int small_factor(void|int(1..) limit)


Method sqrt

Gmp.mpz res = sqrt([Gmp.mpz]a) or
Gmp.mpz sqrt()

Description

Return the the truncated integer part of the square root of this mpz object.


Method sqrtrem

array(Gmp.mpz) sqrtrem()

Module Gnome2

Module Graphics

Module Graphics.Graph


Method pie
Method bars
Method sumbars
Method line
Method norm
Method graph

Image.Image pie(mapping(string:mixed) diagram_data)
Image.Image bars(mapping(string:mixed) diagram_data)
Image.Image sumbars(mapping(string:mixed) diagram_data)
Image.Image line(mapping(string:mixed) diagram_data)
Image.Image norm(mapping(string:mixed) diagram_data)
Image.Image graph(mapping(string:mixed) diagram_data)

Description

Generate a graph of the specified type. See check_mapping for an explanation of diagram_data.


Method check_mapping

mapping(string:mixed) check_mapping(mapping(string:mixed) diagram_data, string type)

Description

This function sets all unset elements in diagram_data to its default value as well as performing some simple sanity checks. This function is called from within pie, bars, sumbars, line, norm and graph.

Parameter diagram_data
"drawtype" : mixed

Default: "linear"

Will be set to "2D" for pie below Only "linear" works for now.

"tone" : mixed

Default: 0

If present a Pie-chart will be toned.

"3Ddepth" : mixed

Default: 10

How much 3D-depth a graph will have in pixels Default is 10.

"data" : array(array(float))

Default: ({({1.0}), ({2.0}), ({4.0})})

Will be set to something else with graph An array of arrays. Each array describing a data-set. The graph-function however should be fed with an array of arrays with X,Y-pairs. Example: ({({1.0, 2.0, 3.0}),({1.2, 2.2, 3.8})}) draws stuff in yellow with the values (1.0, 2.0, 3.0), and (1.2, 2.2, 3.8) in blue.

"labels" : array(string)

Default: 0

Should have four elements ({xquantity, yquantity, xunit, yunit}). The strings will be written on the axes.

"xnames" : array(string)

Default: 0

An array(string) with the text that will be written under the X-axis. This should be the same size as sizeof(data).

"ynames" : array(string)

Default: 0

An array(string) with the text that will be written to the left of the Y-axis.

"fontsize" : mixed

Default: 10

The size of the text. Default is 10.

"graphlinewidth" : mixed

Default: 1.0

Width of the lines that draws data in Graph and line. Default is 1.0

"labelsize" : mixed

Default: same as fontsize

The size of the text for labels.

"legendfontsize" : mixed

Default: same as fontsize

The size of the text for the legend.

"legend_texts" : mixed

Default: 0

The texts that will be written the legend.

"values_for_xnames" : array(float)

Default: 0

An array(float) that describes where the ynames should be placed. The numbers are like the data-numbers. Default is equally distributed.

"values_for_ynames" : array(float)

Default: 0

An array(float) that describes where the ynames should be placed. The numbers are like the data-numbers. Default is equally distributed.

"xsize" : int

Default: 100

X-size of the graph in pixels.

"ysize" : int

Default: 100

Y-size of the graph in pixels.

"image" : mixed

Default: 0

An image that the graph will be drawn on.

"legendcolor" : mixed

Default: 0

The color of the text in the legend. Default is?

"legendimage" : mixed

Default: 0

I have no idea.

"bgcolor" : mixed

Default: 0

The bakground-color. If the the background is a image this color is used for antialias the texts.

"gbimage" : mixed

Default: 0

Some sort of image...

"axcolor" : mixed

Default: ({0,0,0})

The color of the axis.

"datacolors" : mixed

Default: 0

An array of colors for the datasets.

"backdatacolors" : mixed

Default: 0

An array of color that do something...

"textcolor" : mixed

Default: ({0,0,0})

Color of the text. Default is black.

"labelcolor" : mixed

Default: 0

Color of the labeltexts.

"orient" : string

Default: "hor"

Can be "hor" or "vert". Orientation of the graph.

"linewidth" : mixed

Default: 0

Width of lines (the axis and their like).

"backlinewidth" : mixed

Default: 0

Width of the outline-lines. Default is 0.

"vertgrid" : mixed

Default: 0

If the vertical grid should be present.

"horgrid" : mixed

Default: 0

If the horizontal grid should be present.

"gridwidth" : mixed

Default: 0

Width of the grid. Default is linewidth/4.

"rotate" : mixed

Default: 0

How much a the Pie in a Pie-shart should be rotated in degrees.

"center" : mixed

Default: 0

Makes the first Pie-slice be centered.

"bw" : mixed

Default: 0

Draws the graph black and white.

"eng" : mixed

Default: 0

Writes the numbers in eng format.

"neng" : mixed

Default: 0

Writes the numbers in engformat except for 0.1 < x < 1.0

"xmin" : mixed

Default: 0

Where the X-axis should start. This will be overrided by datavalues.

"ymin" : mixed

Default: 0

Where the Y-axis should start. This will be overridden by datavalues.

"name" : mixed

Default: 0

A string with the name of the graph that will be written at top of the graph.

"namecolor" : mixed

Default: 0

The color of the name.

"font" : mixed

Default: Image.Font()

The font that will be used.

"gridcolor" : mixed

Default: ({0,0,0}

The color of the grid. Default is black.


Inherit create_pie

protected inherit .create_pie : create_pie

Class Graphics.Graph.create_bars

Description

Graph sub-module for drawing bars.


Inherit create_graph

inherit .create_graph : create_graph

Class Graphics.Graph.create_graph

Description

Graph sub-module for drawing graphs.

create_graph draws a graph but there are also some other functions used by create_pie and create_bars.


Inherit polyline

inherit .polyline : polyline

Class Graphics.Graph.create_pie

Description

Graph sub-module for drawing pie-charts.


Inherit create_bars

inherit .create_bars : create_bars

Class Graphics.Graph.polyline

Description

Graph sub-module providing draw functions.

Module HTTPAccept

Description

High performance webserver optimized for somewhat static content.

HTTPAccept is a less capable WWW-server than the Protocols.HTTP.Server server, but for some applications it can be preferable. It is significantly more optimized, for most uses, and can handle a very high number of requests per second on even low end machines.

Class HTTPAccept.LogEntry


Variable from

string HTTPAccept.LogEntry.from


Variable method

string HTTPAccept.LogEntry.method


Variable protocol

string HTTPAccept.LogEntry.protocol


Variable raw

string HTTPAccept.LogEntry.raw


Variable received_bytes

int HTTPAccept.LogEntry.received_bytes


Variable reply

int HTTPAccept.LogEntry.reply


Variable sent_bytes

int HTTPAccept.LogEntry.sent_bytes


Variable time

int HTTPAccept.LogEntry.time


Variable url

string HTTPAccept.LogEntry.url

Class HTTPAccept.Loop


Method cache_status

mapping(string:int) cache_status()

Description

Returns information about the cache.

hits : int

The number of hits since start

misses : int

The number of misses since start

stale : int

The number of misses that were stale hits, and not used

size : int

The total current size

entries : int

The number of entries in the cache

max_size : int

The maximum size of the cache

sent_bytes : int

The number of bytes sent since the last call to cache_status

received_bytes : int

The number of bytes received since the last call to cache_status

num_requests : int

The number of requests received since the last call to cache_status


Method create

HTTPAccept.Loop HTTPAccept.Loop(Stdio.Port port, RequestProgram program, function(RequestProgram:void) request_handler, int cache_size, bool keep_log, int timeout)

Description

Create a new HTTPAccept.

This will start a new thread that will listen for requests on the port, parse them and pass on requests, instanced from the program class (which has to inherit RequestProgram to the request_handler callback function.

cache_size is the maximum size of the cache, in bytes. keep_log indicates if a log of all requests should be kept. timeout if non-zero indicates a maximum time the server will wait for requests.


Method log_as_array

array(LogEntry) log_as_array()

Description

Return the current log as an array of LogEntry objects.


Method log_as_commonlog_to_file

int log_as_commonlog_to_file(Stdio.Stream fd)

Description

Write the current log to the specified file in a somewhat common commonlog format.

Will return the number of bytes written.


Method log_size

int log_size()

Description

Returns the number of entries waiting to be logged.


Method logp

bool logp()

Description

Returns true if logging is enabled

Class HTTPAccept.RequestProgram


Variable client

string HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.client

Description

The user agent


Variable data

string HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.data

Description

Any payload that arrived with the request


Variable headers

mapping(string:array(string)) HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.headers

Description

All received headers


Variable method

string HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.method

Description

The method (GET, PUT etc)


Variable my_fd

Stdio.NonblockingStream HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.my_fd

Description

The filedescriptor for this request.


Variable not_query

string HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.not_query

Description

The part of the URL before the first '?'.


Method output

void output(string data)

Description

Send data directly to the remote side.


Variable pragma

multiset(string) HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.pragma

Description

Tokenized pragma headers


Variable prot

string HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.prot

Description

The protocol part of the request. As an example "HTTP/1.1"


Variable query

string HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.query

Description

The part of the URL after the first '?'


Variable raw

string HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.raw

Description

The full request


Variable raw_url

string HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.raw_url

Description

The raw URL received, the part after the method and before the protocol.


Variable referer

string HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.referer

Description

The referer header


Variable remoteaddr

string HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.remoteaddr

Description

The remote address


Method reply

void reply(string data)
void reply(string headers, Stdio.File fd, int len)
void reply(int(0..0) ignore, Stdio.File fd, int len)

Description

Send a reply to the remote side. In the first case the data will be sent. In the second case the headers will be sent, then len bytes from fd. In the last case len bytes from fd will be sent.


Method reply_with_cache

void reply_with_cache(string data, int(1..) stay_time)

Description

Send data as the reply, and keep it as a cache entry to requests to this URL for stay_time seconds.


Variable rest_query

string HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.rest_query

Description

The part of the URL after the first '?' that does not seem to be query variables.


Variable since

string HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.since

Description

The get-if-not-modified, if set.


Variable time

int HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.time

Description

The time_t when the request arrived to the server


Variable variables

mapping(string:string) HTTPAccept.RequestProgram.variables

Description

Parsed query variables

Module Java


Method JArray

jobject JArray(array a)


Method JBoolean

jobject JBoolean(int i)


Method JFloat

jobject JFloat(float f)


Method JHashMap

jobject JHashMap(mapping m)


Method JInteger

jobject JInteger(int i)


Method JString

jobject JString(string s)


Inherit "___Java"

inherit "___Java" : "___Java"


Variable pkg

object Java.pkg

Description

Singleton 'package' object.

Usage: object cls = Java.pkg.java.lang.String;

or: object cls = Java.pkg["java/lang/String"];

cls is a jclass object; call it to create a jobject, which will have all the methods of the Java class.

Example: Java.pkg.FooClass()->getResult();

Class Java.jclass

Description

Interface to one Java class. Can be called to construct a jobject.

Obtained normally via Java.pkg.`[] and not created directly.

Class Java.jobject

Description

An instantiated Java object. Has methods for all the Java object's methods. Can be cast to string.

NOTE: Use indices(x) to get a list of the available methods.

Constructed from a jclass object.

Module Languages

Module Languages.PLIS

Description

PLIS, Permuted Lisp. A Lisp language somewhat similar to scheme.


Method default_environment

Environment default_environment()

Description

Creates a new environment on which it runs init_functions, init_specials and the following boot code.

(begin
  (defmacro (cddr x)
    (list (quote cdr) (list (quote cdr) x)))
  (defmacro (cadr x)
    (list (quote car) (list (quote cdr) x)))
  (defmacro (cdar x)
    (list (quote cdr) (list (quote car) x)))
  (defmacro (caar x)
    (list (quote car) (list (quote car) x)))

  (defmacro (when cond . body)
    (list (quote if) cond
	  (cons (quote begin) body)))

  (define (map fun list)
    (if (null? list) (quote ())
      (cons (fun (car list))
	         (map fun (cdr list)))))

  (defmacro (let decl . body)
    (cons (cons (quote lambda)
		(cons (map car decl) body))
	  (map cadr decl))))

Method init_functions

void init_functions(Environment environment)

Description

Adds the functions +, *, -, =, <, >, concat, read-string, eval, apply, global-environment, var, cdr, null?, setcar!, setcdr!, cons and list to the environment.


Method init_specials

void init_specials(Environment environment)

Description

Adds the special functions quote, set!, setq, while, define, defmacro, lambda, if, and, or, begin and catch to the environment.


Method main

void main()

Description

Instantiates a copy of the default environment and starts an interactive main loop that connects to standard I/O. The main loop is as follows:

(begin
   (define (loop)
     (let ((line (read-line 

Class Languages.PLIS.Binding


Method create

Languages.PLIS.Binding Languages.PLIS.Binding(object value)


Variable value

object Languages.PLIS.Binding.value

Class Languages.PLIS.Builtin


Variable apply

function(:void) Languages.PLIS.Builtin.apply


Method create

Languages.PLIS.Builtin Languages.PLIS.Builtin(function(:void) apply)


Inherit LObject

inherit LObject : LObject

Class Languages.PLIS.Lambda


Method create

Languages.PLIS.Lambda Languages.PLIS.Lambda(object formals, object list)


Variable formals
Variable list

object Languages.PLIS.Lambda.formals
object Languages.PLIS.Lambda.list


Inherit LObject

inherit LObject : LObject

Class Languages.PLIS.Number


Method create

Languages.PLIS.Number Languages.PLIS.Number(int|float|object value)


Inherit SelfEvaluating

inherit SelfEvaluating : SelfEvaluating


Variable value

int|float|object Languages.PLIS.Number.value

Class Languages.PLIS.Parser


Variable buffer

string Languages.PLIS.Parser.buffer


Method create

Languages.PLIS.Parser Languages.PLIS.Parser(string buffer)

Class Languages.PLIS.SelfEvaluating


Method create

Languages.PLIS.SelfEvaluating Languages.PLIS.SelfEvaluating(string name)


Inherit LObject

inherit LObject : LObject


Variable name

string Languages.PLIS.SelfEvaluating.name

Class Languages.PLIS.String


Method create

Languages.PLIS.String Languages.PLIS.String(string value)


Inherit SelfEvaluating

inherit SelfEvaluating : SelfEvaluating


Variable value

string Languages.PLIS.String.value

Module Local

Description

Local gives a local module namespace used for locally installed pike modules.

Modules are searched for in the directory pike_modules which can be located in the user's home directory or profile directory, or in any of the system directories /opt/share, /usr/local/share, /opt or /usr/local/.

The user's home directory is determined by examining the environment variable HOME, and if that fails the environment variable USERPROFILE.

If the environment variable PIKE_LOCAL_PATH is set, the paths specified there will be searched first.

Example

If the user has installed the pike module Mine.pmod in the directory $HOME/pike_modules. it can be accessed as Local.Mine.

See also

Local.add_path(), Local.remove_path()


Method add_path

bool add_path(string path)

Description

This function prepends path to the Local module searchpath.

Parameter path

The path to the directory to be added.

Returns

Returns 1 on success, otherwise 0.


Inherit __joinnode

inherit __joinnode : __joinnode


Method remove_path

void remove_path(string path)

Description

This function removes path from the Local module searchpath. If path is not in the search path, this is a noop.

Parameter path

The path to be removed.

Module Locale

Description

The functions and classes in the top level of the Locale module implements a dynamic localization system, suitable for programs that need to change locale often. It is even possible for different threads to use different locales at the same time.

The highest level of the locale system is called projects. Usually one program consists of only one project, but for bigger applications, or highly modular applications it is possible for several projects to coexist.

Every project in turn contains several unique tokens, each one representing an entity that is different depending on the currently selected locale.

Example
// The following line tells the locale extractor what to
 // look for.
 // <locale-token project="my_project">LOCALE</locale-token>

 // The localization macro.
 #define LOCALE(X,Y) Locale.translate("my_project", \
   get_lang(), X, Y)


 string get_lang() { return random(2)?"eng":"swe"; }

 int(0..0) main() {
   write(LOCALE(0, "This is a line.")+"\n");
   write(LOCALE(0, "This is another one.\n");
   return 0;
 }
Note

In order to update your code to actually use the locale strings you need to run the locale extractor.

This is available as pike -x extract_locale

Syntax: pike -x extract_locale [arguments] infile(s)
   Arguments: --project=name  default: first found in infile
              --config=file   default: [project].xml
              --out=file      default: [project]_eng.xml
              --nocopy        update infile instead of infile.new
              --notime        don

Method call

function(:void)|zero call(string project, string lang, string name, void|function(:void)|string fb)

Description

Returns a localized function If function not found, tries fallback function fb, or fallback language fb instead


Method get_objects

mapping(string:object)|zero get_objects(string lang)

Description

Reads in and returns a mapping with all the registred projects' LocaleObjects in the language 'lang'


Method list_languages

array(string) list_languages(string project)

Description

Returns a list of all registered languages for a specific project.


Method register_project

void register_project(string name, string path, void|string path_base)

Description

Make a connection between a project name and where its localization files can be found. The mapping from project name to locale file is stored in projects.


Method set_default_project_path

void set_default_project_path(string path)

Description

In the event that a translation is requested in an unregistered project, this path will be used as the project path. %P will be replaced with the requested projects name.


Method translate

string translate(string project, string lang, string|int id, string fallback)

Description

Returns a translation for the given id, or the fallback string

Class Locale.DeferredLocale

Description

This class simulates a multi-language "string". The actual language to use is determined as late as possible.


Method create

Locale.DeferredLocale Locale.DeferredLocale(string project, function(:string) get_lang, string|int key, string fallback)


Variable project
Variable get_lang
Variable key
Variable fallback

protected string Locale.DeferredLocale.project
protected function(:string) Locale.DeferredLocale.get_lang
protected string|int Locale.DeferredLocale.key
protected string Locale.DeferredLocale.fallback


Method get_identifier

array get_identifier()

Description

Return the data nessesary to recreate this "string".

Class Locale.LanguageListObject


Method create

Locale.LanguageListObject Locale.LanguageListObject(array(string) languages)


Variable languages

array(string) Locale.LanguageListObject.languages

Module Locale.Charset

Description

This is the old location for the predef::Charset module.

Deprecated

Replaced by predef::Charset.


Inherit Charset

inherit predef::Charset : Charset

Module Locale.Gettext

Description

This module enables access to localization functions from within Pike.

Note

The message conversion functions in this module do not handle Unicode strings. They only provide thin wrappers to gettext(3) etc, which means strings are assumed to be encoded according to the LC_* and LANG variables. See the docs for gettext(3) for details.


Constant LC_ALL

constant Locale.Gettext.LC_ALL

Description

Locale category for all of the locale.


Constant LC_COLLATE

constant Locale.Gettext.LC_COLLATE

Description

Locale category for the functions strcoll() and strxfrm() (used by pike, but not directly accessible).


Constant LC_CTYPE

constant Locale.Gettext.LC_CTYPE

Description

Locale category for the character classification and conversion routines.


Constant LC_MESSAGES

constant Locale.Gettext.LC_MESSAGES

FIXME

Document this constant.

Note

This category isn't available on all platforms.


Constant LC_MONETARY

constant Locale.Gettext.LC_MONETARY

Description

Locale category for localeconv().


Constant LC_NUMERIC

constant Locale.Gettext.LC_NUMERIC

Description

Locale category for the decimal character.


Constant LC_TIME

constant Locale.Gettext.LC_TIME

Description

Locale category for strftime() (currently not accessible from Pike).


Method bindtextdomain

string bindtextdomain(string|void domainname, string|void dirname)

Description

Binds the path predicate for a message domainname domainname to the directory name specified by dirname.

If domainname is a non-empty string and has not been bound previously, bindtextdomain() binds domainname with dirname.

If domainname is a non-empty string and has been bound previously, bindtextdomain() replaces the old binding with dirname.

The dirname argument can be an absolute or relative pathname being resolved when gettext(), dgettext() or dcgettext() are called.

If domainname is zero or an empty string, bindtextdomain() returns 0.

User defined domain names cannot begin with the string "SYS_". Domain names beginning with this string are reserved for system use.

Returns

The return value from bindtextdomain() is a string containing dirname or the directory binding associated with domainname if dirname is unspecified. If no binding is found, the default locale path is returned. If domainname is unspecified or is an empty string, bindtextdomain() takes no action and returns a 0.

See also

textdomain, gettext, setlocale, localeconv


Method dcgettext

string dcgettext(string domain, string msg, int category)

Description

Return a translated version of msg within the context of the specified domain and current locale for the specified category. Calling dcgettext with category Locale.Gettext.LC_MESSAGES gives the same result as dgettext.

If there is no translation available, msg is returned.

Note

Obsoleted by gettext() in Pike 7.3.

See also

bindtextdomain, textdomain, gettext, setlocale, localeconv


Method dgettext

string dgettext(string domain, string msg)

Description

Return a translated version of msg within the context of the specified domain and current locale. If there is no translation available, msg is returned.

Note

Obsoleted by gettext() in Pike 7.3.

See also

bindtextdomain, textdomain, gettext, setlocale, localeconv


Method gettext

string gettext(string msg)
string gettext(string msg, string domain)
string gettext(string msg, string domain, int category)

Parameter msg

Message to be translated.

Parameter domain

Domain from within the message should be translated. Defaults to the current domain.

Parameter category

Category from which the translation should be taken. Defaults to Locale.Gettext.LC_MESSAGES.

Return a translated version of msg within the context of the specified domain and current locale. If there is no translation available, msg is returned.

See also

bindtextdomain, textdomain, setlocale, localeconv


Method localeconv

mapping localeconv()

Description

The localeconv() function returns a mapping with settings for the current locale. This mapping contains all values associated with the locale categories LC_NUMERIC and LC_MONETARY.

"decimal_point" : string

The decimal-point character used to format non-monetary quantities.

"thousands_sep" : string

The character used to separate groups of digits to the left of the decimal-point character in formatted non-monetary quantities.

"int_curr_symbol" : string

The international currency symbol applicable to the current locale, left-justified within a four-character space-padded field. The character sequences should match with those specified in ISO 4217 Codes for the Representation of Currency and Funds.

"currency_symbol" : string

The local currency symbol applicable to the current locale.

"mon_decimal_point" : string

The decimal point used to format monetary quantities.

"mon_thousands_sep" : string

The separator for groups of digits to the left of the decimal point in formatted monetary quantities.

"positive_sign" : string

The string used to indicate a non-negative-valued formatted monetary quantity.

"negative_sign" : string

The string used to indicate a negative-valued formatted monetary quantity.

"int_frac_digits" : int

The number of fractional digits (those to the right of the decimal point) to be displayed in an internationally formatted monetary quantity.

"frac_digits" : int

The number of fractional digits (those to the right of the decimal point) to be displayed in a formatted monetary quantity.

"p_cs_precedes" : bool

Set to 1 or 0 if the currency_symbol respectively precedes or succeeds the value for a non-negative formatted monetary quantity.

"p_sep_by_space" : bool

Set to 1 or 0 if the currency_symbol respectively is or is not separated by a space from the value for a non-negative formatted monetary quantity.

"n_cs_precedes" : bool

Set to 1 or 0 if the currency_symbol respectively precedes or succeeds the value for a negative formatted monetary quantity.

"n_sep_by_space" : bool

Set to 1 or 0 if the currency_symbol respectively is or is not separated by a space from the value for a negative formatted monetary quantity.

"p_sign_posn" : int(0..4)

Set to a value indicating the positioning of the positive_sign for a non-negative formatted monetary quantity. The value of p_sign_posn is interpreted according to the following:

0

Parentheses surround the quantity and currency_symbol.

1

The sign string precedes the quantity and currency_symbol.

2

The sign string succeeds the quantity and currency_symbol.

3

The sign string immediately precedes the currency_symbol.

4

The sign string immediately succeeds the currency_symbol.

"n_sign_posn" : int

Set to a value indicating the positioning of the negative_sign for a negative formatted monetary quantity. The value of n_sign_posn is interpreted according to the rules described under p_sign_posn.

See also

bindtextdomain, textdomain, gettext, dgettext, dcgettext, setlocale


Method setlocale

int setlocale(int category, string locale)

Description

The setlocale() function is used to set the program's current locale. If locale is "C" or "POSIX", the current locale is set to the portable locale.

If locale is "", the locale is set to the default locale which is selected from the environment variable LANG.

The argument category determines which functions are influenced by the new locale are LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC and LC_TIME.

Returns

Returns 1 if the locale setting successed, 0 for failure

See also

bindtextdomain, textdomain, gettext, dgettext, dcgettext, localeconv


Method textdomain

string textdomain(void|string domain)

Description

The textdomain() function sets or queries the name of the current domain of the active LC_MESSAGES locale category. The domain argument is a string that can contain only the characters allowed in legal filenames. It must be non-empty.

The domain argument is the unique name of a domain on the system. If there are multiple versions of the same domain on one system, namespace collisions can be avoided by using bindtextdomain(). If textdomain() is not called, a default domain is selected. The setting of domain made by the last valid call to textdomain() remains valid across subsequent calls to setlocale(), and gettext().

Returns

The normal return value from textdomain() is a string containing the current setting of the domain. If domainname is void, textdomain() returns a string containing the current domain. If textdomain() was not previously called and domainname is void, the name of the default domain is returned.

See also

bindtextdomain, gettext, setlocale, localeconv

Module Locale.Language

Class Locale.Language.abstract

Description

Abstract language locale class, inherited by all the language locale classes.


Method date

string date(int timestamp, string|void mode)

Description

Returns the date for posix time timestamp as a textual string.

Parameter mode

Determines what kind of textual string should be produced.

"time"

I.e. "06:36"

"date"

I.e. "January the 17th in the year of 2002"

"full"

I.e. "06:37, January the 17th, 2002"

Example

> Locale.Language.eng()->date(time()); Result: "today, 06:36"


Method day

string day(int(1..7) num)

Description

Returns the name of weekday number num.


Constant days

constant Locale.Language.abstract.days

Description

Array(string) with the days of the week, beginning with Sunday.


Constant english_name

constant string Locale.Language.abstract.english_name

Description

The name of the language in english.


Constant iso_639_1

optional constant int Locale.Language.abstract.iso_639_1

Description

String with the language code in ISO-639-1 (two character code). Note that all languages does not have a ISO-639-1 code.


Constant iso_639_2

constant int Locale.Language.abstract.iso_639_2

Description

String with the language code in ISO-639-2/T (three character code).


Constant iso_639_2B

constant int Locale.Language.abstract.iso_639_2B

Description

String with the language code in ISO-639-2/B (three character code). This is usually the same as the ISO-639-2/T code (iso_639_2).


Constant languages

constant Locale.Language.abstract.languages

Description

Mapping(string:string) that maps an ISO-639-2/T id code to the name of that language.


Method month

string month(int(1..12) num)

Description

Returns the name of month number num.


Constant months

constant Locale.Language.abstract.months

Description

Array(string) with the months of the year, beginning with January.


Constant name

constant string Locale.Language.abstract.name

Description

The name of the langauge. E.g. "svenska" for Swedish.


Method number

string number(int i)

Description

Returns the number i as a string.


Method ordered

string ordered(int i)

Description

Returns the ordered number i as a string.


Method short_day

string short_day(int(1..7) num)

Description

Returns an abbreviated weekday name from the weekday number num.


Method short_month

string short_month(int(1..12) num)

Description

Returns an abbreviated month name from the month number num.

Module Locale.Language.cat

Description

Catalan language locale.


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.ces

Description

Czech language locale by Jan Petrous 16.10.1997, based on Slovenian language module by Iztok Umek.


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.deu

Description

German language locale by Tvns Böker.


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.eng

Description

English language locale.


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.fin

Description

Finnish language locale created by Janne Edelman, Turku Unix Users Group ry, Turku, Finland


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.fra

Description

French language locale by Patrick Kremer.


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.hrv

Description

Croatian language locale by Klara Makovac 1997/07/02


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.hun

Description

Hungarian language locale by Zsolt Varga.


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.ita

Description

Italian language locale by Francesco Chemolli


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.jpn

Description

Japanese language locale.


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.mri

Description

Maaori (New Zealand) language locale by Jason Rumney


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.nld

Description

Dutch language locale by Stephen R. van den Berg


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.nor

Description

Norwegian language locale


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.pol

Description

Polish language locale by Piotr Klaban <makler@man.torun.pl>.


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.por

Description

Portuguese language locale


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.rus

Description

Russian language locale


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.slv

Description

Slovenian language locale by Iztok Umek 7. 8. 1997


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.spa

Description

Spanish language locale


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.srp

Description

Serbian language locale by Goran Opacic 1996/12/11


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module Locale.Language.swe

Description

Swedish language locale


Inherit "abstract"

inherit "abstract" : "abstract"

Module MIME

Description

RFC 1521, the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions memo, defines a structure which is the base for all messages read and written by modern mail and news programs. It is also partly the base for the HTTP protocol. Just like RFC 0822, MIME declares that a message should consist of two entities, the headers and the body. In addition, the following properties are given to these two entities:

Headers
  • A MIME-Version header must be present to signal MIME compatibility

  • A Content-Type header should be present to describe the nature of the data in the message body. Seven major types are defined, and an extensive number of subtypes are available. The header can also contain attributes specific to the type and subtype.

  • A Content-Transfer-Encoding may be present to notify that the data of the body is encoded in some particular encoding.

Body
  • Raw data to be interpreted according to the Content-Type header

  • Can be encoded using one of several Content-Transfer-Encodings to allow transport over non 8bit clean channels

The MIME module can extract and analyze these two entities from a stream of bytes. It can also recreate such a stream from these entities. To encapsulate the headers and body entities, the class MIME.Message is used. An object of this class holds all the headers as a mapping from string to string, and it is possible to obtain the body data in either raw or encoded form as a string. Common attributes such as message type and text char set are also extracted into separate variables for easy access.

The Message class does not make any interpretation of the body data, unless the content type is multipart. A multipart message contains several individual messages separated by boundary strings. The Message->create method of the Message class will divide a multipart body on these boundaries, and then create individual Message objects for each part. These objects will be collected in the array Message->body_parts within the original Message object. If any of the new Message objects have a body of type multipart, the process is of course repeated recursively.


Method decode

string|StringRange decode(string|StringRange data, void|string encoding)

Description

Extract raw data from an encoded string suitable for transport between systems.

The encoding can be any of

"7bit"
"8bit"
"base64"
"binary"
"quoted-printable"
"x-uue"
"x-uuencode"

The encoding string is not case sensitive.

See also

MIME.encode()


Method decode_base32

string decode_base32(string encoded_data)

Description

This function decodes data encoded using the base32 transfer encoding.

See also

MIME.encode_base32(), MIME.decode()


Method decode_base32hex

string decode_base32hex(string encoded_data)

Description

Decode strings according to RFC 4648 base32hex encoding.

See also

MIME.decode_base32


Method decode_base64

string decode_base64(string encoded_data)

Description

This function decodes data encoded using the base64 transfer encoding.

See also

MIME.encode_base64(), MIME.decode()


Method decode_base64url

string decode_base64url(string encoded_data)

Description

Decode strings according to RFC 4648 base64url encoding.

See also

MIME.decode_base64


Method decode_crypt64

string(8bit) decode_crypt64(string(7bit) encoded_data)

Description

This function decodes data encoded using the crypt64 encoding.

This is an ad hoc encoding similar to base64 that several password hashing algorithms use for entries in the password database.

Note

This is NOT a MIME-compliant encoding, and MUST NOT be used as such.

See also

MIME.encode_crypt64()


Method decode_headerfield_params

array(ADT.OrderedMapping) decode_headerfield_params(string s)

Description

Decodes the given string as a key-value parameter cascade according to e.g. RFC 7239 section 4.

Note

This function will decode all conforming inputs, but it will also be forgiving when presented with non-conforming inputs.

See also

encode_headerfield_params


Method decode_qp

string decode_qp(string encoded_data)

Description

This function decodes data encoded using the quoted-printable (a.k.a. quoted-unreadable) transfer encoding.

See also

MIME.encode_qp(), MIME.decode()


Method decode_uue

string decode_uue(string encoded_data)

Description

This function decodes data encoded using the x-uue transfer encoding. It can also be used to decode generic UUEncoded files.

See also

MIME.encode_uue(), MIME.decode()


Method decode_word

array(string) decode_word(string word)

Description

Extracts the textual content and character set from an encoded word as specified by RFC 1522/RFC 2047. The result is an array where the first element is the raw text, and the second element the name of the character set. If the input string is not an encoded word, the result is still an array, but the char set element will be set to 0.

Note

Note that this function can only be applied to individual encoded words.

See also

MIME.encode_word()


Method decode_words_text

array(array(string)) decode_words_text(string txt)

Description

Separates a header value containing text into units and calls MIME.decode_word() on them. The result is an array where each element is a result from decode_word().

See also

MIME.decode_words_tokenized MIME.decode_words_text_remapped


Method decode_words_text_remapped

string decode_words_text_remapped(string txt)

Description

Like MIME.decode_words_text(), but the extracted strings are also remapped from their specified character encoding into UNICODE, and then pasted together. The result is thus a string in the original text format, without RFC 1522 escapes, and with all characters in UNICODE encoding.

See also

MIME.decode_words_tokenized_remapped


Method decode_words_tokenized

array(array(string)|int) decode_words_tokenized(string phrase, int|void flags)

Description

Tokenizes a header value just like MIME.tokenize(), but also converts encoded words using MIME.decode_word(). The result is an array where each element is either an int representing a special character, or an array as returned by decode_word() representing an atom or a quoted string.

See also

MIME.decode_words_tokenized_labled MIME.decode_words_tokenized_remapped MIME.decode_words_text


Method decode_words_tokenized_labled

array(array(string|int|array(array(string)))) decode_words_tokenized_labled(string phrase, int|void flags)

Description

Tokenizes and labels a header value just like MIME.tokenize_labled(), but also converts encoded words using MIME.decode_word(). The result is an array where each element is an array of two or more elements, the first being the label. The rest of the array depends on the label:

"special"

One additional element, containing the character code for the special character as an int.

"word"

Two additional elements, the first being the word, and the second being the character set of this word (or 0 if it did not originate from an encoded word).

"domain-literal"

One additional element, containing the domain literal as a string.

"comment"

One additional element, containing an array as returned by MIME.decode_words_text().

See also

MIME.decode_words_tokenized_labled_remapped


Method decode_words_tokenized_labled_remapped

array(array(string|int)) decode_words_tokenized_labled_remapped(string phrase, int|void flags)

Description

Like MIME.decode_words_tokenized_labled(), but the extracted words are also remapped from their specified character encoding into UNICODE. The result is identical to that of MIME.tokenize_labled(), but without RFC 1522 escapes, and with all characters in UNICODE encoding.


Method decode_words_tokenized_remapped

array(string|int) decode_words_tokenized_remapped(string phrase, int|void flags)

Description

Like MIME.decode_words_tokenized(), but the extracted atoms are also remapped from their specified character encoding into UNICODE. The result is thus identical to that of MIME.tokenize(), but without RFC 1522 escapes, and with all characters in UNICODE encoding.

See also

MIME.decode_words_tokenized_labled_remapped MIME.decode_words_text_remapped


Method encode

string encode(string data, void|string encoding, void|string filename, void|int no_linebreaks)

Description

Encode raw data into something suitable for transport to other systems.

The encoding can be any of

"7bit"
"8bit"
"base64"
"binary"
"quoted-printable"
"x-uue"
"x-uuencode"

The encoding string is not case sensitive. For the x-uue encoding, an optional filename string may be supplied.

If a nonzero value is passed as no_linebreaks, the result string will not contain any linebreaks (base64 and quoted-printable only).

See also

MIME.decode()


Method encode_base32

string encode_base32(string data, void|int no_linebreaks, void|int no_pad)

Description

Encode strings according to RFC 4648 base32 encoding.

If a nonzero value is passed as no_linebreaks, the result string will not contain any linebreaks.

See also

MIME.decode_base32(), MIME.encode()


Method encode_base32hex

string encode_base32hex(string data, void|int no_linebreaks, void|int no_pad)

Description

Encode strings according to RFC 4648 base32hex encoding.

If a nonzero value is passed as no_linebreaks, the result string will not contain any linebreaks.

See also

MIME.encode_base32hex


Method encode_base64

string encode_base64(string data, void|int no_linebreaks, void|int no_pad)

Description

This function encodes data using the base64 transfer encoding.

If a nonzero value is passed as no_linebreaks, the result string will not contain any linebreaks.

See also

MIME.decode_base64(), MIME.encode()


Method encode_base64url

string encode_base64url(string data, void|int no_linebreaks, void|int no_pad)

Description

Encode strings according to RFC 4648 base64url encoding. No padding is performed and no_linebreaks defaults to true.

See also

MIME.encode_base64


Method encode_crypt64

string encode_crypt64(string(8bit) data)

Description

This function encodes data