9. I/O

9.1. File system manipulation


Method access

int access(string path, string|void mode)

Description

access() checks if the calling process can access the file path. Symbolic links are dereferenced.

Parameter mode

The mode specifies the accessibility checks to be performed, and is either not specified or empty, in which case access() just tests if the file exists, or one or more of the characters "rwx".

r, w, and x test whether the file exists and grants read, write, and execute permissions, respectively.

The check is done using the calling process's real UID and GID, rather than the effective IDs as is done when actually attempting an operation (e.g., open(2)) on the file. This allows set-user-ID programs to easily determine the invoking user's authority.

If the calling process is privileged (i.e., its real UID is zero), then an X_OK check is successful for a regular file if execute permission is enabled for any of the file owner, group, or other.

Returns
1

When the file is accessible using the given permissions.

0

When the file is not accessible, in which case errno is set to one of the following values:

EACCESS

Access denied.

ELOOP

Too many symbolic links.

ENAMETOOLONG

The path is too long.

ENOENT

The file does not exist.

ENOTDIR

One of the directories used in path is not, in fact, a directory.

EROFS

The filesystem is read only and write access was requested.

Other errors can occur, but are not directly related to the requested path, such as ENOMEM, etc.

See also

errno(), Stdio.File


Method cd

int cd(string s)

Description

Change the current directory for the whole Pike process.

Returns

Returns 1 for success, 0 (zero) otherwise.

See also

getcwd()


Method getcwd

string getcwd()

Description

Returns the current working directory.

See also

cd()


Method get_dir

array(string) get_dir(void|string dirname)

Description

Returns an array of all filenames in the directory dirname, or 0 (zero) if the directory does not exist. When no dirname is given, current work directory is used.

See also

mkdir(), cd()


Method mkdir

int mkdir(string dirname, void|int mode)

Description

Create a directory.

If mode is specified, it's will be used for the new directory after being &'ed with the current umask (on OS'es that support this).

Returns

Returns 0 (zero) on failure, 1 otherwise.

See also

rm(), cd(), Stdio.mkdirhier()


Method cp

int cp(string from, string to)

Description

Copies the file from to the new position to. This is an alias for Stdio.cp.


Method mv

int mv(string from, string to)

Description

Rename or move a file or directory.

If the destination already exists, it will be replaced. Replacement often only works if to is of the same type as from, i.e. a file can only be replaced by another file and so on. Also, a directory will commonly be replaced only if it's empty.

On some OSs this function can't move directories, only rename them.

Returns

Returns 0 (zero) on failure, 1 otherwise. Call errno() to get more error info on failure.

See also

rm()


Method rm

int rm(string f)

Description

Remove a file or directory.

Returns

Returns 0 (zero) on failure, 1 otherwise.

Note

May fail with errno() set to EISDIR or ENOTDIR if the file has changed to a directory during the call or the reverse.

See also

Stdio.File()->unlinkat(), mkdir(), Stdio.recursive_rm()


Method file_truncate

int file_truncate(string file, int length)

Description

Truncates the file file to the length specified in length.

Returns

Returns 1 if ok, 0 if failed.

9.2. Path manipulation


Method basename

string basename(string path)

Description

Returns the last segment of a path.

See also

dirname(), explode_path()


Method dirname

string dirname(string path)

Description

Returns all but the last segment of a path. Some example inputs and outputs:

ExpressionValue
dirname("/a/b")"/a"
dirname("/a/")"/a"
dirname("/a")"/"
dirname("/")"/"
dirname("")""

See also

basename(), explode_path()


Method combine_path
Method combine_path_unix
Method combine_path_nt
Method combine_path_amigaos

string combine_path(string path, string ... paths)
string combine_path_unix(string path, string ... paths)
string combine_path_nt(string path, string ... paths)
string combine_path_amigaos(string path, string ... paths)

Description

Concatenate a number of paths to a straightforward path without any "//", "/.." or "/.". If any path argument is absolute then the result is absolute and the preceding arguments are ignored. If the result is relative then it might have leading ".." components. If the last nonempty argument ends with a directory separator then the result ends with that too. If all components in a relative path disappear due to subsequent ".." components then the result is ".".

combine_path_unix() concatenates in UNIX style, which also is appropriate for e.g. URL:s ("/" separates path components and absolute paths start with "/"). combine_path_nt() concatenates according to NT filesystem conventions ("/" and "\" separates path components and there might be a drive letter in front of absolute paths). combine_path_amigaos() concatenates according to AmigaOS filesystem conventions.

combine_path() is equivalent to combine_path_unix() on UNIX-like operating systems, and equivalent to combine_path_nt() on NT-like operating systems, and equivalent to combine_path_amigaos() on AmigaOS-like operating systems.

See also

getcwd(), Stdio.append_path()


Method explode_path

array(string) explode_path(string p)

Description

Split a path p into its components.

This function divides a path into its components. This might seem like it could be done by dividing the string on <tt>"/"</tt>, but that will not work on some operating systems. To turn the components back into a path again, use combine_path().

9.3. Status


Method file_stat

Stdio.Stat file_stat(string path, void|bool symlink)

Description

Stat a file.

If the argument symlink is 1 symlinks will not be followed.

Returns

If the path specified by path doesn't exist 0 (zero) will be returned.

Otherwise an object describing the properties of path will be returned.

Note

In Pike 7.0 and earlier this function returned an array with 7 elements. The old behaviour can be simulated with the following function:

array(int) file_stat(string path, void|int(0..1) symlink)
{
  File.Stat st = predef::file_stat(path, symlink);
  if (!st) return 0;
  return (array(int))st;
}
See also

Stdio.Stat, Stdio.File->stat()


Method filesystem_stat

mapping(string:int) filesystem_stat(string path)

Description

Returns a mapping describing the properties of the filesystem containing the path specified by path.

Returns

If a filesystem cannot be determined 0 (zero) will be returned.

Otherwise a mapping(string:int) with the following fields will be returned:

"blocksize" : int

Size in bytes of the filesystem blocks.

"blocks" : int

Size of the entire filesystem in blocks.

"bfree" : int

Number of free blocks in the filesystem.

"bavail" : int

Number of available blocks in the filesystem. This is usually somewhat less than the "bfree" value, and can usually be adjusted with eg tunefs(1M).

"files" : int

Total number of files (aka inodes) allowed by this filesystem.

"ffree" : int

Number of free files in the filesystem.

"favail" : int

Number of available files in the filesystem. This is usually the same as the "ffree" value, and can usually be adjusted with eg tunefs(1M).

"fsname" : string

Name assigned to the filesystem. This item is not available on all systems.

"fstype" : string

Type of filesystem (eg "nfs"). This item is not available on all systems. For some more uncommon filesystems this may be an integer representing the magic number for the filesystem type (cf statfs(2) on eg Linux systems).

Note

Please note that not all members are present on all OSs.

See also

file_stat()

Class Stdio.Stat

Description

This object is used to represent file status information from e.g. file_stat().

It contains the following items usually found in a C struct stat:

mode

File mode (see mknod(2)).

size

File size in bytes.

uid

User ID of the file's owner.

gid

Group ID of the file's owner.

atime

Time of last access in seconds since 00:00:00 UTC, 1970-01-01.

mtime

Time of last data modification.

ctime

Time of last file status change.

atime_nsec

Time of last access in nanoseconds, added to atime to get sub-second time

mtime_nsec

Time of last modification in nanoseconds, added to mtime to get sub-second time

ctime_nsec

Time of last file status change in nanoseconds, added to ctime to get sub-second time

ino

Inode number.

nlink

Number of links.

dev

ID of the device containing a directory entry for this file.

rdev

ID of the device.

It also contains some items that correspond to the C IS* macros:

isreg

Set if the file is a regular file.

isdir

Set if the file is a directory.

islnk

Set if the file is a symbolic link. Note that symbolic links are normally followed by the stat functions, so this might only be set if you turn that off, e.g. by giving a nonzero second argument to file_stat().

isfifo

Set if the file is a FIFO (aka named pipe).

issock

Set if the file is a socket.

ischr

Set if the file is a character device.

isblk

Set if the file is a block device.

There are also some items that provide alternative representations of the above:

type

The type as a string, can be any of "reg", "dir", "lnk", "fifo", "sock", "chr", "blk", and "unknown".

mode_string

The file mode encoded as a string in ls -l style, e.g. "drwxr-xr-x".

Note that some items might not exist or have meaningful values on some platforms.

Additionally, the object may be initialized from or casted to an array on the form of a 'traditional' LPC stat-array, and it's also possible to index the object directly with integers as if it were such an array. The stat-array has this format:

Array
int 0

File mode, same as mode.

int 1

If zero or greater, the file is a regular file and this is its size in bytes. If less than zero it gives the type: -2=directory, -3=symlink and -4=device.

int 2

Time of last access, same as atime.

int 3

Time of last data modification, same as mtime.

int 4

Time of last file status change, same as ctime.

int 5

User ID of the file's owner, same as uid.

int 6

Group ID of the file's owner, same as gid.

It's possible to modify the stat struct by assigning values to the items. They essentially work as variables, although some of them affect others, e.g. setting isdir clears isreg and setting mode_string changes many of the other items.


Method _equal

bool equal(Stdio.Stat from, mixed other)

Description

Compare this object with another Stat object.

Returns

Returns 1 if other is a Stat object with the same content, and 0 (zero) otherwise.


Method cast

(mapping(string:int))Stdio.Stat()
(array)Stdio.Stat()

Description

Convert the stat object to a mapping or array.


Method create

Stdio.Stat Stdio.Stat(void|object|array stat)

Description

A new Stdio.Stat object can be initialized in two ways:

  • stat is an object, typically another Stdio.Stat. The stat info is copied from the object by getting the values of mode, size, atime, mtime, ctime, uid, gid, dev, ino, nlink, and rdev.

  • stat is a seven element array on the 'traditional' LPC stat-array form (see the class doc).

9.4. Error handling


Method errno

int errno()

Description

This function returns the system error from the last file operation.

Note

Note that you should normally use Stdio.File->errno() instead.

See also

Stdio.File->errno(), strerror()


Method strerror

string strerror(int errno)

Description

This function returns a description of an error code. The error code is usually obtained from eg Stdio.File->errno().

Note

On some platforms the string returned can be somewhat nondescriptive.

9.5. Files and sockets

Class Stdio.File

Annotations
@Pike.Annotations.Implements(NonblockingStream)
@Pike.Annotations.Implements(BlockFile)
Description

This is the basic I/O object, it provides socket and pipe communication as well as file access. It does not buffer reads and writes by default, and provides no line-by-line reading, that is done with Stdio.FILE object.

Note

The file or stream will normally be closed when this object is destructed (unless there are more objects that refer to the same file through use of assign or dup). Objects do not contain cyclic references in themselves, so they will be destructed timely when they run out of references.

See also

Stdio.FILE


Method assign

int assign(File|Fd o)

Description

This function takes a clone of Stdio.File and assigns all variables of this file from it. It can be used together with dup() to move files around.

See also

dup()


Method async_connect

int async_connect(string host, int|string port, function(int, __unknown__ ... :void) callback, mixed ... args)

Description

Open a TCP/IP connection asynchronously.

This function is similar to connect(), but works asynchronously.

Parameter host

Hostname or IP to connect to.

Parameter port

Port number or service name to connect to.

Parameter callback

Function to be called on completion. The first argument will be 1 if a connection was successfully established, and 0 (zero) on failure. The rest of the arguments to callback are passed verbatim from args.

Parameter args

Extra arguments to pass to callback.

Returns

Returns 0 on failure to open a socket, and 1 if callback will be used.

Note

The socket may be opened with open_socket() ahead of the call to this function, but it is not required.

Note

This object is put in callback mode by this function. For callback to be called, the backend must be active. See e.g. set_read_callback for more details about backends and callback mode.

Note

The socket will be in nonblocking state if the connection is successful, and any callbacks will be cleared.

See also

connect(), open_socket(), set_nonblocking()


Method async_connect

variant Concurrent.Future async_connect(string host, int|string port)

Description

Opens a TCP connection asynchronously using a Concurrent Future object.

Parameter host

Hostname or IP to connect to.

Parameter port

Port number or service name to connect to.

Returns

Returns a Concurrent.Future that resolves into the connection object at success.


Method close

int close()
int close(string direction)

Description

Close the file. Optionally, specify "r", "w" or "rw" to close just the read, just the write or both read and write directions of the file respectively.

An exception is thrown if an I/O error occurs.

Returns

Nonzero is returned if the file wasn't open in the specified direction, zero otherwise.

Note

This function will not call the close_callback.

See also

open, open_socket


Method connect

variant int connect(string host, int(0..)|string port)
variant int connect(string host, int(0..)|string port, string client, int(0..)|string client_port)
variant string connect(string host, int(0..)|string port, string data)
variant string|zero connect(string host, int(0..)|string port, int(0..0)|string client, int(0..)|string client_port, string data)

Description

Open a TCP/IP connection to the specified destination.

In nonblocking mode, success is indicated with the write-callback, and failure with the close-callback or the read_oob-callback.

The host argument is the hostname or IP number of the remote machine.

A local IP and port can be explicitly bound by specifying client and client_port.

If the data argument is included the socket will use TCP_FAST_OPEN if posible. In this mode the the function will return the part of the data that has not been sent to the remote server yet instead of 1 (you will have to use write to send this data).

Note that TCP_FAST_OPEN requires server support, the connection might fail even though the remote server exists. It might be advisable to retry without TCP_FAST_OPEN (and remember this fact)

Returns

This function returns 1 or the remaining data for success, 0 otherwise.

Note

In nonblocking mode 0 (zero) may be returned and errno() set to EWOULDBLOCK or WSAEWOULDBLOCK.

This should not be regarded as a connection failure. In nonblocking mode you need to wait for a write or close callback before you know if the connection failed or not.

See also

query_address(), async_connect(), connect_unix()


Method connect_unix

int connect_unix(string path)

Description

Open a UNIX domain socket connection to the specified destination.

Returns

Returns 1 on success, and 0 on failure.

Note

Nonblocking mode is not supported while connecting


Method create

Stdio.File Stdio.File()
Stdio.File Stdio.File(string filename)
Stdio.File Stdio.File(string filename, string mode)
Stdio.File Stdio.File(string filename, string mode, int mask)
Stdio.File Stdio.File(string descriptorname)
Stdio.File Stdio.File(int fd)
Stdio.File Stdio.File(int fd, string mode)

Description

There are four basic ways to create a Stdio.File object. The first is calling it without any arguments, in which case the you'd have to call open(), connect() or some other method which connects the File object with a stream.

The second way is calling it with a filename and open mode. This is the same thing as cloning and then calling open(), except shorter and faster.

The third way is to call it with descriptorname of "stdin", "stdout" or "stderr". This will open the specified standard stream.

For the advanced users, you can use the file descriptors of the systems (note: emulated by pike on some systems - like NT). This is only useful for streaming purposes on unix systems. This is not recommended at all if you don't know what you're into. Default mode for this is "rw".

Note

Open mode will be filtered through the system UMASK. You might need to use chmod() later.

See also

open(), connect(), Stdio.FILE,


Method dup

File dup()

Description

This function returns a clone of Stdio.File with all variables copied from this file.

Note

All variables, even id, are copied.

See also

assign()


Method errno

int errno()

Description

Returns the error code for the last command on this file. Error code is normally cleared when a command is successful.


Inherit Fd

optional inherit Fd : Fd


Method line_iterator

String.SplitIterator|LineIterator line_iterator(int|void trim)

Description

Returns an iterator that will loop over the lines in this file. If trim is true, all '\r' characters will be removed from the input.


Method open

int open(string filename, string mode)
int open(string filename, string mode, int mask)

Description

Open a file for read, write or append. The parameter mode should contain one or more of the following letters:

"r"

Open file for reading.

"w"

Open file for writing.

"a"

Open file for append (use with "w").

"t"

Truncate file at open (use with "w").

"c"

Create file if it doesn't exist (use with "w").

"x"

Fail if file already exists (use with "c").

mode should always contain at least one of the letters "r" or "w".

The parameter mask is protection bits to use if the file is created. Default is 0666 (read+write for all in octal notation).

Returns

This function returns 1 for success, 0 otherwise.

See also

close(), create()


Method open_socket

int open_socket(int|string|void port, string|void address, int|string|void family_hint)

Description

This makes this file into a socket ready for connections. The reason for this function is so that you can set the socket to nonblocking or blocking (default is blocking) before you call connect().

Parameter port

If you give a port number to this function, the socket will be bound to this port locally before connecting anywhere. This is only useful for some silly protocols like FTP. The port can also be specified as a string, giving the name of the service associated with the port. Pass -1 to not specify a port (eg to bind only to an address).

Parameter address

You may specify an address to bind to if your machine has many IP numbers.

Parameter family_hint

A protocol family for the socket can be specified. If no family is specified, one which is appropriate for the address is automatically selected. Thus, there is normally no need to specify it. If you do not want to specify a bind address, you can provide the address as a hint here instead, to allow the automatic selection to work anyway.

Returns

This function returns 1 for success, 0 otherwise.

See also

connect(), set_nonblocking(), set_blocking()


Method openat

File openat(string filename)
File openat(string filename, string mode)
File openat(string filename, string mode, int mask)

Description

Open a file relative to an open directory.

See also

File.statat(), File.unlinkat()


Method openpt

int openpt(string mode)

Description

Open the master end of a pseudo-terminal pair. The parameter mode should contain one or more of the following letters:

"r"

Open terminal for reading.

"w"

Open terminal for writing.

mode should always contain at least one of the letters "r" or "w".

See also

grantpt()


Method pipe

File|zero pipe(void|int required_properties)

Description

This function creates a pipe between the object it was called in and an object that is returned.

Parameter required_properties

Binary or (predef::`|()) of required PROP_ properties.

PROP_IPC

The resulting pipe may be used for inter process communication.

PROP_NONBLOCK

The resulting pipe supports nonblocking I/O.

PROP_SHUTDOWN

The resulting pipe supports shutting down transmission in either direction (see close()).

PROP_BUFFERED

The resulting pipe is buffered (usually 4KB).

PROP_BIDIRECTIONAL

The resulting pipe is bi-directional.

PROP_SEND_FD

The resulting pipe might support sending of file descriptors (see send_fd() and receive_fd() for details).

PROP_TTY

The resulting pipe is a pseudo-tty.

PROP_REVERSE

The resulting pipe supports communication "backwards" (but not necessarily "forwards", see PROP_BIDIRECTIONAL).

The default is PROP_NONBLOCK|PROP_BIDIRECTIONAL.

If PROP_BIDIRECTIONAL isn't specified, the read-end is this object, and the write-end is the returned object (unless PROP_REVERSE has been specified, in which case it is the other way around).

The two ends of a bi-directional pipe are indistinguishable.

For PROP_TTY the returned object is the slave (unless PROP_REVERSE has been specified).

If the File object this function is called in was open to begin with, it will be closed before the pipe is created.

Note

Calling this function with an argument of 0 is not the same as calling it with no arguments.

See also

Process.create_process(), send_fd(), receive_fd(), PROP_IPC, PROP_NONBLOCK, PROP_SEND_FD, PROP_SHUTDOWN, PROP_BUFFERED, PROP_REVERSE, PROP_BIDIRECTIONAL, PROP_TTY


Method query_buffer_mode

array(Stdio.Buffer|int(0..0)) query_buffer_mode()

Description

Get the active input and output buffers that have been set with set_buffer_mode() (if any).

Returns

Returns an array with two elements:

Array
Stdio.Buffer 0

The current input buffer.

Stdio.Buffer 1

The current output buffer.

See also

set_buffer_mode()


Method query_read_callback
Method query_write_callback
Method query_read_oob_callback
Method query_write_oob_callback
Method query_close_callback
Method query_callbacks

read_callback_t|zero query_read_callback()
write_callback_t|zero query_write_callback()
function(mixed, string:int)|zero query_read_oob_callback()
function(mixed:int)|zero query_write_oob_callback()
function(mixed:int)|zero query_close_callback()
array(function(mixed, void|string:int)|zero) query_callbacks()

Description

These functions return the currently installed callbacks for the respective events.

query_callbacks returns the callbacks in the same order as set_callbacks and set_nonblocking expect them.

See also

set_nonblocking(), set_read_callback, set_write_callback, set_read_oob_callback, set_write_oob_callback, set_close_callback, set_callbacks


Method query_id

mixed query_id()

Description

This function returns the id that has been set with set_id().

See also

set_id()


Method read

string(8bit)|zero read(int|void nbytes, bool|void not_all)

Description

Read (optionally buffered) data from a file or a stream.

Proxy function for Fd::read(), that adds support for the buffering configured by set_buffer_mode()

See also

read_function(), write(), Fd::read()


Method read_function

function(:string) read_function(int nbytes)

Description

Returns a function that when called will call read with nbytes as argument. Can be used to get various callback functions, eg for the fourth argument to String.SplitIterator.


Method send_fd

void send_fd(File|Fd file)


Method set_blocking

void set_blocking()

Description

This function clears all callbacks and sets a stream to blocking mode. i.e. reading, writing and closing will wait until data has been transferred before returning.

Note

The callbacks are cleared and blocking mode is set in one atomic operation, so no callback gets called in between if the backend is running in another thread.

Even so, if the stream is in callback mode (i.e. if any callbacks are installed) then only the backend thread can use this function reliably; it might otherwise already be running in a callback which is about to call e.g. write when the stream becomes blocking.

See also

set_nonblocking(), set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks(), set_blocking_keep_callbacks()


Method set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks
Method set_blocking_keep_callbacks

void set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks()
void set_blocking_keep_callbacks()

Description

Toggle between blocking and nonblocking, without changing the callbacks.

See also

set_nonblocking(), set_blocking()


Method set_buffer_mode

void set_buffer_mode(Stdio.Buffer|int(0..0) in, Stdio.Buffer|int(0..0) out)

Description

Toggle the file to Buffer mode.

In this mode reading and writing will be done via Buffer objects, in the directions you included buffers.

Parameter in

Input buffer. If this buffer is non-empty, its contents will be returned after any already received data.

Parameter out

Output buffer. If this buffer is non-empty, its contents will be sent after any data already queued for sending.

Note

Normally you call write to re-trigger the write callback if you do not output anything in it (which will stop it from re-occuring again).

This will work with buffered output mode as well, but simply adding more data to the output buffer will work as well.

See also

query_buffer_mode()


Method set_callbacks

void set_callbacks(read_callback_t|void read_cb, write_callback_t|void write_cb, void|function(mixed:int) close_cb, void|function(mixed, string:int) read_oob_cb, void|function(mixed:int) write_oob_cb)

Description

Installs all the specified callbacks at once. Use UNDEFINED to keep the current setting for a callback.

Like set_nonblocking, the callbacks are installed atomically. As opposed to set_nonblocking, this function does not do anything with the stream, and it doesn't even have to be open.

See also

set_read_callback, set_write_callback, set_read_oob_callback, set_write_oob_callback, set_close_callback, query_callbacks


Method set_read_callback
Method set_write_callback
Method set_read_oob_callback
Method set_write_oob_callback
Method set_close_callback
Method set_fs_event_callback

void set_read_callback(function(mixed, string:int)|zero read_cb)
void set_read_callback(function(mixed, Buffer:int)|zero read_cb)
void set_write_callback(function(mixed:int)|zero write_cb)
void set_write_callback(function(mixed, Buffer:int)|zero write_cb)
void set_read_oob_callback(function(mixed, string:int)|zero read_oob_cb)
void set_write_oob_callback(function(mixed:int)|zero write_oob_cb)
void set_close_callback(function(mixed:int)|zero close_cb)
void set_fs_event_callback(function(mixed, int:int)|zero fs_event_cb, int event_mask)

Description

These functions set the various callbacks, which will be called when various events occur on the stream. A zero as argument will remove the callback.

A Pike.Backend object is responsible for calling the callbacks. It requires a thread to be waiting in it to execute the calls. That means that only one of the callbacks will be running at a time, so you don't need mutexes between them.

Unless you've specified otherwise with the set_backend function, the default backend Pike.DefaultBackend will be used. It's normally activated by returning -1 from the main function and will then execute in the main thread.

  • When data arrives on the stream, read_cb will be called with some or all of that data as the second argument.

    If the file is in buffer mode, the second argument will be a Buffer.

    This will always be the same buffer, so data you do not use in one read callback can be simply left in the buffer, when new data arrives it will be appended

  • When the stream has buffer space over for writing, write_cb will be called so that you can write more data to it.

    This callback is also called after the remote end of a socket connection has closed the write direction. An attempt to write data to it in that case will generate a System.EPIPE errno. If the remote end has closed both directions simultaneously (the usual case), Pike will first attempt to call close_cb, then this callback (unless close_cb has closed the stream).

    If the file is in buffer mode, the second argument will be a Buffer.

    You should add data to write to this buffer.

  • When out-of-band data arrives on the stream, read_oob_cb will be called with some or all of that data as the second argument.

  • When the stream allows out-of-band data to be sent, write_oob_cb will be called so that you can write more out-of-band data to it.

    If the OS doesn't separate the write events for normal and out-of-band data, Pike will try to call write_oob_cb first. If it doesn't write anything, then write_cb will be tried. This also means that write_oob_cb might get called when the remote end of a connection has closed the write direction.

  • When an error or an end-of-stream in the read direction occurs, close_cb will be called. errno will return the error, or zero in the case of an end-of-stream.

    The name of this callback is rather unfortunate since it really has nothing to do with a close: The stream is still open when close_cb is called (you might not be able to read and/or write to it, but you can still use things like query_address, and the underlying file descriptor is still allocated). Also, this callback will not be called for a local close, neither by a call to close or by destructing this object.

    Also, close_cb will not be called if a remote close only occurs in the write direction; that is handled by write_cb (or possibly write_oob_cb).

    Events to read_cb and close_cb will be automatically deregistered if an end-of-stream occurs, and all events in the case of an error. I.e. there won't be any more calls to the callbacks unless they are reinstalled. This doesn't affect the callback settings - query_read_callback et al will still return the installed callbacks.

If the stream is a socket performing a nonblocking connect (see open_socket and connect), a connection failure will call close_cb, and a successful connect will call either read_cb or write_cb as above.

All callbacks will receive the id set by set_id as first argument.

If a callback returns -1, no other callback or call out will be called by the backend in that round. I.e. the caller of the backend will get control back right away. For the default backend that means it will immediately start another round and check files and call outs anew.

Parameter event_mask

An event mask specifing bitwise OR of one or more event types to monitor, selected from Stdio.NOTE_WRITE and friends.

Note

These functions do not set the file nonblocking.

Note

Callbacks are also set by set_callbacks and set_nonblocking().

Note

After a callback has been called, it's disabled until it has accessed the stream accordingly, i.e. the write_cb callback is disabled after it's been called until something has been written with write, and the write_oob_cb callback is likewise disabled until something has been written with write_oob. Since the data already has been read when the read callbacks are called, this effect is not noticeable for them.

Note

Installing callbacks means that you will start doing I/O on the stream from the thread running the backend. If you are running these set functions from another thread you must be prepared that the callbacks can be called immediately by the backend thread, so it might not be safe to continue using the stream in this thread.

Because of that, it's useful to talk about "callback mode" when any callback is installed. In callback mode the stream should be seen as "bound" to the backend thread. For instance, it's only the backend thread that reliably can end callback mode before the stream is "handed over" to another thread.

Note

Callback mode has nothing to do with nonblocking mode - although the two often are used together they don't have to be.

Note

The file object will stay referenced from the backend object as long as there are callbacks that can receive events.

Bugs

Setting a close callback without a read callback currently only works when there's no risk of getting more data on the stream. Otherwise the close callback will be silently deregistered if data arrives.

Note

fs_event callbacks only trigger on systems that support these events. Currently, this includes systems that use kqueue, such as Mac OS X, and various flavours of BSD.

See also

set_callbacks, set_nonblocking(), set_id(), set_backend, query_read_callback, query_write_callback, query_read_oob_callback, query_write_oob_callback, query_close_callback


Method set_id

void set_id(mixed id)

Description

This function sets the id of this file. The id is mainly used as an identifier that is sent as the first argument to all callbacks. The default id is 0 (zero). Another possible use of the id is to hold all data related to this file in a mapping or array.

See also

query_id()


Method set_nonblocking

void set_nonblocking(read_callback_t|zero read_callback, write_callback_t|zero write_callback, function(mixed:int)|zero close_callback)
void set_nonblocking(read_callback_t|zero read_callback, write_callback_t|zero write_callback, function(mixed:int)|zero close_callback, function(mixed, string:int)|zero read_oob_callback, function(mixed:int)|zero write_oob_callback)
void set_nonblocking()

Description

This function sets a stream to nonblocking mode and installs the specified callbacks. See the set_*_callback functions for details about them. If no arguments are given, the callbacks will be cleared.

Note

As opposed to calling the set callback functions separately, this function will set all the callbacks and nonblocking mode atomically so that no callback gets called in between. That avoids races in case the backend is executed by another thread.

Note

Out-of-band data was not be supported on Pike 0.5 and earlier, and not on Pike 0.6 through 7.4 if they were compiled with the option '--without-oob'.

See also

set_blocking(), set_callbacks, set_read_callback(), set_write_callback(), set_read_oob_callback(), set_write_oob_callback(), set_close_callback() set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks(), set_blocking_keep_callbacks()

Class Stdio.FILE

Description

Stdio.FILE is a buffered version of Stdio.File, it inherits Stdio.File and has most of the functionality of Stdio.File. However, it has an input buffer that allows line-by-line input.

It also has support for automatic charset conversion for both input and output (see Stdio.FILE()->set_charset()).

Note

The output part of Stdio.FILE is currently not buffered.


Method _get_iterator

Stdio.FILE a;
foreach( a; index; value ) or
protected object _get_iterator()

Description

Returns an iterator that will loop over the lines in this file.

See also

line_iterator()


Method getchar

local int getchar()

Description

This function returns one character from the input stream.

Returns

Returns the ISO-10646 (Unicode) value of the character.

Note

Returns an int and not a string of length 1.


Method gets

string|zero gets(bool|void not_all)

Description

Read one line of input with support for input conversion.

Parameter not_all

Set this parameter to ignore partial lines at EOF. This is useful for eg monitoring a growing logfile.

Returns

This function returns the line read if successful, and 0 if no more lines are available.

See also

ngets(), read(), line_iterator(), set_charset()


Inherit file

inherit File : file


Method line_iterator

object line_iterator(int|void trim)

Description

Returns an iterator that will loop over the lines in this file. If trim is true, all '\r' characters will be removed from the input.

Note

It's not supported to call this method more than once unless a call to seek is done in advance. Also note that it's not possible to intermingle calls to read, gets or other functions that read data with the line iterator, it will produce unexpected results since the internal buffer in the iterator will not contain sequential file-data in those cases.

See also

_get_iterator()


Method ngets

array(string)|zero ngets(void|int(1..) n, bool|void not_all)

Description

Get n lines.

Parameter n

Number of lines to get, or all remaining if zero.

Parameter not_all

Set this parameter to ignore partial lines at EOF. This is useful for eg monitoring a growing logfile.


Method openat

FILE openat(string filename)
FILE openat(string filename, string mode)
FILE openat(string filename, string mode, int mask)

Description

Same as Stdio.File()->openat(), but returns an Stdio.FILE object.

See also

Stdio.File()->openat()


Method pipe

FILE pipe(void|int flags)

Description

Same as Stdio.File()->pipe(), but returns an Stdio.FILE object.

See also

Stdio.File()->pipe()


Method printf

int printf(string format, mixed ... data)

Description

This function does approximately the same as: write(sprintf(format,@data)).

See also

write(), sprintf()


Method read

string read(int|void bytes, void|bool now)

Description

Read bytes (wide-) characters with buffering and support for input conversion.

See also

Stdio.File()->read(), set_charset(), unread()


Method set_charset

void set_charset(string|void charset)

Description

Sets the input and output charset of this file to the specified charset. If charset is 0 or not specified the environment is used to try to detect a suitable charset.

The default charset if this function is not called is "ISO-8859-1".

FIXME

Consider using one of ISO-IR-196 ("\e%G" - switch to UTF-8 with return) or ISO-IR-190 ("\e%/G" - switch to UTF-8 level 1 no return) or ISO-IR-191 ("\e%/H" - switch to UTF-8 level 2 no return) or ISO-IR-192 ("\e%/I" - switch to UTF-8 level 3 no return) or ISO-IR-193 ("\e%/J" - switch to UTF-16 level 1 no return) or ISO-IR-194 ("\e%/K" - switch to UTF-16 level 2 no return) or ISO-IR-195 ("\e%/L" - switch to UTF-16 level 3 no return) or ISO-IR-162 ("\e%/@" - switch to UCS-2 level 1) or ISO-IR-163 ("\e%/A" - switch to UCS-4 level 1) or ISO-IR-174 ("\e%/C" - switch to UCS-2 level 2) or ISO-IR-175 ("\e%/D" - switch to UCS-4 level 2) or ISO-IR-176 ("\e%/E" - switch to UCS-2 level 3) or ISO-IR-177 ("\e%/F" - switch to UCS-4 level 3) or ISO-IR-178 ("\e%B" - switch to UTF-1) automatically to encode wide strings.


Method ungets

void ungets(string s)

Description

This function puts a line back in the input buffer. The line can then be read with eg read(), gets() or getchar().

Note

The string is autoterminated by an extra line-feed.

See also

read(), gets(), getchar(), unread()


Method unread

void unread(string s)

Description

This function puts a string back in the input buffer. The string can then be read with eg read(), gets() or getchar().

See also

read(), gets(), getchar(), ungets()


Method write

int write(array(string)|string what, mixed ... fmt)

Description

Write what with support for output_conversion.

See also

Stdio.File()->write()

9.6. Ports and UDP

Class Stdio.Port

Description

Handles listening to socket ports. Whenever you need a bound socket that is open and listens for connections you should use this program.


Method accept

File|zero accept()

Description

This function completes a connection made from a remote machine to this port. It returns a two-way stream in the form of a clone of Stdio.File. The new file is by initially set to blocking mode.

See also

Stdio.File, fd_factory()


Method create

Stdio.Port Stdio.Port()
Stdio.Port Stdio.Port(int|string port)
Stdio.Port Stdio.Port(int|string port, function(:void) accept_callback)
Stdio.Port Stdio.Port(int|string port, function(:void) accept_callback, string ip)
Stdio.Port Stdio.Port("stdin")
Stdio.Port Stdio.Port("stdin", function(:void) accept_callback)

Description

If the first argument is other than "stdin" the arguments will be passed to bind().

When create is called with "stdin" as the first argument, a socket is created out of the file descriptor 0. This is only useful if it actually is a socket to begin with, and is equivalent to creating a port and initializing it with listen_fd(0).

See also

bind


Method fd_factory

protected Fd fd_factory()

Description

Factory creating empty Fd objects.

This function is called by accept() when it needs to create a new file.

The default implementation returns the Fd inherit in an empty File object.

See also

accept()


Inherit _port

inherit _port : _port

Class Stdio.UDP

Description

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) handling.


Inherit UDP

inherit _Stdio.UDP : UDP


Method set_nonblocking

UDP set_nonblocking()
UDP set_nonblocking(void|function(mapping(string:int|string), mixed ... :void) read_cb, mixed ... extra_args)

Description

Set this object to nonblocking mode.

If read_cb and extra_args are specified, they will be passed on to set_read_callback().

Returns

The called object.


Method set_read_callback

UDP set_read_callback(function(mapping(string:int|string), mixed ... :void)|zero read_cb, mixed ... extra_args)

Description

The read_cb function will receive a mapping similar to the mapping returned by read():

"data" : string

Received data.

"ip" : string

Data was sent from this IP.

"port" : int

Data was sent from this port.

Returns

The called object.

See also

read()

9.7. Terminal I/O

Module Stdio.Terminfo


Method getFallbackTerm

protected Termcap getFallbackTerm(string term)

Description

Returns an object describing the fallback terminal for the terminal term. This is usually equivalent to Stdio.Terminfo.getTerm("dumb").

See also

Stdio.Terminfo.getTerm


Method getTerm

Termcap getTerm(string|void term)

Description

Returns an object describing the terminal term. If term is not specified, it will default to getenv("TERM") or if that fails to "dumb".

Lookup of terminal information will first be done in the systems terminfo database, and if that fails in the termcap database. If neither database exists, a hardcoded entry for "dumb" will be used.

See also

Stdio.Terminfo.getTerminfo, Stdio.Terminfo.getTermcap, Stdio.getFallbackTerm


Method getTermcap

Termcap getTermcap(string term)

Description

Returns the terminal description object for term from the systems termcap database. Returns 0 if not found.

See also

Stdio.Terminfo.getTerm, Stdio.Terminfo.getTerminfo


Method getTerminfo

Terminfo getTerminfo(string term)

Description

Returns the terminal description object for term from the systems terminfo database. Returns 0 if not found.

See also

Stdio.Terminfo.getTerm, Stdio.Terminfo.getTermcap


Method is_tty

int is_tty()

Description

Returns 1 if Stdio.stdin is connected to an interactive terminal that can handle backspacing, carriage return without linefeed, and the like.

Class Stdio.Terminfo.MetaTerminfoDB

Description

TerminfoDB that merges several directorys.


Method create

Stdio.Terminfo.MetaTerminfoDB Stdio.Terminfo.MetaTerminfoDB(array(TerminfoDB|string)|void dbs)

Description

Create a new Meta TerminfoDB.

Parameter dbs

Array with elements in priority order. Elements may be either

TerminfoDB

An active TerminfoDB.

string

A directory that may exist and contain a terminfo database.

Returns

If the resulting set of TerminfoDB's is empty, the object will be destructed.

Class Stdio.Terminfo.Termcap

Description

Termcap terminal description object.


Variable aliases

array(string) Stdio.Terminfo.Termcap.aliases


Method create

Stdio.Terminfo.Termcap Stdio.Terminfo.Termcap(string cap, TermcapDB|void tcdb, int|void maxrecurse)


Inherit TermMachine

inherit TermMachine : TermMachine


Method tputs

string tputs(string s)

Description

Put termcap string

Class Stdio.Terminfo.TermcapDB

Description

Termcap database

Class Stdio.Terminfo.Terminfo

Description

Terminfo terminal description object


Variable aliases

array(string) Stdio.Terminfo.Terminfo.aliases


Method create

Stdio.Terminfo.Terminfo Stdio.Terminfo.Terminfo(string filename)


Inherit TermMachine

inherit TermMachine : TermMachine


Method tputs

string tputs(string s)

FIXME

Document this function

Class Stdio.Terminfo.TerminfoDB

Description

Terminfo database for a single directory.

Class Stdio.Readline


Method add_to_kill_ring

void add_to_kill_ring(string s)

FIXME

Document this function


Method create

Stdio.Readline Stdio.Readline(object|void infd, object|string|void interm, object|void outfd, object|string|void outterm)

Description

Creates a Readline object, that takes input from infd and has output on outfd.

Parameter infd

Defaults to Stdio.stdin.

Parameter interm

Defaults to Stdio.Terminfo.getTerm().

Parameter outfd

Defaults to infd, unless infd is 0, in which case outfd defaults to Stdio.stdout.

Parameter outterm

Defaults to interm.


Method delete

void delete(int p1, int p2)

FIXME

Document this function


Method delta_history

void delta_history(int d)

Description

Changes the line to a line from the history d steps from the current entry (0 being the current line, negative values older, and positive values newer).

Note

Only effective if you have a history object.


Method edit

string|zero edit(string data, string|void local_prompt, array(string)|void attrs)

FIXME

Document this function


Method enable_history

void enable_history(array(string)|History|int hist)

FIXME

Document this function


Method eof

void eof()

FIXME

Document this function


Method get_history

History get_history()

FIXME

Document this function


Method get_input_controller

InputController get_input_controller()

Description

get current input control object

Returns

Terminal input controller object


Method get_output_controller

OutputController get_output_controller()

Description

get current output control object

Returns

Terminal output controller object


Method get_prompt

string get_prompt()

Description

Return the current prompt string.


Method getcursorpos

int getcursorpos()

FIXME

Document this function


Method getmark

int getmark()

FIXME

Document this function


Method gettext

string gettext()

FIXME

Document this function


Method history

void history(int n)

FIXME

Document this function


Method insert

void insert(string s, int p)

FIXME

Document this function


Method kill

void kill(int p1, int p2)

FIXME

Document this function


Method kill_ring_yank

string kill_ring_yank()

FIXME

Document this function


Method list_completions

void list_completions(array(string) c)

FIXME

Document this function


Method message

void message(string msg)

Description

Print a message to the output device


Method newline

string newline()

FIXME

Document this function


Method pointmark

array(int) pointmark()

FIXME

Document this function


Method read

string read(string|void prompt, array(string)|void attrs)

FIXME

Document this function


Method redisplay

void redisplay(int clear, int|void nobackup)

FIXME

Document this function


Method region

string region(int ... args)

FIXME

Document this function


Method set_blocking

void set_blocking()

FIXME

Document this function


Method set_echo

void set_echo(int onoff)

Description

Set text echo on or off.

Parameter onoff

1 for echo, 0 for no echo.


Method set_nonblocking

void set_nonblocking(function(string|zero:void)|zero f)

FIXME

Document this function


Method set_prompt

string set_prompt(string newp, array(string)|void newattrs)

Description

Set the prompt string.

Parameter newp

New prompt string

Parameter newattrs

Terminal attributes


Method setcursorpos

int setcursorpos(int p)

FIXME

Document this function


Method setmark

int setmark(int p)

FIXME

Document this function


Method write

void write(string msg, void|int word_wrap)

FIXME

Document this function

Class Stdio.Readline.DefaultEditKeys


Method backward_char

void backward_char()


Method backward_delete_char

void backward_delete_char()


Method backward_kill_word

void backward_kill_word()


Method backward_word

void backward_word()


Method beginning_of_line

void beginning_of_line()


Method capitalize_word

void capitalize_word()


Method clear_screen

void clear_screen()


Method create

Stdio.Readline.DefaultEditKeys Stdio.Readline.DefaultEditKeys(object readline)


Method delete_char

void delete_char()


Method delete_char_or_eof

void delete_char_or_eof()


Method down_history

void down_history()


Method downcase_word

void downcase_word()


Method end_of_line

void end_of_line()


Method forward_char

void forward_char()


Method forward_word

void forward_word()


Method kill_line

void kill_line()


Method kill_region

void kill_region()


Method kill_ring_save

void kill_ring_save()


Method kill_whole_line

void kill_whole_line()


Method kill_word

void kill_word()


Method newline

void newline()


Method quoted_insert

void quoted_insert()


Method redisplay

void redisplay()


Method self_insert_command

void self_insert_command(string str)


Method set_default_bindings

protected void set_default_bindings()


Method set_mark

void set_mark()


Method swap_mark_and_point

void swap_mark_and_point()


Method transpose_chars

void transpose_chars()


Method up_history

void up_history()


Method upcase_word

void upcase_word()


Method yank

void yank()

Class Stdio.Readline.History


Method create

Stdio.Readline.History Stdio.Readline.History(int maxhist, void|array(string) hist)


Method encode

string encode()


Method finishline

void finishline(string text)


Method get_history_num

int get_history_num()


Method history

string history(int n, string text)


Method initline

void initline()


Method pop

bool pop(string|void text)

Description

Pop the last string off the history, discarding it. If text is provided, will only pop that string. Returns 1 if a string was removed, 0 if not.


Method set_max_history

void set_max_history(int maxhist)

Class Stdio.Readline.InputController

FIXME

Ought to have support for charset conversion.


Method bind

function(:void) bind(string k, function(:void) f)


Method bindstr

function(:void) bindstr(string str, function(:void)|zero f)


Method bindtc

function(:void) bindtc(string cap, function(:void) f)


Method create

Stdio.Readline.InputController Stdio.Readline.InputController(object|void _infd, object|string|void _term)


Method disable

int disable()


Method enable

int enable(int ... e)


Method getbinding

function(:void) getbinding(string k, string cap)


Method getbindings

mapping(string:function(:void)) getbindings()


Method getbindingstr

function(:void)|zero getbindingstr(string str)


Method getbindingtc

function(:void) getbindingtc(string cap)


Method grabnextkey

void grabnextkey(function(:void) g)


Method isenabled

int isenabled()


Method nullbindings

void nullbindings()

Description

Clears the bindings.


Method parsekey

string parsekey(string k)


Method run_blocking

int run_blocking()


Method set_close_callback

void set_close_callback(function(:int) ccb)


Method unbind

function(:void) unbind(string k)


Method unbindstr

function(:void) unbindstr(string str)


Method unbindtc

function(:void) unbindtc(string cap)

Class Stdio.Readline.OutputController

FIXME

Ought to have support for charset conversion.


Method beep

void beep()


Method bol

void bol()


Method check_columns

int check_columns()

Description

Check and return the terminal width.

Note

In Pike 7.4 and earlier this function returned void.

See also

get_number_of_columns


Method clear

void clear(int|void partial)


Method create

Stdio.Readline.OutputController Stdio.Readline.OutputController(.File|void _outfd, .Terminfo.Termcap|string|void _term)


Method disable

void disable()


Method enable

void enable()


Method erase

void erase(string s)


Method get_number_of_columns

int get_number_of_columns()

Description

Returns the width of the terminal.

Note

Does not check the width of the terminal.

See also

check_columns


Method low_erase

void low_erase(int n)


Method low_move_backward

void low_move_backward(int n)


Method low_move_downward

void low_move_downward(int n)


Method low_move_forward

void low_move_forward(int n)


Method low_move_upward

void low_move_upward(int n)


Method low_write

void low_write(string s, void|int word_break)


Method move_backward

void move_backward(string s)


Method move_forward

void move_forward(string s)


Method newline

void newline()


Method turn_off

void turn_off(string ... atts)

Description

Set the provided attributes to off.


Method turn_on

void turn_on(string ... atts)

Description

Set the provided attributes to on.


Method write

void write(string s, void|int word_break, void|int hide)

9.8. Other

Module Stdio


Constant DATA_CHUNK_SIZE

final constant int Stdio.DATA_CHUNK_SIZE

Description

Size used in various places to divide incoming or outgoing data into chunks.


Constant TCSADRAIN

constant string Stdio.TCSADRAIN

Description

Argument to Stdio.File()->tcsetattr().

Change after all output has been written.


Constant TCSAFLUSH

constant string Stdio.TCSAFLUSH

Description

Argument to Stdio.File()->tcsetattr().

Change after all output has been written, and empty the input buffers.


Constant TCSANOW

constant string Stdio.TCSANOW

Description

Argument to Stdio.File()->tcsetattr().

Change immediately.


Method append_file

int append_file(string filename, string str, int|void access)

Description

Append the string str onto the file filename.

For a description of access, see Stdio.File->open().

Throws

Throws an error if filename couldn't be opened for writing.

Returns

Returns the number of bytes written, i.e. sizeof(str).

See also

write_file(), read_bytes(), Stdio.File()->open()


Method append_path
Method append_path_unix
Method append_path_nt

string append_path(string absolute, string ... relative)
string append_path_unix(string absolute, string ... relative)
string append_path_nt(string absolute, string ... relative)

Description

Append relative paths to an absolute path and remove any "//", "../" or "/." to produce a straightforward absolute path as a result.

"../" is ignorded in the relative paths if it makes the created path begin with something else than the absolute path (or so far created path).

append_path_nt() fixes drive letter issues in relative by removing the colon separator ":" if it exists (k:/fnord appends as k/fnord)

append_path_nt() also makes sure that UNC path(s) in relative is appended correctly by removing any "\\" or "//" from the beginning.

append_path() is equivalent to append_path_unix() on UNIX-like operating systems, and equivalent to append_path_nt() on NT-like operating systems.

See also

combine_path()


Method async_cp

void async_cp(string from, string to, function(int, mixed ... :void) callback, mixed ... args)

Description

Copy a file asynchronously.

This function is similar to cp(), but works asynchronously.

Parameter from

Name of file to copy.

Parameter to

Name of file to create or replace with a copy of from.

Parameter callback

Function to be called on completion. The first argument will be 1 on success, and 0 (zero) otherwise. The rest of the arguments to callback are passed verbatim from args.

Parameter args

Extra arguments to pass to callback.

Note

For callback to be called, the backend must be active (ie main() must have returned -1, or Pike.DefaultBackend get called in some other way). The actual copying may start before the backend has activated.

Bugs

Currently the file sizes are not compared, so the destination file (to) may be truncated.

See also

cp(), sendfile()


Method convert_modestring2int

int convert_modestring2int(string mode_string)

Description

Convert the mode_string string as returned by Stdio.Stat object to int suitable for chmod

Parameter mode_string

The string as return from Stdio.Stat()->mode_string

Returns

An int matching the permission of the mode_string string suitable for chmod


Method cp

int cp(string from, string to)

Description

Copies the file from to the new position to. If there is no system function for cp, a new file will be created and the old one copied manually in chunks of DATA_CHUNK_SIZE bytes.

This function can also copy directories recursively.

Returns

0 on error, 1 on success

Note

This function keeps file and directory mode bits, unlike in Pike 7.6 and earlier.


Method exist

int exist(string path)

Description

Check if a path exists.

Returns

Returns true if the given path exists (is a directory or file), otherwise false.

Note

May fail with eg errno() EFBIG if the file exists, but the filesystem doesn't support the file size.

See also

is_dir(), is_file(), is_link(), file_stat()


Method file_equal

int file_equal(string file_1, string file_2)

Description

Returns nonzero if the given paths are files with identical content, returns zero otherwise. Zero is also returned for any sort of I/O error.


Method file_size

int file_size(string filename)

Description

Give the size of a file. Size -1 indicates that the file either does not exist, or that it is not readable by you. Size -2 indicates that it is a directory, -3 that it is a symlink and -4 that it is a device.

See also

file_stat(), write_file(), read_bytes()


Inherit _Stdio

inherit _Stdio : _Stdio


Method is_dir

int is_dir(string path)

Description

Check if a path is a directory.

Returns

Returns true if the given path is a directory, otherwise false.

See also

exist(), is_file(), is_link(), file_stat()


Method is_file

int is_file(string path)

Description

Check if a path is a file.

Returns

Returns true if the given path is a regular file, otherwise false.

See also

exist(), is_dir(), is_link(), file_stat()


Method is_link

int is_link(string path)

Description

Check if a path is a symbolic link.

Returns

Returns true if the given path is a symbolic link, otherwise false.

See also

exist(), is_dir(), is_file(), file_stat()


Method mkdirhier

int mkdirhier(string pathname, void|int mode)

Description

Creates zero or more directories to ensure that the given pathname is a directory.

If a mode is given, it's used for the new directories after being &'ed with the current umask (on OS'es that support this).

Returns

Returns zero on failure and nonzero on success.

See also

mkdir()


Method perror

void perror(string s)

Description

This function prints a message to stderr along with a description of what went wrong if available. It uses the system errno to find out what went wrong, so it is only applicable to IO errors.

See also

werror()


Method read_bytes

string read_bytes(string filename, int start, int len)
string read_bytes(string filename, int start)
string read_bytes(string filename)

Description

Read len number of bytes from a regular file filename starting at byte start, and return it as a string.

If len is omitted, the rest of the file will be returned.

If start is also omitted, the entire file will be returned.

Throws

Throws an error on any I/O error except when the file doesn't exist.

Returns

Returns 0 (zero) if the file doesn't exist or if start is beyond the end of it.

Returns a string with the requested data otherwise.

See also

read_file, write_file(), append_file()


Typedef read_callback_t

local typedef function(mixed|void, string:int|void)|function(mixed|void, Buffer:int|void)|function(mixed|void:int|void)|zero Stdio.read_callback_t

Description

The various read_callback signatures.

The string (or void) version is used when buffer mode (see set_buffer_mode) has not been enabled for reading.

The Buffer version is used when a Buffer has been enabled for reading.

In both cases the data is the newly arrived data, but in buffered mode data you did not fully read in the last read callback is kept in the buffer.


Method read_file

string read_file(string filename)
string read_file(string filename, int start, int len)

Description

Read len lines from a regular file filename after skipping start lines and return those lines as a string. If both start and len are omitted the whole file is read.

Throws

Throws an error on any I/O error except when the file doesn't exist.

Returns

Returns 0 (zero) if the file doesn't exist or if start is beyond the end of it.

Returns a string with the requested data otherwise.

See also

read_bytes(), write_file()


Method recursive_mv

int recursive_mv(string from, string to)

Description

Copy a file or a directory tree by copying and then removing. Mode bits are preserved in the copy. It's not the fastest but works on every OS and works well across different file systems.

Returns

Returns 0 on failure, nonzero otherwise.

See also

recursive_rm cp


Method recursive_rm

int recursive_rm(string path)

Description

Remove a file or a directory tree.

Returns

Returns 0 on failure, nonzero otherwise.

See also

rm


Method sendfile

object sendfile(array(string) headers, File from, int offset, int len, array(string) trailers, File to)
object sendfile(array(string) headers, File from, int offset, int len, array(string) trailers, File to, function(int, mixed ... :void) callback, mixed ... args)

Description

Sends headers followed by len bytes starting at offset from the file from followed by trailers to the file to. When completed callback will be called with the total number of bytes sent as the first argument, followed by args.

Any of headers, from and trailers may be left out by setting them to 0.

Setting offset to -1 means send from the current position in from.

Setting len to -1 means send until from's end of file is reached.

Note

The sending is performed asynchronously, and may complete both before and after the function returns.

For callback to be called, the backend must be active (ie main() must have returned -1, or Pike.DefaultBackend get called in some other way).

In some cases, the backend must also be active for any sending to be performed at all.

In Pike 7.4.496, Pike 7.6.120 and Pike 7.7 and later the backend associated with to will be used rather than the default backend. Note that you usually will want from to have the same backend as to.

Note

The low-level sending may be performed with blocking I/O calls, and thus trigger the process being killed with SIGPIPE when the peer closes the other end. Add a call to signal() to avoid this.

Bugs

FIXME: Support for timeouts?

See also

Stdio.File->set_nonblocking()


Method simplify_path

string simplify_path(string path)

Description

Returns a canonic representation of path (without /./, /../, // and similar path segments).


Variable stderr

FILE Stdio.stderr

Description

An instance of FILE("stderr"), the standard error stream. Use this when you want to output error messages.

See also

predef::werror()


Variable stdin

FILE Stdio.stdin

Description

An instance of FILE("stdin"), the standard input stream. Use this when you want to read anything from the standard input. This example will read lines from standard input for as long as there are more lines to read. Each line will then be written to stdout together with the line number. We could use Stdio.stdout.write() instead of just write(), since they are the same function.

Example

int main() { int line; while(string s=Stdio.stdin.gets()) write("%5d: %s\n", line++, s); }


Variable stdout

FILE Stdio.stdout

Description

An instance of FILE("stdout"), the standatd output stream. Use this when you want to write anything to the standard output.

See also

predef::write()


Method werror

void werror(string s)

Description

Write a message to stderr. Stderr is normally the console, even if the process output has been redirected to a file or pipe.

Note

This function is identical to predef::werror().

See also

predef::werror()


Typedef write_callback_t

local typedef function(mixed|void:int|void)|function(mixed|void, Buffer:int|void)|zero Stdio.write_callback_t

Description

The various write_callback signatures.

The void version is used when buffer mode (see set_buffer_mode) has not been enabled for writing.

The Buffer version is used when a Buffer has been enabled for writing, add data to that buffer to send it.


Method write_file

int write_file(string filename, string str, int|void access)

Description

Write the string str onto the file filename. Any existing data in the file is overwritten.

For a description of access, see Stdio.File()->open().

Throws

Throws an error if filename couldn't be opened for writing.

Returns

Returns the number of bytes written, i.e. sizeof(str).

See also

append_file(), read_bytes(), Stdio.File()->open()

Class Stdio.BlockFile

Annotations
@Pike.Annotations.Implements(Stream)
Description

The Stdio.BlockFile API.

This class exists purely for typing reasons.

Use in types in place of Stdio.File where only blocking I/O is done with the object.

See also

Stream, NonblockingStream, File, FILE


Inherit Stream

inherit Stream : Stream


Method seek

int seek(int to, string|void how)


Method tell

int tell()

Class Stdio.FakeFile

Annotations
@Pike.Annotations.Implements(Stdio.BlockFile)
@Pike.Annotations.Implements(Stdio.NonblockingStream)
Description

A string wrapper that pretends to be a Stdio.File object in addition to some features of a Stdio.FILE object.


Method _sizeof

int(0..) sizeof( Stdio.FakeFile arg )

Description

Sizeof on a FakeFile returns the size of its contents.


Method cast

(int)Stdio.FakeFile()
(float)Stdio.FakeFile()
(string)Stdio.FakeFile()
(array)Stdio.FakeFile()
(mapping)Stdio.FakeFile()
(multiset)Stdio.FakeFile()

Description

A FakeFile can be casted to a string.


Method close

int close(void|string direction)

See also

Stdio.File()->close()


Method create

Stdio.FakeFile Stdio.FakeFile(string data, void|string type, void|int pointer)

See also

Stdio.File()->create()


Method dup

this_program dup()

See also

Stdio.File()->dup()


Method errno

int errno()

Description

Always returns 0.

See also

Stdio.File()->errno()


Method getchar

int getchar()

See also

Stdio.FILE()->getchar()


Method gets

string|zero gets()

See also

Stdio.FILE()->gets()


Constant is_fake_file

constant int Stdio.FakeFile.is_fake_file

Description

This constant can be used to distinguish a FakeFile object from a real Stdio.File object.


Method line_iterator

String.SplitIterator line_iterator(int|void trim)

See also

Stdio.File()->line_iterator()


Method peek

int(-1..1) peek(int|float|void timeout)

See also

Stdio.File()->peek()


Method query_address

string|zero query_address(void|bool is_local)

Description

Always returns 0.

See also

Stdio.File()->query_address()


Method query_close_callback

function(:void) query_close_callback()

See also

Stdio.File()->query_close_callback


Method query_id

mixed query_id()

See also

Stdio.File()->query_id()


Method query_read_callback

function(:void) query_read_callback()

See also

Stdio.File()->query_read_callback


Method query_read_oob_callback

function(:void) query_read_oob_callback()

See also

Stdio.File()->query_read_oob_callback


Method query_write_callback

function(:void) query_write_callback()

See also

Stdio.File()->query_write_callback


Method query_write_oob_callback

function(:void) query_write_oob_callback()

See also

Stdio.File()->query_write_oob_callback


Method read

string|zero read(void|int(0..) len, void|bool not_all)

See also

Stdio.File()->read()


Method read_function

function(:string) read_function(int nbytes)

See also

Stdio.File()->read_function()


Method seek

int seek(int pos, string|void how)

See also

Stdio.File()->seek()


Method set_blocking

void set_blocking()

See also

Stdio.File()->set_blocking


Method set_blocking_keep_callbacks

void set_blocking_keep_callbacks()

See also

Stdio.File()->set_blocking_keep_callbacks


Method set_close_callback

void set_close_callback(function(:void) cb)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_close_callback


Method set_id

void set_id(mixed _id)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_id()


Method set_nodelay

bool set_nodelay(bool|void state)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_nodelay


Method set_nonblocking

void set_nonblocking(function(:void) rcb, function(:void) wcb, function(:void) ccb, void|function(:void) rocb, void|function(:void) wocb)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_blocking


Method set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks

void set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks()

See also

Stdio.File()->set_blocking_keep_callbacks


Method set_read_callback

void set_read_callback(function(:void) cb)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_read_callback


Method set_read_oob_callback

void set_read_oob_callback(function(:void) cb)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_read_oob_callback


Method set_write_callback

void set_write_callback(function(:void) cb)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_write_callback


Method set_write_oob_callback

void set_write_oob_callback(function(:void) cb)

See also

Stdio.File()->set_write_oob_callback


Method stat

Stdio.Stat stat()

Description

Returns size and the creation time of the string.


Method sync

int(1..1) sync()

Description

Always returns 1.

See also

Stdio.File()->sync()


Method tell

int tell()

See also

Stdio.File()->tell()


Method truncate

bool truncate(int length)

See also

Stdio.File()->truncate()


Method unread

void unread(string s)

See also

Stdio.FILE()->unread()


Method write

int(-1..) write(string|array(string) str, mixed ... extra)

See also

Stdio.File()->write()

Class Stdio.FakePipe

Description

This module emulates a bidirectional pipe/socket without using any actual file descriptors.


Method create

Stdio.FakePipe Stdio.FakePipe(void|string direction)


Inherit InternalSocket

inherit InternalSocket : InternalSocket

Class Stdio.FakePipe.InternalSocket

Description

Class that implements one end of an emulated bi-directional pipe/socket.


Variable _other
Variable _read_buffer
Variable _write_buffer
Variable mux
Variable cond

protected this_program|zero Stdio.FakePipe.InternalSocket._other
Stdio.Buffer|zero Stdio.FakePipe.InternalSocket._read_buffer
Stdio.Buffer|zero Stdio.FakePipe.InternalSocket._write_buffer
protected Thread.Mutex Stdio.FakePipe.InternalSocket.mux
protected Thread.Condition Stdio.FakePipe.InternalSocket.cond


Method close

int close(string|void direction)


Method create

Stdio.FakePipe.InternalSocket Stdio.FakePipe.InternalSocket(this_program|zero _other, Stdio.Buffer|zero _read_buffer, Stdio.Buffer|zero _write_buffer, Thread.Mutex mux, Thread.Condition cond)


Method errno

int errno()


Method get_close_callback

function(:void) get_close_callback()


Method get_id

mixed get_id()


Method get_read_callback

function(:void) get_read_callback()


Method get_write_callback

function(:void) get_write_callback()


Method is_open

bool is_open(string|void direction)


Variable other

this_program Stdio.FakePipe.InternalSocket.other

Description

The other end of the emulated pipe/socket.

Note

Read only


Method peek

int(-1..1) peek(int|float|void timeout, int|void not_eof)


Method query_backend

Pike.Backend query_backend()


Method read

string(8bit) read(int|void nbytes, bool|void not_all)


Method set_backend

void set_backend(Pike.Backend be)


Method set_blocking

void set_blocking()


Method set_callbacks

void set_callbacks(function(:void) rcb, function(:void) wcb, function(:void) ccb)


Method set_close_callback

void set_close_callback(function(:void) ccb)


Method set_id

void set_id(mixed id)


Method set_nonblocking

void set_nonblocking(function(:void) rcb, function(:void) wcb, function(:void) ccb)


Method set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks

void set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks()


Method set_read_callback

void set_read_callback(function(:void) rcb)


Method set_write_callback

void set_write_callback(function(:void) wcb)


Method write

int write(sprintf_format|array(string(8bit)) data, sprintf_args ... args)

Class Stdio.NonblockingStream

Annotations
@Pike.Annotations.Implements(Stream)
Description

The Stdio.NonblockingStream API.

This class exists purely for typing reasons.

Use in types in place of Stdio.File where nonblocking and/or blocking stream-oriented I/O is done with the object.

See also

Stream, BlockFile, File, FILE


Inherit Stream

inherit Stream : Stream


Method set_blocking

void set_blocking()


Method set_blocking_keep_callbacks

void set_blocking_keep_callbacks()


Method set_read_callback
Method set_write_callback
Method set_close_callback
Method set_fs_event_callback

void set_read_callback(function(:void)|zero f)
void set_write_callback(function(:void)|zero f)
void set_close_callback(function(:void)|zero f)
optional void set_fs_event_callback(function(:void)|zero f, int event_mask, mixed ... rest)


Method set_nodelay

bool set_nodelay(bool|void state)


Method set_nonblocking

void set_nonblocking(function(:void)|zero a, function(:void)|zero b, function(:void)|zero c, function(:void)|void d, function(:void)|void e)


Method set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks

void set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks()


Method set_read_oob_callback
Method set_write_oob_callback

optional void set_read_oob_callback(function(:void)|zero f)
optional void set_write_oob_callback(function(:void)|zero f)

Class Stdio.Stream

Description

The Stdio.Stream API.

This class exists purely for typing reasons.

Use in types in place of Stdio.File where only blocking stream-oriented I/O is done with the object.

This class lists the minimum functionality guaranteed to exist in all Stream objects.

See also

NonblockingStream, BlockFile, File, FILE


Method close

int close()


Method read

string read(int(0..) nbytes)


Method read_oob
Method write_oob
Method tcgetattr
Method tcsetattr

optional string read_oob(int(0..) nbytes)
optional int(-1..) write_oob(string data)
optional mapping(string:int)|zero tcgetattr()
optional int tcsetattr(mapping(string:int) attr, string|void when)


Method write

int(-1..) write(string data)

Class Stdio.sendfile

Description

Send headers + from_fd[off..off+len-1] + trailers to to_fd asyncronously.

Note

This is the low-level implementation, which has several limitations. You probably want to use Stdio.sendfile() instead.

See also

Stdio.sendfile()


Method create

Stdio.sendfile Stdio.sendfile(array(string) headers, object from, int offset, int len, array(string) trailers, object to, function(:void) callback, mixed ... args)

Description

Low-level implementation of Stdio.sendfile().

Sends headers followed by len bytes starting at offset from the file from followed by trailers to the file to. When completed callback will be called with the total number of bytes sent as the first argument, followed by args.

Any of headers, from and trailers may be left out by setting them to 0.

Setting offset to -1 means send from the current position in from.

Setting len to -1 means send until from's end of file is reached.

Note

Don't use this class directly! Use Stdio.sendfile() instead.

In Pike 7.7 and later the callback function will be called from the backend associated with to.

Note

May use blocking I/O and thus trigger process being killed with SIGPIPE when the other end closes the connection. Add a call to signal() to avoid this.

See also

Stdio.sendfile()

Module Stdio.Pipe

Class Stdio.Pipe.Base

Description

This module provides a generic data processing non-blocking pipe interface. Set it to a pool of dedicated backends to use more than one CPU core (use one thread per backend). Use it in conjunction with the Shuffler to scale to an unlimited number of CPU cores.


Method close

final int close()


Method create

Stdio.Pipe.Base Stdio.Pipe.Base(Gz.deflate|void engine)

Description

Note that the Gz.deflate engine provided needs to be preconfigured using negative compression levels.


Variable engine

object Stdio.Pipe.Base.engine

Note

Read only


Method process_data

protected void process_data(string(8bit) data)


Method process_header

protected string(8bit) process_header(string(8bit) data)


Method process_init

protected void process_init()


Method process_trailer

protected void process_trailer()


Method set_backend

final void set_backend(Pike.Backend _backend)


Method set_close_callback

final void set_close_callback(function(:void) ccb)


Method set_nonblocking

final void set_nonblocking(function(:void) rcb, function(:void) wcb, function(:void) ccb)


Method set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks

final void set_nonblocking_keep_callbacks()


Method set_read_callback

final void set_read_callback(function(:void) rcb)


Method set_write_callback

final void set_write_callback(function(:void) wcb)


Method write

final int write(string(8bit) data)

Class Stdio.Pipe.Gunzip

Description

This module provides a gzip-uncompressing non-blocking pipe interface.


Inherit Base

inherit .Base : Base

Class Stdio.Pipe.Gzip

Description

This module provides a gzip-compressing non-blocking pipe interface. Set it to a pool of dedicated backends to use more than one CPU core to compress data (use one thread per backend). Use it in conjunction with the Shuffler to scale to an unlimited number of CPU cores.


Inherit Base

inherit .Base : Base