Module Crypto


Various cryptographic classes and functions.

Hash modules

These are based on the Nettle.Hash API. Examples include MD5, SHA1, SHA256 and SHA3_256.

Cipher modules

These are based on the Nettle.Cipher API. Examples include AES, Arcfour, DES, DES3, CAMELLIA.

The Substitution program is compatible with Cipher.State.

Also conforming to the API are several helper modules such as Buffer, Nettle.BlockCipher.CBC, Nettle.BlockCipher16.GCM and Pipe.

Message Authentication Code modules (MACs)

MAC algorithms are provided as sub-modules to their corresponding Hash or Cipher module. Examples include SHA1.HMAC and AES.UMAC32.

Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data modules (AEADs)

AEADs combine ciphers with authentication codes, and may optionally also take into account some associated data that is provided out of band. This API is compatible with both Cipher and Hash. AEADs are provided as sub-modules to their corresponding ciphers. Examples include AES.CCM, AES.GCM and CAMELLIA.EAX.

As the cryptographic services offered from this module aren't necessarily used for security applications, none of the strings input or output are marked as secure. That is up to the caller.


Most of the APIs in this module work on 8 bit binary strings unless otherwise noted. For conversions to and from hexadecimal notation String.string2hex() and String.hex2string() may be of interest.


This module is only available if Pike has been compiled with Nettle enabled (this is the default).