RSA Laboratories
September 2000
PKCS #5: PasswordBased Cryptography Specification
Version 2.0
Status of this Memo

This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
Copyright Notice

Copyright © The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved.
Abstract

This memo represents a republication of PKCS #5 v2.0 from RSA Laboratories' PublicKey Cryptography Standards (PKCS) series, and change control is retained within the PKCS process. The body of this document, except for the security considerations section, is taken directly from that specification.
This document provides recommendations for the implementation of passwordbased cryptography, covering key derivation functions, encryption schemes, messageauthentication schemes, and ASN.1 syntax identifying the techniques.
The recommendations are intended for general application within computer and communications systems, and as such include a fair amount of flexibility. They are particularly intended for the protection of sensitive information such as private keys, as in PKCS #8 [25]. It is expected that application standards and implementation profiles based on these specifications may include additional constraints.
Other cryptographic techniques based on passwords, such as password based key entity authentication and key establishment protocols [4][5][26] are outside the scope of this document. Guidelines for the selection of passwords are also outside the scope.
Table of Contents

1. Introduction ............................................... 3 2. Notation ................................................... 3 3. Overview ................................................... 4 4. Salt and iteration count ................................... 6 4.1 Salt ................................................... 6 4.2 Iteration count ........................................ 8 5. Key derivation functions ................................... 8 5.1 PBKDF1 ................................................. 9 5.2 PBKDF2 ................................................. 9 6. Encryption schemes ......................................... 11 6.1 PBES1 .................................................. 12 6.1.1 Encryption operation ............................ 12 6.1.2 Decryption operation ............................ 13 6.2 PBES2 .................................................. 14 6.2.1 Encryption operation ............................ 14 6.2.2 Decryption operation ............................ 15 7. Message authentication schemes ............................. 15 7.1 PBMAC1 ................................................. 16 7.1.1 MAC generation .................................. 16 7.1.2 MAC verification ................................ 16 8. Security Considerations .................................... 17 9. Author's Address............................................ 17 A. ASN.1 syntax ............................................... 18 A.1 PBKDF1 ................................................. 18 A.2 PBKDF2 ................................................. 18 A.3 PBES1 .................................................. 20 A.4 PBES2 .................................................. 20 A.5 PBMAC1 ................................................. 21 B. Supporting techniques ...................................... 22 B.1 Pseudorandom functions ................................. 22 B.2 Encryption schemes ..................................... 23 B.3 Message authentication schemes ......................... 26 C. ASN.1 module ............................................... 26 Intellectual Property Considerations ............................ 30 Revision history ................................................ 30 References ...................................................... 31 Contact Information & About PKCS ................................ 33 Full Copyright Statement ........................................ 34
1. Introduction

This document provides recommendations for the implementation of passwordbased cryptography, covering the following aspects:
 key derivation functions
 encryption schemes
 messageauthentication schemes
 ASN.1 syntax identifying the techniquesThe recommendations are intended for general application within computer and communications systems, and as such include a fair amount of flexibility. They are particularly intended for the protection of sensitive information such as private keys, as in PKCS #8 [25]. It is expected that application standards and implementation profiles based on these specifications may include additional constraints.
Other cryptographic techniques based on passwords, such as password based key entity authentication and key establishment protocols [4][5][26] are outside the scope of this document. Guidelines for the selection of passwords are also outside the scope.
This document supersedes PKCS #5 version 1.5 [24], but includes compatible techniques.
2. Notation

C ciphertext, an octet string c iteration count, a positive integer DK derived key, an octet string dkLen length in octets of derived key, a positive integer EM encoded message, an octet string Hash underlying hash function hLen length in octets of pseudorandom function output, a positive integer l length in blocks of derived key, a positive integer IV initialization vector, an octet string K encryption key, an octet string KDF key derivation function M message, an octet string P password, an octet string PRF underlying pseudorandom function PS padding string, an octet string psLen length in octets of padding string, a positive integer S salt, an octet string T message authentication code, an octet string T_1, ..., T_l, U_1, ..., U_c intermediate values, octet strings 01, 02, ..., 08 octets with value 1, 2, ..., 8 \xor bitwise exclusiveor of two octet strings   octet length operator  concatenation operator <i..j> substring extraction operator: extracts octets i through j, 0 <= i <= j
3. Overview

In many applications of publickey cryptography, user security is ultimately dependent on one or more secret text values or passwords. Since a password is not directly applicable as a key to any conventional cryptosystem, however, some processing of the password is required to perform cryptographic operations with it. Moreover, as passwords are often chosen from a relatively small space, special care is required in that processing to defend against search attacks.
A general approach to passwordbased cryptography, as described by Morris and Thompson [8] for the protection of password tables, is to combine a password with a salt to produce a key. The salt can be viewed as an index into a large set of keys derived from the password, and need not be kept secret. Although it may be possible for an opponent to construct a table of possible passwords (a so called "dictionary attack"), constructing a table of possible keys will be difficult, since there will be many possible keys for each password. An opponent will thus be limited to searching through passwords separately for each salt.
Another approach to passwordbased cryptography is to construct key derivation techniques that are relatively expensive, thereby increasing the cost of exhaustive search. One way to do this is to include an iteration count in the key derivation technique, indicating how many times to iterate some underlying function by which keys are derived. A modest number of iterations, say 1000, is not likely to be a burden for legitimate parties when computing a key, but will be a significant burden for opponents.
Salt and iteration count formed the basis for passwordbased encryption in PKCS #5 v1.5, and adopted here as well for the various cryptographic operations. Thus, passwordbased key derivation as defined here is a function of a password, a salt, and an iteration count, where the latter two quantities need not be kept secret.
From a passwordbased key derivation function, it is straightforward to define passwordbased encryption and message authentication schemes. As in PKCS #5 v1.5, the passwordbased encryption schemes here are based on an underlying, conventional encryption scheme, where the key for the conventional scheme is derived from the password. Similarly, the passwordbased message authentication scheme is based on an underlying conventional scheme. This twolayered approach makes the passwordbased techniques modular in terms of the underlying techniques they can be based on.
It is expected that the passwordbased key derivation functions may find other applications than just the encryption and message authentication schemes defined here. For instance, one might derive a set of keys with a single application of a key derivation function, rather than derive each key with a separate application of the function. The keys in the set would be obtained as substrings of the output of the key derivation function. This approach might be employed as part of key establishment in a sessionoriented protocol. Another application is password checking, where the output of the key derivation function is stored (along with the salt and iteration count) for the purposes of subsequent verification of a password.
Throughout this document, a password is considered to be an octet string of arbitrary length whose interpretation as a text string is unspecified. In the interest of interoperability, however, it is recommended that applications follow some common text encoding rules. ASCII and UTF8 [27] are two possibilities. (ASCII is a subset of UTF8.)
Although the selection of passwords is outside the scope of this document, guidelines have been published [17] that may well be taken into account.
4. Salt and Iteration Count

Inasmuch as salt and iteration count are central to the techniques defined in this document, some further discussion is warranted.
4.1 Salt

A salt in passwordbased cryptography has traditionally served the purpose of producing a large set of keys corresponding to a given password, among which one is selected at random according to the salt. An individual key in the set is selected by applying a key derivation function KDF, as
DK = KDF (P, S)

where DK is the derived key, P is the password, and S is the salt. This has two benefits:

 It is difficult for an opponent to precompute all the keys corresponding to a dictionary of passwords, or even the most likely keys. If the salt is 64 bits long, for instance, there will be as many as 2^64 keys for each password. An opponent is thus limited to searching for passwords after a passwordbased operation has been performed and the salt is known.
 It is unlikely that the same key will be selected twice. Again, if the salt is 64 bits long, the chance of "collision" between keys does not become significant until about 2^32 keys have been produced, according to the Birthday Paradox. This addresses some of the concerns about interactions between multiple uses of the same key, which may apply for some encryption and authentication techniques.
In passwordbased encryption, the party encrypting a message can gain assurance that these benefits are realized simply by selecting a large and sufficiently random salt when deriving an encryption key from a password. A party generating a message authentication code can gain such assurance in a similar fashion.
The party decrypting a message or verifying a message authentication code, however, cannot be sure that a salt supplied by another party has actually been generated at random. It is possible, for instance, that the salt may have been copied from another passwordbased operation, in an attempt to exploit interactions between multiple uses of the same key. For instance, suppose two legitimate parties exchange a encrypted message, where the encryption key is an 80bit key derived from a shared password with some salt. An opponent could take the salt from that encryption and provide it to one of the parties as though it were for a 40bit key. If the party reveals the result of decryption with the 40bit key, the opponent may be able to solve for the 40bit key. In the case that 40bit key is the first half of the 80bit key, the opponent can then readily solve for the remaining 40 bits of the 80bit key.
To defend against such attacks, either the interaction between multiple uses of the same key should be carefully analyzed, or the salt should contain data that explicitly distinguishes between different operations. For instance, the salt might have an additional, nonrandom octet that specifies whether the derived key is for encryption, for message authentication, or for some other operation.
Based on this, the following is recommended for salt selection:

 If there is no concern about interactions between multiple uses of the same key (or a prefix of that key) with the password based encryption and authentication techniques supported for a given password, then the salt may be generated at random and need not be checked for a particular format by the party receiving the salt. It should be at least eight octets (64 bits) long.
 Otherwise, the salt should contain data that explicitly distinguishes between different operations and different key lengths, in addition to a random part that is at least eight octets long, and this data should be checked or regenerated by the party receiving the salt. For instance, the salt could have an additional nonrandom octet that specifies the purpose of the derived key. Alternatively, it could be the encoding of a structure that specifies detailed information about the derived key, such as the encryption or authentication technique and a sequence number among the different keys derived from the password. The particular format of the additional data is left to the application.
Note. If a random number generator or pseudorandom generator is not available, a deterministic alternative for generating the salt (or the random part of it) is to apply a passwordbased key derivation function to the password and the message M to be processed. For instance, the salt could be computed with a key derivation function as S = KDF (P, M). This approach is not recommended if the message M is known to belong to a small message space (e.g., "Yes" or "No"), however, since then there will only be a small number of possible salts.

4.2 Iteration Count

An iteration count has traditionally served the purpose of increasing the cost of producing keys from a password, thereby also increasing the difficulty of attack. For the methods in this document, a minimum of 1000 iterations is recommended. This will increase the cost of exhaustive search for passwords significantly, without a noticeable impact in the cost of deriving individual keys.
5. Key Derivation Functions

A key derivation function produces a derived key from a base key and other parameters. In a passwordbased key derivation function, the base key is a password and the other parameters are a salt value and an iteration count, as outlined in Section 3.
The primary application of the passwordbased key derivation functions defined here is in the encryption schemes in Section 6 and the message authentication scheme in Section 7. Other applications are certainly possible, hence the independent definition of these functions.
Two functions are specified in this section: PBKDF1 and PBKDF2. PBKDF2 is recommended for new applications; PBKDF1 is included only for compatibility with existing applications, and is not recommended for new applications.
A typical application of the key derivation functions defined here might include the following steps:

 Select a salt S and an iteration count c, as outlined in Section 4.
 Select a length in octets for the derived key, dkLen.
 Apply the key derivation function to the password, the salt, the iteration count and the key length to produce a derived key.
 Output the derived key.
Any number of keys may be derived from a password by varying the salt, as described in Section 3.

5.1 PBKDF1

PBKDF1 applies a hash function, which shall be MD2 [6], MD5 [19] or SHA1 [18], to derive keys. The length of the derived key is bounded by the length of the hash function output, which is 16 octets for MD2 and MD5 and 20 octets for SHA1. PBKDF1 is compatible with the key derivation process in PKCS #5 v1.5.
PBKDF1 is recommended only for compatibility with existing applications since the keys it produces may not be large enough for some applications.
PBKDF1 (P, S, c, dkLen) Options: Hash underlying hash function Input: P password, an octet string S salt, an eightoctet string c iteration count, a positive integer dkLen intended length in octets of derived key, a positive integer, at most 16 for MD2 or MD5 and 20 for SHA1 Output: DK derived key, a dkLenoctet string
Steps:

 If dkLen > 16 for MD2 and MD5, or dkLen > 20 for SHA1, output "derived key too long" and stop.
 Apply the underlying hash function Hash for c iterations to the concatenation of the password P and the salt S, then extract the first dkLen octets to produce a derived key DK:
T_1 = Hash (P  S) , T_2 = Hash (T_1) , ... T_c = Hash (T_{c1}) , DK = Tc<0..dkLen1>

 Output the derived key DK.

5.2 PBKDF2

PBKDF2 applies a pseudorandom function (see Appendix B.1 for an example) to derive keys. The length of the derived key is essentially unbounded. (However, the maximum effective search space for the derived key may be limited by the structure of the underlying pseudorandom function. See Appendix B.1 for further discussion.) PBKDF2 is recommended for new applications.
PBKDF2 (P, S, c, dkLen) Options: PRF underlying pseudorandom function (hLen denotes the length in octets of the pseudorandom function output) Input: P password, an octet string S salt, an octet string c iteration count, a positive integer dkLen intended length in octets of the derived key, a positive integer, at most (2^32  1) * hLen Output: DK derived key, a dkLenoctet string
Steps:

 If dkLen > (2^32  1) * hLen, output "derived key too long" and stop.
 Let l be the number of hLenoctet blocks in the derived key, rounding up, and let r be the number of octets in the last block:
l = CEIL (dkLen / hLen) , r = dkLen  (l  1) * hLen .


Here, CEIL (x) is the "ceiling" function, i.e. the smallest integer greater than, or equal to, x.
 For each block of the derived key apply the function F defined below to the password P, the salt S, the iteration count c, and the block index to compute the block:

T_1 = F (P, S, c, 1) , T_2 = F (P, S, c, 2) , ... T_l = F (P, S, c, l) ,


where the function F is defined as the exclusiveor sum of the first c iterates of the underlying pseudorandom function PRF applied to the password P and the concatenation of the salt S and the block index i:

F (P, S, c, i) = U_1 \xor U_2 \xor ... \xor U_c where U_1 = PRF (P, S  INT (i)) , U_2 = PRF (P, U_1) , ... U_c = PRF (P, U_{c1}) .


Here, INT (i) is a fouroctet encoding of the integer i, most significant octet first.
 Concatenate the blocks and extract the first dkLen octets to produce a derived key DK:

DK = T_1  T_2  ...  T_l<0..r1>

 Output the derived key DK.
Note. The construction of the function F follows a "beltand suspenders" approach. The iterates U_i are computed recursively to remove a degree of parallelism from an opponent; they are exclusive ored together to reduce concerns about the recursion degenerating into a small set of values.

6. Encryption Schemes

An encryption scheme, in the symmetric setting, consists of an encryption operation and a decryption operation, where the encryption operation produces a ciphertext from a message under a key, and the decryption operation recovers the message from the ciphertext under the same key. In a passwordbased encryption scheme, the key is a password.
A typical application of a passwordbased encryption scheme is a privatekey protection method, where the message contains privatekey information, as in PKCS #8. The encryption schemes defined here would be suitable encryption algorithms in that context.
Two schemes are specified in this section: PBES1 and PBES2. PBES2 is recommended for new applications; PBES1 is included only for compatibility with existing applications, and is not recommended for new applications.
6.1 PBES1

PBES1 combines the PBKDF1 function (Section 5.1) with an underlying block cipher, which shall be either DES [15] or RC2(tm) [21] in CBC mode [16]. PBES1 is compatible with the encryption scheme in PKCS #5 v1.5.
PBES1 is recommended only for compatibility with existing applications, since it supports only two underlying encryption schemes, each of which has a key size (56 or 64 bits) that may not be large enough for some applications.
6.1.1 Encryption Operation

The encryption operation for PBES1 consists of the following steps, which encrypt a message M under a password P to produce a ciphertext C:

 Select an eightoctet salt S and an iteration count c, as outlined in Section 4.
 Apply the PBKDF1 key derivation function (Section 5.1) to the password P, the salt S, and the iteration count c to produce at derived key DK of length 16 octets:



DK = PBKDF1 (P, S, c, 16) .


 Separate the derived key DK into an encryption key K consisting of the first eight octets of DK and an initialization vector IV consisting of the next eight octets:
K = DK<0..7> , IV = DK<8..15> .

 Concatenate M and a padding string PS to form an encoded message EM:
EM = M  PS ,


where the padding string PS consists of 8(M mod 8) octets each with value 8(M mod 8). The padding string PS will satisfy one of the following statements:

PS = 01, if M mod 8 = 7 ; PS = 02 02, if M mod 8 = 6 ; ... PS = 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08, if M mod 8 = 0.


The length in octets of the encoded message will be a multiple of eight and it will be possible to recover the message M unambiguously from the encoded message. (This padding rule is taken from RFC 1423 [3].)
 Encrypt the encoded message EM with the underlying block cipher (DES or RC2) in cipher block chaining mode under the encryption key K with initialization vector IV to produce the ciphertext C. For DES, the key K shall be considered as a 64bit encoding of a 56bit DES key with parity bits ignored (see [9]). For RC2, the "effective key bits" shall be 64 bits.

6. Output the ciphertext C.
The salt S and the iteration count c may be conveyed to the party performing decryption in an AlgorithmIdentifier value (see Appendix A.3).

6.1.2 Decryption Operation

The decryption operation for PBES1 consists of the following steps, which decrypt a ciphertext C under a password P to recover a message M:

 Obtain the eightoctet salt S and the iteration count c.
 Apply the PBKDF1 key derivation function (Section 5.1) to the password P, the salt S, and the iteration count c to produce a derived key DK of length 16 octets:
DK = PBKDF1 (P, S, c, 16)

 Separate the derived key DK into an encryption key K consisting of the first eight octets of DK and an initialization vector IV consisting of the next eight octets:
K = DK<0..7> , IV = DK<8..15> .

 Decrypt the ciphertext C with the underlying block cipher (DES or RC2) in cipher block chaining mode under the encryption key K with initialization vector IV to recover an encoded message EM. If the length in octets of the ciphertext C is not a multiple of eight, output "decryption error" and stop.
 Separate the encoded message EM into a message M and a padding string PS:
EM = M  PS ,


where the padding string PS consists of some number psLen octets each with value psLen, where psLen is between 1 and 8. If it is not possible to separate the encoded message EM in this manner, output "decryption error" and stop.
 Output the recovered message M.


6.2 PBES2

PBES2 combines a passwordbased key derivation function, which shall be PBKDF2 (Section 5.2) for this version of PKCS #5, with an underlying encryption scheme (see Appendix B.2 for examples). The key length and any other parameters for the underlying encryption scheme depend on the scheme.
PBES2 is recommended for new applications.
6.2.1 Encryption Operation

The encryption operation for PBES2 consists of the following steps, which encrypt a message M under a password P to produce a ciphertext C, applying a selected key derivation function KDF and a selected underlying encryption scheme:

 Select a salt S and an iteration count c, as outlined in Section 4.
 Select the length in octets, dkLen, for the derived key for the underlying encryption scheme.
 Apply the selected key derivation function to the password P, the salt S, and the iteration count c to produce a derived key DK of length dkLen octets:



DK = KDF (P, S, c, dkLen) .


 Encrypt the message M with the underlying encryption scheme under the derived key DK to produce a ciphertext C. (This step may involve selection of parameters such as an initialization vector and padding, depending on the underlying scheme.)
 Output the ciphertext C.
The salt S, the iteration count c, the key length dkLen, and identifiers for the key derivation function and the underlying encryption scheme may be conveyed to the party performing decryption in an AlgorithmIdentifier value (see Appendix A.4).

6.2.2 Decryption Operation

The decryption operation for PBES2 consists of the following steps, which decrypt a ciphertext C under a password P to recover a message M:

 Obtain the salt S for the operation.
 Obtain the iteration count c for the key derivation function.
 Obtain the key length in octets, dkLen, for the derived key for the underlying encryption scheme.
 Apply the selected key derivation function to the password P, the salt S, and the iteration count c to produce a derived key DK of length dkLen octets:



DK = KDF (P, S, c, dkLen) .


 Decrypt the ciphertext C with the underlying encryption scheme under the derived key DK to recover a message M. If the decryption function outputs "decryption error," then output "decryption error" and stop.
 Output the recovered message M.

7. Message Authentication Schemes

A message authentication scheme consists of a MAC (message authentication code) generation operation and a MAC verification operation, where the MAC generation operation produces a message authentication code from a message under a key, and the MAC verification operation verifies the message authentication code under the same key. In a passwordbased message authentication scheme, the key is a password.
One scheme is specified in this section: PBMAC1.
7.1 PBMAC1

PBMAC1 combines a passwordbased key derivation function, which shall be PBKDF2 (Section 5.2) for this version of PKCS #5, with an underlying message authentication scheme (see Appendix B.3 for an example). The key length and any other parameters for the underlying message authentication scheme depend on the scheme.
7.1.1 MAC Generation

The MAC generation operation for PBMAC1 consists of the following steps, which process a message M under a password P to generate a message authentication code T, applying a selected key derivation function KDF and a selected underlying message authentication scheme:

 Select a salt S and an iteration count c, as outlined in Section 4.
 Select a key length in octets, dkLen, for the derived key for the underlying message authentication function.
 Apply the selected key derivation function to the password P, the salt S, and the iteration count c to produce a derived key DK of length dkLen octets:



DK = KDF (P, S, c, dkLen) .


 Process the message M with the underlying message authentication scheme under the derived key DK to generate a message authentication code T.
 Output the message authentication code T.
The salt S, the iteration count c, the key length dkLen, and identifiers for the key derivation function and underlying message authentication scheme may be conveyed to the party performing verification in an AlgorithmIdentifier value (see Appendix A.5).

7.1.2 MAC Verification

The MAC verification operation for PBMAC1 consists of the following steps, which process a message M under a password P to verify a message authentication code T:

 Obtain the salt S and the iteration count c.
 Obtain the key length in octets, dkLen, for the derived key for the underlying message authentication scheme.
 Apply the selected key derivation function to the password P, the salt S, and the iteration count c to produce a derived key DK of length dkLen octets:



DK = KDF (P, S, c, dkLen) .


 Process the message M with the underlying message authentication scheme under the derived key DK to verify the message authentication code T.
 If the message authentication code verifies, output "correct"; else output "incorrect."

8. Security Considerations

Passwordbased cryptography is generally limited in the security that it can provide, particularly for methods such as those defined in this document where offline password search is possible. While the use of salt and iteration count can increase the complexity of attack (see Section 4 for recommendations), it is essential that passwords are selected well, and relevant guidelines (e.g., [17]) should be taken into account. It is also important that passwords be protected well if stored.
In general, different keys should be derived from a password for different uses to minimize the possibility of unintended interactions. For passwordbased encryption with a single algorithm, a random salt is sufficient to ensure that different keys will be produced. In certain other situations, as outlined in Section 4, a structured salt is necessary. The recommendations in Section 4 should thus be taken into account when selecting the salt value.
9. Author's Address

Burt Kaliski
RSA Laboratories
20 Crosby Drive
Bedford, MA 01730 USAEMail:
bkaliski@rsasecurity.com
APPENDICES
A. ASN.1 Syntax

This section defines ASN.1 syntax for the key derivation functions, the encryption schemes, the message authentication scheme, and supporting techniques. The intended application of these definitions includes PKCS #8 and other syntax for key management, encrypted data, and integrityprotected data. (Various aspects of ASN.1 are specified in several ISO/IEC standards [9][10][11][12][13][14].)
The object identifier pkcs5 identifies the arc of the OID tree from which the PKCS #5specific OIDs in this section are derived:
rsadsi OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {iso(1) memberbody(2) us(840) 113549} pkcs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {rsadsi 1} pkcs5 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs 5}
A.1 PBKDF1

No object identifier is given for PBKDF1, as the object identifiers for PBES1 are sufficient for existing applications and PBKDF2 is recommended for new applications.
A.2 PBKDF2

The object identifier idPBKDF2 identifies the PBKDF2 key derivation function (Section 5.2).
idPBKDF2 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 12}
The parameters field associated with this OID in an AlgorithmIdentifier shall have type PBKDF2params:
PBKDF2params ::= SEQUENCE { salt CHOICE { specified OCTET STRING, otherSource AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBKDF2SaltSources}} }, iterationCount INTEGER (1..MAX), keyLength INTEGER (1..MAX) OPTIONAL, prf AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBKDF2PRFs}} DEFAULT algidhmacWithSHA1 }
The fields of type PKDF2params have the following meanings:
 salt specifies the salt value, or the source of the salt value. It shall either be an octet string or an algorithm ID with an OID in the set PBKDF2SaltSources, which is reserved for future versions of PKCS #5.

The saltsource approach is intended to indicate how the salt value is to be generated as a function of parameters in the algorithm ID, application data, or both. For instance, it may indicate that the salt value is produced from the encoding of a structure that specifies detailed information about the derived key as suggested in Section 4.1. Some of the information may be carried elsewhere, e.g., in the encryption algorithm ID. However, such facilities are deferred to a future version of PKCS #5.
In this version, an application may achieve the benefits mentioned in Section 4.1 by choosing a particular interpretation of the salt value in the specified alternative.
PBKDF2SaltSources ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { ... }
 iterationCount specifies the iteration count. The maximum iteration count allowed depends on the implementation. It is expected that implementation profiles may further constrain the bounds.
 keyLength, an optional field, is the length in octets of the derived key. The maximum key length allowed depends on the implementation; it is expected that implementation profiles may further constrain the bounds. The field is provided for convenience only; the key length is not cryptographically protected. If there is concern about interaction between operations with different key lengths for a given salt (see Section 4.1), the salt should distinguish among the different key lengths.
 prf identifies the underlying pseudorandom function. It shall be an algorithm ID with an OID in the set PBKDF2PRFs, which for this version of PKCS #5 shall consist of idhmacWithSHA1 (see Appendix B.1.1) and any other OIDs defined by the application.
PBKDF2PRFs ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { {NULL IDENTIFIED BY idhmacWithSHA1}, ... }

The default pseudorandom function is HMACSHA1:
algidhmacWithSHA1 AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBKDF2PRFs}} ::= {algorithm idhmacWithSHA1, parameters NULL : NULL}
A.3 PBES1

Different object identifiers identify the PBES1 encryption scheme (Section 6.1) according to the underlying hash function in the key derivation function and the underlying block cipher, as summarized in the following table:
Hash Function Block Cipher OID MD2 DES pkcs5.1 MD2 RC2 pkcs5.4 MD5 DES pkcs5.3 MD5 RC2 pkcs5.6 SHA1 DES pkcs5.10 SHA1 RC2 pkcs5.11 pbeWithMD2AndDESCBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 1} pbeWithMD2AndRC2CBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 4} pbeWithMD5AndDESCBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 3} pbeWithMD5AndRC2CBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 6} pbeWithSHA1AndDESCBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 10} pbeWithSHA1AndRC2CBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 11}
For each OID, the parameters field associated with the OID in an AlgorithmIdentifier shall have type PBEParameter:
PBEParameter ::= SEQUENCE {
salt OCTET STRING (SIZE(8)), iterationCount INTEGER }
The fields of type PBEParameter have the following meanings:
 salt specifies the salt value, an eightoctet string.
 iterationCount specifies the iteration count.
A.4 PBES2

The object identifier idPBES2 identifies the PBES2 encryption scheme (Section 6.2).
idPBES2 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 13}
The parameters field associated with this OID in an AlgorithmIdentifier shall have type PBES2params:
PBES2params ::= SEQUENCE { keyDerivationFunc AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBES2KDFs}}, encryptionScheme AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBES2Encs}} }
The fields of type PBES2params have the following meanings:
 keyDerivationFunc identifies the underlying key derivation function. It shall be an algorithm ID with an OID in the set PBES2KDFs, which for this version of PKCS #5 shall consist of idPBKDF2 (Appendix A.2).
PBES2KDFs ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { {PBKDF2params IDENTIFIED BY idPBKDF2}, ... }
 encryptionScheme identifies the underlying encryption scheme. It shall be an algorithm ID with an OID in the set PBES2Encs, whose definition is left to the application. Example underlying encryption schemes are given in Appendix B.2.
PBES2Encs ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { ... }
A.5 PBMAC1

The object identifier idPBMAC1 identifies the PBMAC1 message authentication scheme (Section 7.1).
idPBMAC1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 14}
The parameters field associated with this OID in an AlgorithmIdentifier shall have type PBMAC1params:
PBMAC1params ::= SEQUENCE { keyDerivationFunc AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBMAC1KDFs}}, messageAuthScheme AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBMAC1MACs}} }
The keyDerivationFunc field has the same meaning as the corresponding field of PBES2params (Appendix A.4) except that the set of OIDs is PBMAC1KDFs.
PBMAC1KDFs ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { {PBKDF2params IDENTIFIED BY idPBKDF2}, ... }
The messageAuthScheme field identifies the underlying message authentication scheme. It shall be an algorithm ID with an OID in the set PBMAC1MACs, whose definition is left to the application. Example underlying encryption schemes are given in Appendix B.3.
PBMAC1MACs ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { ... }
B. Supporting Techniques

This section gives several examples of underlying functions and schemes supporting the passwordbased schemes in Sections 5, 6 and 7.
While these supporting techniques are appropriate for applications to implement, none of them is required to be implemented. It is expected, however, that profiles for PKCS #5 will be developed that specify particular supporting techniques.
This section also gives object identifiers for the supporting techniques. The object identifiers digestAlgorithm and encryptionAlgorithm identify the arcs from which certain algorithm OIDs referenced in this section are derived:
digestAlgorithm OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {rsadsi 2} encryptionAlgorithm OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {rsadsi 3}
B.1 Pseudorandom functions

An example pseudorandom function for PBKDF2 (Section 5.2) is HMAC SHA1.
B.1.1 HMACSHA1

HMACSHA1 is the pseudorandom function corresponding to the HMAC message authentication code [7] based on the SHA1 hash function [18]. The pseudorandom function is the same function by which the message authentication code is computed, with a fulllength output. (The first argument to the pseudorandom function PRF serves as HMAC's "key," and the second serves as HMAC's "text." In the case of PBKDF2, the "key" is thus the password and the "text" is the salt.) HMAC SHA1 has a variable key length and a 20octet (160bit) output value.
Although the length of the key to HMACSHA1 is essentially unbounded, the effective search space for pseudorandom function outputs may be limited by the structure of the function. In particular, when the key is longer than 512 bits, HMACSHA1 will first hash it to 160 bits. Thus, even if a long derived key consisting of several pseudorandom function outputs is produced from a key, the effective search space for the derived key will be at most 160 bits. Although the specific limitation for other key sizes depends on details of the HMAC construction, one should assume, to be conservative, that the effective search space is limited to 160 bits for other key sizes as well.
(The 160bit limitation should not generally pose a practical limitation in the case of passwordbased cryptography, since the search space for a password is unlikely to be greater than 160 bits.)
The object identifier idhmacWithSHA1 identifies the HMACSHA1 pseudorandom function:
idhmacWithSHA1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {digestAlgorithm 7}
The parameters field associated with this OID in an AlgorithmIdentifier shall have type NULL. This object identifier is employed in the object set PBKDF2PRFs (Appendix A.2).
Note. Although HMACSHA1 was designed as a message authentication code, its proof of security is readily modified to accommodate requirements for a pseudorandom function, under stronger assumptions.
A hash function may also meet the requirements of a pseudorandom function under certain assumptions. For instance, the direct application of a hash function to to the concatenation of the "key" and the "text" may be appropriate, provided that "text" has appropriate structure to prevent certain attacks. HMACSHA1 is preferable, however, because it treats "key" and "text" as separate arguments and does not require "text" to have any structure.
B.2 Encryption Schemes

Example pseudorandom functions for PBES2 (Section 6.2) are DESCBC Pad, DESEDE2CBCPad, RC2CBCPad, and RC5CBCPad.
The object identifiers given in this section are intended to be employed in the object set PBES2Encs (Appendix A.4).
B.2.1 DESCBCPad

DESCBCPad is singlekey DES [15] in CBC mode [16] with the RFC 1423 padding operation (see Section 6.1.1). DESCBCPad has an eightoctet encryption key and an eightoctet initialization vector. The key is considered as a 64bit encoding of a 56bit DES key with parity bits ignored.
The object identifier desCBC (defined in the NIST/OSI Implementors' Workshop agreements) identifies the DESCBCPad encryption scheme:
desCBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
{iso(1) identifiedorganization(3) oiw(14) secsig(3) algorithms(2) 7}
The parameters field associated with this OID in an AlgorithmIdentifier shall have type OCTET STRING (SIZE(8)), specifying the initialization vector for CBC mode.
B.2.2 DESEDE3CBCPad

DESEDE3CBCPad is threekey tripleDES in CBC mode [1] with the RFC 1423 padding operation. DESEDE3CBCPad has a 24octet encryption key and an eightoctet initialization vector. The key is considered as the concatenation of three eightoctet keys, each of which is a 64bit encoding of a 56bit DES key with parity bits ignored.
The object identifier desEDE3CBC identifies the DESEDE3CBCPad encryption scheme: desEDE3CBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {encryptionAlgorithm 7}
The parameters field associated with this OID in an AlgorithmIdentifier shall have type OCTET STRING (SIZE(8)), specifying the initialization vector for CBC mode.
Note. An OID for DESEDE3CBC without padding is given in ANSI X9.52 [1]; the one given here is preferred since it specifies padding.
B.2.3 RC2CBCPad

RC2CBCPad is the RC2(tm) encryption algorithm [21] in CBC mode with the RFC 1423 padding operation. RC2CBCPad has a variable key length, from one to 128 octets, a separate "effective key bits" parameter from one to 1024 bits that limits the effective search space independent of the key length, and an eightoctet initialization vector.
The object identifier rc2CBC identifies the RC2CBCPad encryption scheme:
rc2CBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {encryptionAlgorithm 2}
The parameters field associated with OID in an AlgorithmIdentifier shall have type RC2CBCParameter:
RC2CBCParameter ::= SEQUENCE { rc2ParameterVersion INTEGER OPTIONAL, iv OCTET STRING (SIZE(8)) }
The fields of type RC2CBCParameter have the following meanings:
 rc2ParameterVersion is a proprietary RSA Security Inc. encoding of the "effective key bits" for RC2. The following encodings are defined:
Effective Key Bits Encoding 40 160 64 120 128 58 b >= 256 b
If the rc2ParameterVersion field is omitted, the "effective key bits" defaults to 32. (This is for backward compatibility with certain very old implementations.)
 iv is the eightoctet initialization vector.
B.2.4 RC5CBCPad

RC5CBCPad is the RC5(tm) encryption algorithm [20] in CBC mode with a generalization of the RFC 1423 padding operation. This scheme is fully specified in [2]. RC5CBCPad has a variable key length, from 0 to 256 octets, and supports both a 64bit block size and a 128bit block size. For the former, it has an eightoctet initialization vector, and for the latter, a 16octet initialization vector. RC5CBCPad also has a variable number of "rounds" in the encryption operation, from 8 to 127.
Note: The generalization of the padding operation is as follows. For RC5 with a 64bit block size, the padding string is as defined in RFC 1423. For RC5 with a 128bit block size, the padding string consists of 16(M mod 16) octets each with value 16(M mod 16).
The object identifier rc5CBCPAD [2] identifies RC5CBCPad encryption scheme: rc5CBCPAD OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {encryptionAlgorithm 9}
The parameters field associated with this OID in an AlgorithmIdentifier shall have type RC5CBCParameters:
RC5CBCParameters ::= SEQUENCE { version INTEGER {v10(16)} (v10), rounds INTEGER (8..127), blockSizeInBits INTEGER (64  128), iv OCTET STRING OPTIONAL }
The fields of type RC5CBCParameters have the following meanings:
 version is the version of the algorithm, which shall be v10.
 rounds is the number of rounds in the encryption operation, which shall be between 8 and 127.
 blockSizeInBits is the block size in bits, which shall be 64 or 128.
 iv is the initialization vector, an eightoctet string for 64bit RC5 and a 16octet string for 128bit RC5. The default is a string of the appropriate length consisting of zero octets.
B.3 Message Authentication Schemes

An example message authentication scheme for PBMAC1 (Section 7.1) is HMACSHA1.
B.3.1 HMACSHA1

HMACSHA1 is the HMAC message authentication scheme [7] based on the SHA1 hash function [18]. HMACSHA1 has a variable key length and a 20octet (160bit) message authentication code.
The object identifier idhmacWithSHA1 (see Appendix B.1.1) identifies the HMACSHA1 message authentication scheme. (The object identifier is the same for both the pseudorandom function and the message authentication scheme; the distinction is to be understood by context.) This object identifier is intended to be employed in the object set PBMAC1Macs (Appendix A.5).
C. ASN.1 Module

For reference purposes, the ASN.1 syntax in the preceding sections is presented as an ASN.1 module here.
 PKCS #5 v2.0 ASN.1 Module  Revised March 25, 1999
 This module has been checked for conformance with the  ASN.1 standard by the OSS ASN.1 Tools
PKCS5v20 {iso(1) memberbody(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs5(5) modules(16) pkcs5v20(1)} DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN
 Basic object identifiers
rsadsi OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {iso(1) memberbody(2) us(840) 113549} pkcs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {rsadsi 1} pkcs5 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs 5}  Basic types and classes AlgorithmIdentifier { ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER:InfoObjectSet } ::= SEQUENCE { algorithm ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER.&id({InfoObjectSet}), parameters ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER.&Type({InfoObjectSet} {@algorithm}) OPTIONAL } ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= TYPEIDENTIFIER  PBKDF2
PBKDF2Algorithms ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::=
{ {PBKDF2params IDENTIFIED BY idPBKDF2}, ...} idPBKDF2 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 12} algidhmacWithSHA1 AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBKDF2PRFs}} ::= {algorithm idhmacWithSHA1, parameters NULL : NULL} PBKDF2params ::= SEQUENCE { salt CHOICE { specified OCTET STRING, otherSource AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBKDF2SaltSources}} }, iterationCount INTEGER (1..MAX), keyLength INTEGER (1..MAX) OPTIONAL, prf AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBKDF2PRFs}} DEFAULT algidhmacWithSHA1 } PBKDF2SaltSources ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { ... } PBKDF2PRFs ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { {NULL IDENTIFIED BY idhmacWithSHA1}, ... }  PBES1 PBES1Algorithms ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { {PBEParameter IDENTIFIED BY pbeWithMD2AndDESCBC}  {PBEParameter IDENTIFIED BY pbeWithMD2AndRC2CBC}  {PBEParameter IDENTIFIED BY pbeWithMD5AndDESCBC}  {PBEParameter IDENTIFIED BY pbeWithMD5AndRC2CBC}  {PBEParameter IDENTIFIED BY pbeWithSHA1AndDESCBC}  {PBEParameter IDENTIFIED BY pbeWithSHA1AndRC2CBC}, ... } pbeWithMD2AndDESCBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 1} pbeWithMD2AndRC2CBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 4} pbeWithMD5AndDESCBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 3} pbeWithMD5AndRC2CBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 6} pbeWithSHA1AndDESCBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 10} pbeWithSHA1AndRC2CBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 11} PBEParameter ::= SEQUENCE { salt OCTET STRING (SIZE(8)), iterationCount INTEGER }  PBES2
PBES2Algorithms ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::=
{ {PBES2params IDENTIFIED BY idPBES2}, ...} idPBES2 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 13} PBES2params ::= SEQUENCE { keyDerivationFunc AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBES2KDFs}}, encryptionScheme AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBES2Encs}} } PBES2KDFs ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { {PBKDF2params IDENTIFIED BY idPBKDF2}, ... } PBES2Encs ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { ... }  PBMAC1
PBMAC1Algorithms ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::=
{ {PBMAC1params IDENTIFIED BY idPBMAC1}, ...} idPBMAC1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {pkcs5 14} PBMAC1params ::= SEQUENCE { keyDerivationFunc AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBMAC1KDFs}}, messageAuthScheme AlgorithmIdentifier {{PBMAC1MACs}} } PBMAC1KDFs ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { {PBKDF2params IDENTIFIED BY idPBKDF2}, ... } PBMAC1MACs ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { ... }  Supporting techniques digestAlgorithm OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {rsadsi 2} encryptionAlgorithm OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {rsadsi 3} SupportingAlgorithms ALGORITHMIDENTIFIER ::= { {NULL IDENTIFIED BY idhmacWithSHA1}  {OCTET STRING (SIZE(8)) IDENTIFIED BY desCBC}  {OCTET STRING (SIZE(8)) IDENTIFIED BY desEDE3CBC}  {RC2CBCParameter IDENTIFIED BY rc2CBC}  {RC5CBCParameters IDENTIFIED BY rc5CBCPAD}, ... } idhmacWithSHA1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {digestAlgorithm 7}
desCBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
{iso(1) identifiedorganization(3) oiw(14) secsig(3) algorithms(2) 7}  from OIW desEDE3CBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {encryptionAlgorithm 7} rc2CBC OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {encryptionAlgorithm 2} RC2CBCParameter ::= SEQUENCE { rc2ParameterVersion INTEGER OPTIONAL, iv OCTET STRING (SIZE(8)) } rc5CBCPAD OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {encryptionAlgorithm 9} RC5CBCParameters ::= SEQUENCE { version INTEGER {v10(16)} (v10), rounds INTEGER (8..127), blockSizeInBits INTEGER (64  128), iv OCTET STRING OPTIONAL } END
Intellectual Property Considerations

RSA Security makes no patent claims on the general constructions described in this document, although specific underlying techniques may be covered. Among the underlying techniques, the RC5 encryption algorithm (Appendix B.2.4) is protected by U.S. Patents 5,724,428 [22] and 5,835,600 [23].
RC2 and RC5 are trademarks of RSA Security.
License to copy this document is granted provided that it is identified as RSA Security Inc. PublicKey Cryptography Standards (PKCS) in all material mentioning or referencing this document.
RSA Security makes no representations regarding intellectual property claims by other parties. Such determination is the responsibility of the user.
Revision history

Versions 1.01.3

Versions 1.01.3 were distributed to participants in RSA Data Security Inc.'s PublicKey Cryptography Standards meetings in February and March 1991.
Version 1.4

Version 1.4 was part of the June 3, 1991 initial public release of PKCS. Version 1.4 was published as NIST/OSI Implementors' Workshop document SECSIG9120.
Version 1.5

Version 1.5 incorporated several editorial changes, including updates to the references and the addition of a revision history.
Version 2.0

Version 2.0 incorporates major editorial changes in terms of the document structure, and introduces the PBES2 encryption scheme, the PBMAC1 message authentication scheme, and independent passwordbased key derivation functions. This version continues to support the encryption process in version 1.5.

References

[1] American National Standard X9.52  1998, Triple Data Encryption Algorithm Modes of Operation. Working draft, Accredited Standards Committee X9, July 27, 1998. [2] Baldwin, R. and R. Rivest, "The RC5, RC5CBC, RC5CBCPad, and RC5CTS Algorithms", RFC 2040, October 1996. [3] Balenson, D., "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part III: Algorithms, Modes, and Identifiers", RFC 1423, February 1993. [4] S.M. Bellovin and M. Merritt. Encrypted key exchange: Passwordbased protocols secure against dictionary attacks. In Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Research in Security and Privacy, pages 7284, IEEE Computer Society, 1992. [5] D. Jablon. Strong passwordonly authenticated key exchange. ACM Computer Communications Review, October 1996. [6] Kaliski, B., "The MD2 MessageDigest Algorithm", RFC 1319, April 1992. [7] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M. and R. Canetti, "HMAC: KeyedHashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104, February 1997. [8] Robert Morris and Ken Thompson. Password security: A case history. Communications of the ACM, 22(11):594597, November 1979. [9] ISO/IEC 88241:1995: Information technology  Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)  Specification of basic notation. 1995. [10] ISO/IEC 88241:1995/Amd.1:1995 Information technology  Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)  Specification of basic notation  Amendment 1  Rules of extensibility. 1995. [11] ISO/IEC 88242:1995 Information technology  Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)  Information object specification. 1995. [12] ISO/IEC 88242:1995/Amd.1:1995 Information technology  Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)  Information object specification  Amendment 1  Rules of extensibility. 1995. [13] ISO/IEC 88243:1995 Information technology  Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)  Constraint specification. 1995. [14] ISO/IEC 88244:1995 Information technology  Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)  Parameterization of ASN.1 specifications. 1995.
[15] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). FIPS PUB
462: Data Encryption Standard. December 30, 1993.

[16] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). FIPS PUB

81:

DES Modes of Operation. December 2, 1980.
[17] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). FIPS PUB

112:


Password Usage. May 30, 1985.

[18] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). FIPS PUB

1801:


Secure Hash Standard. April 1994.

[19] Rivest, R., "The MD5 MessageDigest Algorithm", RFC 1321, April 1992. [20] R.L. Rivest. The RC5 encryption algorithm. In Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Fast Software Encryption, pages 8696, SpringerVerlag, 1994. [21] Rivest, R., "A Description of the RC2(r) Encryption Algorithm", RFC 2268, March 1998. [22] R.L. Rivest. BlockEncryption Algorithm with DataDependent Rotations. U.S. Patent No. 5,724,428, March 3, 1998. [23] R.L. Rivest. Block Encryption Algorithm with DataDependent Rotations. U.S. Patent No. 5,835,600, November 10, 1998.
[24] RSA Laboratories. PKCS #5: PasswordBased Encryption Standard.

Version 1.5, November 1993.
[25] RSA Laboratories. PKCS #8: PrivateKey Information Syntax Standard. Version 1.2, November 1993. [26] T. Wu. The Secure Remote Password protocol. In Proceedings of the 1998 Internet Society Network and Distributed System Security Symposium, pages 97111, Internet Society, 1998. [27] Yergeau, F., "UTF8, a transformation format of ISO 10646", RFC 2279, January 1998.
Contact Information & About PKCS

The PublicKey Cryptography Standards are specifications produced by RSA Laboratories in cooperation with secure systems developers worldwide for the purpose of accelerating the deployment of public key cryptography. First published in 1991 as a result of meetings with a small group of early adopters of publickey technology, the PKCS documents have become widely referenced and implemented. Contributions from the PKCS series have become part of many formal and de facto standards, including ANSI X9 documents, PKIX, SET, S/MIME, and SSL.
Further development of PKCS occurs through mailing list discussions and occasional workshops, and suggestions for improvement are welcome. For more information, contact:
PKCS Editor RSA Laboratories 20 Crosby Drive Bedford, MA 01730 USA pkcseditor@rsasecurity.com http://www.rsalabs.com/pkcs/
Full Copyright Statement

Copyright © The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved.
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than English.
The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.
This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Acknowledgement

Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the Internet Society.